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Section 8.5 and 8.6 Molecular Geometry and Polarity

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Section 8.5 and 8.6 Molecular Geometry and Polarity. In these sections… VSEPR Shapes Molecular Shapes Molecular Polarity. Molecular Geometry and Polarity. Big Picture: What are the shapes of molecules. Lewis # Structural Electron-Pair Molecular

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Presentation Transcript
molecular geometry and polarity

In these sections…

VSEPR Shapes

Molecular Shapes

Molecular Polarity

Molecular Geometry and Polarity

slide3

Big Picture: What are the shapes of molecules.

Lewis # Structural Electron-Pair Molecular

Structure Pairs Geometry Geometry

Polarity

slide4

Valence Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion Theory

(VSEPR)

Valence electron pairs repel one another.

slide6

Determining Electron-Pair Geometry

- Find Number of Structural Electron Pairs

# pairs EPG

linear

trigonal planar

tetrahedral

trigonalbipyramidal

octahedral

# Structural Pairs = # bonded + # lone

on Central Atom atoms pairs

slide7

Determining Molecular Geometry

- Electron-Pair Geometry, ignoring Lone Pair Positions

no lone pairs 1 lone pair

slide8

Determining Molecular Geometry

- Electron-Pair Geometry, ignoring Lone Pair Positions

no lone pairs 1 lone pair 2 lone pairs

slide9

Determining Molecular Geometry

- Electron-Pair Geometry, ignoring Lone Pair Positions

no lone pairs 1 lone pair 2 lone pairs 3 lone pairs

slide10

Determining Molecular Geometry

- Electron-Pair Geometry, ignoring Lone Pair Positions

no lone pairs 1 lone pair 2 lone pairs

slide11

Drawing Shapes on Paper: Wedge-and-Dash Notation

line = in plane of paper/screen

solid wedge = coming towards you

dashed line = moving away from you

slide12

Deviations from Ideal Molecular Geometry

- Lone pairs take up more room

CH4 NH3 H2O

slide13

Molecular Polarity

- Net effect of polar bonds in a molecule

slide14

Molecular Polarity

- Net effect of polar bonds in a molecule

CO2

slide15

Molecular Polarity

- Net effect of polar bonds in a molecule

NH3

slide16

Molecular Polarity

- Net effect of polar bonds in a molecule

CHF3

slide17

Molecular Polarity

- Three general rules

1. Fully symmetrical molecules with no lone pairs are nonpolar.

2. Hydrocarbons are nonpolar.

3. Molecules containing N-H or O-H bonds are almost always polar.