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The Early Chesapeake. 1606 Charter to the London Company from James I gave colonizing rights to the southern lands 144 men on the Godspeed , the Discovery , and the Susan Constant sailed for the New World, 104 survived the crossing arriving in spring of 1607. The Early Chesapeake.

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the early chesapeake
The Early Chesapeake
  • 1606 Charter to the London Company from James I gave colonizing rights to the southern lands
  • 144 men on the Godspeed, the Discovery, and the Susan Constant sailed for the New World, 104 survived the crossing arriving in spring of 1607
the early chesapeake1
The Early Chesapeake
  • Jamestown was an inland setting, on a peninsula, low and swampy, hot and humid in the summer, prone to outbreaks of malaria, surrounded by thick woods that were difficult to clear, and located in the territory controlled by Powhatan
the early chesapeake2
The Early Chesapeake
  • Colonists spent time searching for gold, tried to pile up lumber, tar, pitch, and iron for export, spent little time growing food
  • No women were sent, could not establish households, order domestic lives, have a sense of permanent stake in the community
the early chesapeake3
The Early Chesapeake
  • By January 1608, 38 colonists left alive and Captain John Smith assumed a leadership role
  • New charter from the King in 1609, increased power over colony and enlarged the land it controlled
the early chesapeake4
The Early Chesapeake
  • “Adventurers” bought stock in the Virginia Company but remained in England
  • “Planters” given stock in the Virginia Company in exchange for paying their own way to the New World
the early chesapeake5
The Early Chesapeake
  • Free passage given to poorer individuals who would serve the company for 7 years
  • Spring of 1609 a fleet of 600 colonists set sail for the New World and arrived in the fall of 1609 after a difficult passage
the early chesapeake6
The Early Chesapeake
  • Winter of 1609 – 1610 (The Starving Time), Indians killed all the livestock in the woods, kept the colonists barricaded in Jamestown, colonists ate “dogs, cats, rats, snakes, toadstools, horsehides” and “corpses of dead men” 60 people lived through the winter
the early chesapeake7
The Early Chesapeake
  • Lord De La Warr Virginia’s first governor imposed harsh and rigid discipline, settlers formed into work gangs, violators were flogged, hanged or broken on the wheel, offered private land ownership and allowed cultivation of the land, colony began to spread
the early chesapeake8
The Early Chesapeake
  • John Rolfe successfully grew high quality tobacco in Virginia starting in 1612 and found ready buyers back in England.
  • Tobacco Economy: profitable, uncertain, land and labor intensive.
  • Tobacco exhausted the land after a few years of growing, settlers began to encroach on territory belonging to the natives
the early chesapeake9
The Early Chesapeake
  • Virginia Company still had not turned a profit by 1616, so it introduced the Headright System in 1618
  • Colonists already in Virginia received 100 acres of land each, each new settler received 50 acres (encouraged families to migrate together), if you paid for a settler to migrate to Virginia you also got 50 acres
the early chesapeake10
The Early Chesapeake
  • Transported ironworkers and other skilled craftsmen to Virginia
  • 100 women were transported to Virginia in 1619 and could be purchased for 120 pounds of tobacco
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The Early Chesapeake
  • Colonists were promised the full rights of Englishmen, and given some self-government (House of Burgesses meets on July 30, 1619)
  • “About the latter end of August” 1619 a Dutch ship brought in “20 and odd Negroes” but their status as slaves is uncertain, planters preferred European indentured servants until the 1670’s
the early chesapeake12
The Early Chesapeake
  • In March 1622, the natives attacked Jamestown resulting in the deaths of 347 settlers (including John Rolfe)
the early chesapeake13
The Early Chesapeake
  • The Virginia Company goes bankrupt and in 1624 King James I revokes the company’s charter and Virginia becomes a Royal Colony
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The Early Chesapeake
  • In 1632 the second Lord Baltimore (Cecilius Calvert) received a charter from the King of a grant of land that encompassed parts of Pennsylvania, Delaware, Virginia, and all of Maryland and made them “true and absolute lords and proprietaries” who had to acknowledge the ultimate sovereignty of the King by paying an annual fee to the crown
the early chesapeake15
The Early Chesapeake
  • In March 1634 the Ark and the Dove bearing 200 to 300 settlers arrived in Maryland and founded the village of St. Mary’s hoping to establish a haven for Catholics in the New World
