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Classifying. Chemical Reactions. Classifying Chemical Reactions. Reactions are either classified by: how much energy is given off or absorbed how the atoms are rearranged. Chemical Reactions and Energy. Exothermic Reactions produce energy (heat, light, sound). e.g.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Classifying

Chemical Reactions

slide2

Classifying Chemical Reactions

  • Reactions are either classified by:
    • how much energy is given off or absorbed
    • how the atoms are rearranged

Chemical Reactions and Energy

  • Exothermic Reactions
    • produce energy (heat, light, sound)

e.g.

CH4(g) + O2(g) H2O(g) + CO2(g) + energy

  • Endothermic Reactions
    • absorb energy (heat, light, sound)

e.g.

CaCO3(s) + energy  CaO(s) + CO2(g)

slide3

Chemical Reactions and Atom Rearrangement

  • Synthesis Reactions (Combination)
    • 2 or more substances combine to form a compound

General Formula:

A + B  AB

1 PRODUCT

e.g.

S(s) + O2(g) SO2(g)

2 elements

2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g)

1 element, 1 compound

SO3(g) + H2O(l) H2SO4(g)

2 compounds

  • Decomposition Reactions
    • 1 substance breaks down into 2 or more simpler substances

General Formula:

AB  A + B

1 REACTANT

e.g.

2H2O(l) 2H2(g) + O2(g)

slide4

Single Replacement Reactions (Displacement)

    • A combined element in a compound is replaced by an uncombined element.

General Formula:

Z + AB  AZ + B

Metals replace metals; Non-metals replace Non-metals

e.g.

Br2(l) + 2NaCl(aq) 2NaBr(aq) + Cl2(g)

2Al(s) + Fe2O3(s) 2Fe(l) + Al2O3(s)

  • Double Replacement Reactions (Ionic)
    • Elements in different compounds replace each other (exchange places)

General Formula:

AB + XY  AY + XB

e.g.

2KI(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq)  PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq)

2KI(aq) +Pb(NO3)2(aq)  PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq)

One of the products often forms a precipitate.(an insoluble solid that separates from the solution)

slide5

Neutralization (Acid-Base)

    • A type of double replacement reaction that involves an acid reacting with a base to produce water and a salt.

General Formula:

Acid + Base  Water + Salt

e.g.

HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) HOH(l) + NaCl(aq)

HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) HOH(l) + NaCl(aq)

  • Combustion
    • A special type of exothermic reaction where oxygen is a reactant and oxides are produced with a large amount of energy.

e.g.

CH4(g) + 2O2(g)  CO2(g) + 2H2O(l) + energy

2H2(g) +O2(g)  2H2O(l) + energy

2Mg(s) +O2(g)  2MgO(s) + energy

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Assignment

In Class:

Classify Workbook Pages 105 & 106

Homework:

Balance Workbook Pages 105 & 106

Classify Workbook Pages 107 & 108