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Logical Fallacies. Rhetorical Moves. Repetition Rhetorical question Ethos, pathos, and logos Foreseeing opposition and answering to it Concisely and accurately summarizing others’ arguments and dialoguing with them. Either-Or.

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Presentation Transcript
rhetorical moves
Rhetorical Moves
  • Repetition
  • Rhetorical question
  • Ethos, pathos, and logos
  • Foreseeing opposition and answering to it
  • Concisely and accurately summarizing others’ arguments and dialoguing with them
either or
  • A conclusion which oversimplifies the argument by reducing it to two choices
  • “Either you support my proposal to build a cheese house OR you all hate me.”
hasty generalization
Hasty Generalization
  • A conclusion based on insufficient evidence, i.e. rushing to a conclusion
  • “I have seen a lot of Hawkeye t-shirts on campus; thus, everyone in Iowa City must support them.”
red herring
Red Herring
  • A diversionary tactic that avoids key issues by refusing to address opposing arguments rather than engage with them.
  • “I believe that monkeys are the most evil creatures ever. Some other scientists have said something – but their opinion doesn’t really matter.”
ad hominem
Ad Hominem
  • Attack on the character of the person rather than the argument.
  • “Bill’s opinion on global warming can’t be trusted – he’s been sleeping around with Lucy.”
post hoc ergo propter hoc
Post hoc ergo propter hoc
  • Conclusion that assumes if A occurred after B, then B must have caused A
  • “Rhetoric students go on to have great jobs; thus, rhetoric students’ success must be a result of this class (and my teaching, obviously).”
slippery slope
Slippery Slope
  • Conclusion based on the premise that if A happens, then eventually, through a series of small steps (B, C, D, etc.), X, Y, Z will happen too. Thus, you are basically equating A and Z. If we don’t want Z to occur, A must not be allowed to occur either.
  • “If we let teenagers run the world, they will refuse to insititute laws and eventually the world will be in chaos. Thus, if we want to avoid chaos, we must avoid a teenage-ocracy.”
straw man
Straw Man
  • Move that oversimplifies an opponent’s viewpoint and then attacks that hollow argument
  • “Obama believes hope will get us through any crisis. This is absurd.”
putting logical fallacies to the test
Putting logical fallacies to the test
  • You are in the process of receiving a parking ticket at the UI meters (of course, only 5 seconds after your meter expired). You now have to argue with policeman and try to get out of the ticket.
  • Some of you will have to make your argument by respectable rhetorical moves and others with logical fallacies. Your classmates will have to determine argument uses which.
cunningham s why women smile
Cunningham’s “Why Women Smile”
  • What is the purpose of the argument?
  • What kind of argument?
  • What occasions/moves does she use?
amy cunningham s why women smile
Amy Cunningham’s “Why Women Smile”
  • Although this article has been anthologized a great deal, Cunningham dismisses a majority of her article.
  • Did you find Cunningham’s article convincing? Why or why not? Who is her audience? Does she make any logical fallacies?