  • Early Marylanders experienced no Indian assaults, no plagues, no starving time as the Indians were more worried about rival tribes
the early chesapeake16
The Early Chesapeake
  • The Calverts needed Protestant settlers as well as Catholic settlers in order to make their colony profitable so they adopted a policy of religious toleration
  • In 1648 Calvert appointed a Protestant governor and then in 1649 he passed an “Act Concerning Religion” which granted freedom of worship to all Christians, in 1655 a civil war broke out in Maryland between Protestants and Catholics
the early chesapeake17
The Early Chesapeake
  • Lord Baltimore gave large grants of land to family members and other English aristocrats so that a large landed aristocracy prevailed in MD
  • By 1640 a labor shortage existed in Maryland, so Lord Baltimore adopted a “headright” system similar to that in Virginia, and the economy revolved around the cultivation of tobacco
the early chesapeake18
The Early Chesapeake
  • By the mid 1600s Virginia was expanding westward into lands held by the natives, there became increasing numbers of conflicts
  • Sir William Berkeley, governor of Virginia (1642 – 1670s), sent explorers across the Blue Ridge Mountains to open up the western interior of Virginia
the early chesapeake19
The Early Chesapeake
  • In 1644 the Powhatan Confederacy made one last uprising against the English but were defeated and ceded a large area of land to the British, but Berkeley agreed to prohibit white settlement west of a line he negotiated with the tribes
the early chesapeake20
The Early Chesapeake
  • There was period of massive population growth in Virginia from 8,000 settlers in 1640 to 40,000 settlers in 1660, this led to increased settlement in western Virginia and continued conflict with the natives, by 1652 settlers had established 3 counties in western lands promised to the natives
the early chesapeake21
The Early Chesapeake
  • In the House of Burgesses in 1619 all men 17 and older could vote, but by 1670 the vote was restricted to landowners and elections were rare, each county got 2 representatives in the House of Burgesses and the western counties of Virginia had many more people than the older counties in the tidewater, the recent settlers living in the “backcountry” were underrepresented in the House of Burgesses
the early chesapeake22
The Early Chesapeake
  • In 1673 Nathaniel Bacon arrived in Virginia, purchased a substantial farm in the west and won a seat on the governor’s council
  • Conflicts between western settlers and eastern aristocrats arose over the issue of natives and political representation, and a personal conflict arose between Berkeley and Bacon over the fur trade with the natives
the early chesapeake23
The Early Chesapeake
  • In 1675 a conflict erupted on the frontier between English settlers and natives, with many on both sides being killed, Bacon (frustrated with the lack of response from Berkeley) led a group of western settlers in an unauthorized assault against the natives, Berkeley dismissed Bacon from the governor’s council and declared him and his men rebels
the early chesapeake24
The Early Chesapeake
  • Twice Bacon led his men east in raids against Jamestown, and on the second assault they burned Jamestown and drove the governor into exile, then Bacon suddenly dies of dysentery and the rebellion is over, but the rebellion is significant for several reasons:
  • Part of a continuing struggle to define the boundary between native and white lands
the early chesapeake25
The Early Chesapeake
  • Showed the bitterness between eastern and western landowners and the competition for control of the government
  • Revealed the potential for instability among a large population of freemen who were propertyless, unemployed, and had no real prospects, this leads to a common interest among landowners to preventing social unrest from below (possibly leading to an increase in slavery)
the growth of new england
The Growth of New England
  • Puritan Separatists were imprisoned and executed for defying the government and the Church of England, it was also illegal to leave England without the consent of the King
the growth of new england1
The Growth of New England
  • In 1608 the Scrooby Separatists began to emigrate quietly to Leyden, Holland where they could worship freely, but were stuck in menial jobs, were barred from craft guilds, and didn’t like the tolerant Dutch society which attracted their children away from the Puritan lifestyle
the growth of new england2
The Growth of New England
  • Leaders of the Scrooby group obtained permission from the Virginia Company to settle in Virginia (Hudson River area) and assurances from the King that he would “not molest them, provided they carried themselves peaceably”
the growth of new england3
The Growth of New England
  • In September 1620 they left Plymouth on the Mayflower, with 35 “saints”(full members of the Puritan church) and 67 “strangers” (people who were not full members of the Puritan church) and arrived off the coast of Cape Cod (outside of the Virginia Company’s territory) in November
  • On board the Mayflower the “saints” signed the Mayflower Compact which established a civil government and pledged their allegiance to the King, and then stepped ashore at Plymouth Rock on December 21, 1620
the growth of new england4
The Growth of New England
  • The Puritans suffered casualties (50% - primarily from malnutrition, exposure, and disease) that first winter, the natives in New England were greatly weakened by smallpox epidemics and the Puritans were not hostile towards the natives, in fact the Puritans received a tremendous amount of help from the natives (Squanto and Samoset)
the growth of new england5
The Growth of New England
  • Miles Standish imposed discipline on the colony (Plymouth Plantation), eventually allowing them to establish a trading surplus in agricultural products and furs, the population reached 300 within a decade, William Bradford was elected governor every year, eventually they paid off their debt and became self-sufficient but poor
the growth of new england6
The Growth of New England
  • In 1620’s Puritan merchants obtained a grant of land in New England comprising most of Massachusetts and New Hampshire, then they received a charter from the King allowing them to form the Massachusetts Bay Company, in 1629 the Puritans bought out the other investors in the company so that they could create a haven for Puritans in the New World
the growth of new england7
The Growth of New England
  • John Winthrop commanded the expedition that sailed in 1630 comprising 17 ships and 1000 settlers, mostly in family groups, and carried with them the charter of the Massachusetts Bay Company so that they were not responsible to anyone in England
the growth of new england8
The Growth of New England
  • The Massachusetts settlement quickly produced several towns (Boston, Charlestown, Cambridge, Roxbury, Dorchester, Ipswich, Sudbury, Concord, Watertown, and others) and were governed by a colonial government run by 8 stockholders or “freemen” but the later definition of “freemen” evolved into all male citizens
the growth of new england9
The Growth of New England
  • In every town the community church had “complete liberty to stand alone”, each congregation chose its own minister and regulated its own affairs, this became known as the Congregational Church
the growth of new england10
The Growth of New England
  • Massachusetts Puritans, led by John Winthrop, were serious and pious people, strived to lead useful, conscientious lives of thrift and hard work, material success was viewed as a sign of God’s favor, they believed they founding a holy commonwealth, a “city upon a hill”
the growth of new england11
The Growth of New England
  • Massachusetts Puritans founded a theocratic society in which ministers exerted great influence on church members who could vote or hold office, the government then protected ministers, taxed the people to support the church, and enforced the law requiring attendance at services, there was no freedom of worship
the growth of new england12
The Growth of New England
  • The number of families insured a feeling of commitment to the community, a sense of social order, and a measure of social stability
  • People began to come into the colony who were not Puritan “saints” and could not vote, or who did not accept all the religious tenets of the colony’s leaders, these people had a choice of conforming or leaving
the growth of new england13
The Growth of New England
  • Thomas Hooker, minister from Cambridge, left the colony in 1635 and led his congregation into the wilds of the Connecticut Valley and founded Hartford, the colonial government was established under a constitution called the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut that gave the right to vote and hold office to a larger proportion of the men
the growth of new england14
The Growth of New England
  • The New Haven colony grew on the Connecticut coast and under the Fundamental Articles of New Haven (1639) established a religious government even stricter than that in Boston
  • The Hartford and New Haven colonies were combined in 1662 under a royal charter and renamed the colony of Connecticut
the growth of new england15
The Growth of New England
  • Roger Williams called for a complete separation of church and state in order to protect the church from the corruption of the secular world, he was branded a heretic by the government and banished, in 1636 he bought a tract of land from Narragansett tribesmen and founded Providence.
the growth of new england16
The Growth of New England
  • In 1644 he received a charter from Parliament and founded Rhode Island, the colonial government of Rhode Island gave no support to the church and allowed “liberty in religious concernments”, it was the only colony in which all faiths could worship without interference
the growth of new england17
The Growth of New England
  • Anne Hutchinson shared the strict Puritan belief that only the “elect” were entitled to any position of authority and in order to be part of the “elect” one had to have a conversion experience, Hutchinson believed that some ministers were not part of the “elect” and therefore should have no authority.
the growth of new england18
The Growth of New England
  • Puritan leaders did not like this challenge to their authority especially coming from a woman, Hutchinson was put on trial for heresy in 1637 and she was convicted of sedition and banished from the colony as “a woman not fit for our society”, she would die in a native attack on Long Island in 1643
the growth of new england19
The Growth of New England
  • In 1637 the Pequot War broke out in the Connecticut Valley, caused by land disputes and disputes between the natives and the settlers over trade with the Dutch in New Netherland, the Pequot tribe was almost wiped out as a result of the bloody and savage war
the growth of new england20
The Growth of New England
  • In 1675 King Philip’s War broke out in western Massachusetts, the Wampanoags led by Metacomet (King Philip) resisted British expansion into native lands and the imposition of English law on the natives, the natives resisted for 3 years being well-organized and well-armed under Metacomet destroyed 20 Massachusetts towns and killed almost 1000 settlers greatly weakening the society and economy of Massachusetts
the growth of new england21
The Growth of New England
  • The British allied themselves with the Mohawks and the “praying Indians” of the region and went on the offensive destroying native villages and food supplies on the frontier, a band of Mohawks ambushed and killed Metacomet then took his severed head to Boston and presented it to colonial authorities, after this the English were able to crush the uprising
the growth of new england22
The Growth of New England
  • Life on the frontier in New England was still quite dangerous, natives resented further westward expansion, the were conflicting territorial claims in the interior among the English, French, and the Dutch, the most prominent threat coming from the French who were allied with the Algonquins
the growth of new england23
The Growth of New England
  • Developments in weapons technology also made life dangerous, the flintlock musket was much more lethal than the matchlock rifle, it was lighter, able to fire quicker, and more accurate than the matchlock, the natives began to acquire these newer rifles in their trade with the colonists and quickly became proficient in their use
the restoration colonies
The Restoration Colonies
  • Charles I comes to the throne in 1625, dissolves Parliament in 1629 and begins ruling as an absolute monarch, during this time he antagonizes a number of his subjects (most prominently Puritans), finally in need of money he calls Parliament back into session in an effort to raise taxes but dismisses Parliament again, civil war breaks out in 1642
the restoration colonies1
The Restoration Colonies
  • The English Civil War between the Cavaliers (supporters of the King) and Roundheads (supporters of the Parliament and mostly Puritans) lasts for 7 years and ends in 1649 with the beheading of Charles I
the restoration colonies2
The Restoration Colonies
  • The Roundheads elevated their leader, Oliver Cromwell, to the position of “protector” and he ruled until his death in 1658, upon his death Charles II becomes King in 1660 (Stuart Restoration)
  • From 1636 until 1663 there were no new British colonies chartered in North America
the restoration colonies3
The Restoration Colonies
  • Charles II begins to grant charters in 1663, these new charters are proprietary colonies, private companies are no longer interested in launching colonies convinced there are no quick profits to be made in the new world, instead these new colonies are designed to be permanent settlements that would bring proprietors land and power
the restoration colonies4
The Restoration Colonies
  • Charles II awarded a large grant of land to 8 court favorites that stretched south to Florida and west to the Pacific Ocean in 1663 and 1665, and their charter gave them powers similar to Lord Baltimore in Maryland
the restoration colonies5
The Restoration Colonies
  • The proprietors expected to profit through land speculation and landlord status, they used a headright system to attract settlers, proposed a “quitrent” system of collecting annual payments from settlers, granted freedom of religion to all Christians and political freedom by allowing a representative assembly to make laws for the colony, in 1669 John Locke wrote the Fundamental Constitution for Carolina which created an elaborate system of land distribution and social order
the restoration colonies6
The Restoration Colonies
  • In 1670 the first voyage of settlers left for the New World, 100 out of 300 survived the voyage and settled in the Port Royal region, in 1680 they founded a city at the junction of the Ashley and Cooper Rivers and called it Charles Town, in 1690 it became the colonial capital and was renamed later Charleston
the restoration colonies7
The Restoration Colonies
  • Northern settlers were mainly backwoods farmers practicing subsistence agriculture, they were largely isolated from the outside world, they developed no landed aristocracy, and they imported virtually no African slaves
the restoration colonies8
The Restoration Colonies
  • Southern settlers benefited from fertile land and the good harbor at Charleston, they developed an aristocratic society, they had a sound economy based on trade in corn, lumber, cattle, pork, rice (1690s), their largest trading partner was Barbados and eventually large numbers of Barbadians moved to Carolina creating a slave-based plantation society similar to the Caribbean
the restoration colonies9
The Restoration Colonies
  • There was tremendous social instability in Carolina, between the small farmers and the planters, between the rich planters and the smaller farmers, finally in 1729 the King divided Carolina into the two royal colonies of North Carolina and South Carolina
the restoration colonies10
The Restoration Colonies
  • In 1664 the King granted his brother the Duke of York all the land between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers in a proprietary colony, this land was already claimed by the Dutch and colonized in a colony called New Amsterdam
the restoration colonies11
The Restoration Colonies
  • There was an economic rivalry between the British and the Dutch, but the real issue for the British was that New Amsterdam was a wedge between New England and Virginia that allowed Dutch smugglers to evade British customs laws
the restoration colonies12
The Restoration Colonies
  • In 1664 a British fleet sailed into the port of New Amsterdam and got the Dutch to surrender, the Dutch received assurances that the Dutch settlers would not be displaced and they were not
the restoration colonies13
The Restoration Colonies
  • In 1674 the colony was renamed New York and possessed a tremendous amount of diversity including Dutch, English, Scandinavian, German, French, Africans, and Native residents, there were also a tremendous amount of religions present in the colony
the restoration colonies14
The Restoration Colonies
  • New York had a colonial government consisting of a governor and a council, there was no representative assembly in New York but there were locally elected governments and a guarantee of religious toleration
the restoration colonies15
The Restoration Colonies
  • There was a tremendous amount of political strife in the colony between the English landlords, the Dutch patrons, the fur traders, and the duke’s political appointees
  • The colony grew quickly but most of the population still lived in the Hudson River Valley, especially at the city at the mouth of the river
the restoration colonies16
The Restoration Colonies
  • New Jersey was also chartered as a proprietary colony in 1664 but it did not have nearly the success that New York did, it did have ethnic and religious diversity, but its economy was centered around small farmers and did not produce a single important city, in 1702 New Jersey was given back to the crown and became a royal colony
the restoration colonies17
The Restoration Colonies
  • The Society of Friends was founded in the mid-1600’s by George Fox and Margaret Fell, they became know as the Quakers because they “tremble at the name of the Lord”, they believed that all people had divinity within themselves, an “Inner Light” that would guide them on the path of righteousness
the restoration colonies18
The Restoration Colonies
  • Quakers granted women a position of almost equality within their church, women could become preachers and determine church doctrine, they had no paid clergy, spoke up in services as the spirit moved them, used “thee” and “thou” when addressing people, they were confirmed pacifists, these traits taken together made them unpopular in England, except for Rhode Island life in the colonies was not much better
the restoration colonies19
The Restoration Colonies
  • In 1681 William Penn received a grant of land between New York and Maryland as a proprietary colony, this land was named Pennsylvania, settlers were attracted to Pennsylvania through advertising in several European countries, it became the most widely known colony in Europe, and the most cosmopolitan colony in the New World
the restoration colonies20
The Restoration Colonies
  • Pennsylvania became the most prosperous colony in the New World because of Penn’s successful recruiting of emigrants, the mild climate, and the fertile soil
  • In 1703 the 3 lower counties of Pennsylvania split off and became their own colony of Delaware
the restoration colonies21
The Restoration Colonies
  • William Penn tried to create a holy experiment in the New World, personally supervising the laying out of Philadelphia, reimbursing the natives for their land, keeping alcohol away from the natives, Penn was regarded by the natives as an honest white man and there were no major conflicts in Pennsylvania with the natives during his lifetime
borderlands and middle grounds
Borderlands and Middle Grounds
  • In the early 1600’s the most important destination for English immigrants were the islands of the Caribbean including Antigua, St. Kitts, Jamaica, Barbados, and the Atlantic island of Bermuda, over half of all New World settlers came here instead of North America
borderlands and middle grounds1
Borderlands and Middle Grounds
  • These settlements were under constant threat from the Spanish, the Portuguese, the French and the Dutch, they tried to cultivate tobacco and cotton but failed, however sugar flourished and was a very valuable cash crop in Europe, sugar could also be distilled into rum which was another valuable product
borderlands and middle grounds2
Borderlands and Middle Grounds
  • Planters in the West Indies devoted the majority of their land to sugar cane production which was very labor intensive, they quick found that they needed to import labor to work on the vast plantations, they started bringing indentured servants over from England but they could not adapt to the harsh climate, instead they followed the lead of the Spanish and turned to enslaved Africans
borderlands and middle grounds3
Borderlands and Middle Grounds
  • The English planters were a tough, aggressive and ambitious breed, some of whom grew very wealthy, the system of African slavery grew very quickly on these islands, by the end of the 1600’s there were 4 times as many Africans as white settlers in the West Indies
borderlands and middle grounds4
Borderlands and Middle Grounds
  • In the West Indies there was a very small white population enjoying considerable economic success at the expense of a very large enslaved African population, this was potentially a very explosive combination
  • There were at least 7 major slave revolts in the West Indies, more than the English colonies in North America experienced in their entire history as a slave society
borderlands and middle grounds5
Borderlands and Middle Grounds
  • By the 1660’s all the islands enacted legal codes to regulate relations between masters and slaves giving white people virtually absolute authority over Africans, it was cheaper to buy new slaves periodically than to protect the well-being of those they already owned
borderlands and middle grounds6
Borderlands and Middle Grounds
  • White masters would literally work their slaves to death, few African workers survived more than a decade in the brutal Caribbean working environment, even whites succumbed to the harsh climate (tropical diseases) with few living past the age of 40
borderlands and middle grounds7
Borderlands and Middle Grounds
  • Many white settlers had no desire to stay in the West Indies, they made their fortunes and returned to England as soon as they could leaving their estates in the hands of overseers, as a result these Caribbean colonies lacked the church, family, and community aspects of the North American colonies
borderlands and middle grounds8
Borderlands and Middle Grounds
  • These Caribbean colonies were an important part of the Atlantic trading world becoming a source of sugar and rum and a market for goods made in England and the North American colonies, they were also the principal source of African slaves for the North American colonies.
borderlands and middle grounds9
Borderlands and MiddleGrounds
  • Over half the slaves in North America came from the Caribbean not Africa directly, they also provided models for the plantations that southern colonies would eventually copy
borderlands and middle grounds10
Borderlands and Middle Grounds
  • Spain had several colonies north of Mexico including Florida, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California that were governed from Mexico City which was a metropolis with over a million residents, these northern colonies were relatively unimportant economically to the empire, and attracted religious minorities, Catholic missionaries, independent ranchers, and Spanish troops
borderlands and middle grounds11
Borderlands and Middle Grounds
  • New Mexico was the most prosperous and populous of these colonies with over 10,000 non-Indian residents making their livelihood from largely agricultural means.
borderlands and middle grounds12
Borderlands and MiddleGrounds
  • Spain began to pay more attention to California in the 1700’s when the English merchants, French and Russian trappers began to move into the territory
  • Spain also began to pay more attention to Texas in the 1680’s as the French expanded their hold on Louisiana and the Mississippi River Valley
borderlands and middle grounds13
Borderlands and Middle Grounds
  • These Spanish outposts were to defend the Spanish Empire from European threats from the North, however the Spanish interaction with the natives was substantially different from the British and the French, they were not committed to displacing them rather they tried to recruit them to being agricultural workers, and they did not consider them obstacles to their own designs as the English did
borderlands and middle grounds14
Borderlands and Middle Grounds
  • The Spanish claimed Florida in the 1560’s and began to expand their presence northward into the panhandle and southern Georgia and thought that they could continue expanding northward, the English settlement of Jamestown in 1607 altered that plan.
borderlands and middle grounds15
Borderlands and Middle Grounds
  • The Spanish began to fortify their holding in the southeastern part of North America and the region was a source of tension between the English, Spanish, and French
borderlands and middle grounds16
Borderlands and Middle Grounds
  • English pirates were active in the Florida region and actually sacked St. Augustine in 1668, the English encouraged the Indians in Florida to rise up against their Spanish oppressors and the Spanish encouraged the African slaves to rise up or run away from their English masters and about 100 did so.
borderlands and middle grounds17
Borderlands and Middle Grounds
  • Eventually the Spanish presence in Florida was confined to the area around St. Augustine and Pensacola
borderlands and middle grounds18
Borderlands and Middle Grounds
  • Georgia was founded by General James Oglethorpe who wanted to create a military barrier against the Spanish in the southeast and they wanted to provide a refuge for the impoverished with no prospects back in England
borderlands and middle grounds19
Borderlands and Middle Grounds
  • In the late 1600’s and early 1700’s there was a running string of conflicts between the Spanish and the English that heightened the need for a defensive presence in the southeast
  • In 1732 Oglethorpe received his charter from the King to found the colony of Georgia between the Savannah and Altamaha Rivers
borderlands and middle grounds20
Borderlands and Middle Grounds
  • The military purpose of the colony was reflected by the limiting of the size of landholdings to make the settlement compact and easy to defend, they excluded Africans (free or slave) who might revolt internally or give aid to the Spanish in the event of attack.
borderlands and middle grounds21
Borderlands and MiddleGrounds
  • They prohibited rum and regulated trade with the natives so as not to give them cause to attack, and they excluded Catholics who might side with the Spanish in the event of an attack
borderlands and middle grounds22
Borderlands and Middle Grounds
  • The colony never really served its purpose as a haven for debtors, very few got out of jail and to the New World, instead many impoverished tradesmen from across Europe came, there were fewer English settlers in Georgia than any other colony
borderlands and middle grounds23
Borderlands and Middle Grounds
  • Those who did settle in Georgia quickly chafed at the laws of the colony, they wanted slaves to work the land and they wanted to be able to have large landholdings like their neighbors in South Carolina, and in the mid-1700s these changes took place and Georgia began to resemble South Carolina
borderlands and middle grounds24
Borderlands and Middle Grounds
  • The English quickly established their dominance over the natives in New England and Virginia, yet not on the western frontiers where there was no influence of the colonial governments.
  • The natives feared the power of the Europeans with their guns, rifles, and forts, yet wanted them to act as “fathers” mediating internal disputes, moderating their conflicts, and offering their chiefs gifts
borderlands and middle grounds25
Borderlands and Middle Grounds
  • The French were the most adept at forging beneficial relationships with natives and established a peaceful working relationship in the Great Lakes that lasted several decades
  • This notion of a middle ground on the frontier lasted through the 1600’s, declined during the 1700’s, and largely disappeared during the 1800’s
borderlands and middle grounds26
Borderlands and MiddleGrounds
  • The early period of European colonization in North America was not a matter of conquest and subjugation, there was a significant period of mutual adaptation on the frontier
the evolution of the british empire
The Evolution of the British Empire
  • Imperial reorganization was necessary to increase the profitability of the colonies and the power of the government to supervise them
  • The mercantilist system required that the colonies provide raw materials that could not be produced at home and provide a market for the finished products made in England, this would increase the total wealth of the nation
the evolution of the british empire1
The Evolution of the British Empire
  • England wanted to exclude foreigners from colonial trade and wanted to monopolize trade with the colonies for herself
  • Colonists produced wheat, flour, and fish that could be produced in England and therefore had no ready market for these products in England, therefore they traded the goods (and others) with other European powers in the New World
the evolution of the british empire2
The Evolution of the British Empire
  • In 1650 and 1651 Parliament passed laws to keep Dutch ships out the English colonies
  • The Navigation Act of 1660 closed the colonies to all trade except that carried in English ships and required that the colonies only export tobacco and other items to England or English possessions
the evolution of the british empire3
The Evolution of the British Empire
  • The Navigation Act of 1663 stated that all goods being shipped from Europe to the colonies had to pass through England so that it could be taxed
  • The Navigation Act of 1673 imposed duties on the coastal trade among English colonies and provided for the appointment of customs officials to enforce these Navigation Acts
  • These Navigation Acts created an important shipbuilding industry in the colonies
  • The policy of mercantilism allowed the English government to encourage and subsidize the colonies production of certain goods
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The Evolution of the British Empire
  • In 1679 Charles II stripped Massachusetts of its authority over New Hampshire and chartered it as a separate royal colony
  • In 1684 Charles II revoked the Massachusetts corporate charter and made it a royal colony in response to the Massachusetts General Court refusing to enforce the Navigation Acts
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The Evolution of the British Empire
  • In 1686 James II created a single Dominion of New England which combined the governments of Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire into a single government organization, and then in 1688 James II added New York and New Jersey to the Dominion of New England.
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The Evolution of the BritishEmpire
  • The Dominion of New England eliminated the colonial assemblies and was headed by an appointed governor, Sir Edmund Andros, who would rule from Boston
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The Evolution of the British Empire
  • Sir Edmund Andros was a stern, tactless man who rigidly enforced the Navigation Acts using crude and arbitrary tactics, he dismissed the colonists’ claim to the “rights of Englishmen”, and was thoroughly disliked in the colonies
  • Sir Edmund Andros was extraordinarily unpopular in Massachusetts where he tried to strengthen the Anglican Church
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The Evolution of the British Empire
  • James II was attempting to increase his power back in England over Parliament and the courts, appointing Catholics to positions of power, and by 1688 he was as unpopular in England as he was in the colonies
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The Evolution of the British Empire
  • In 1688 Parliament invited Mary (the King’s daughter) and her husband William to take the crown of England, William and Mary arrived in England in 1688 with a small army to assume the throne together, James II offered no resistance and fled, this bloodless coup is known as the “Glorious Revolution”
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The Evolution of the British Empire
  • When news got to the colonies, they immediately went after Sir Edmund Andros, removed him from his post, and disbanded the Dominion of New England.
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The Evolution of the BritishEmpire
  • William and Mary agreed to restore their former separate colonial governments except for Massachusetts which was combined with Plymouth and remained a royal colony, it did get its General Court restored but the governor was appointed royally, the voting requirements were changed from religious based to property based and the Anglican form of worship was tolerated in Massachusetts
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The Evolution of the British Empire
  • In 1689 Jacob Leisler led a rebellion in New York against the government, he was frustrated with his social status and felt that the government was dominated by old moneyed interests, he tried to hold onto power for 2 years but was eventually hanged, drawn, and quartered in 1691
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The Evolution of the British Empire
  • In 1689 John Coode led a revolt against the Catholic Lord Baltimore, they drove out the proprietor’s officials and petitioned William and Mary to make Maryland a royal colony, they agreed and stripped Lord Baltimore of his authority, made the Church of England the official religion, forbade Catholics to hold public office, vote, or practice their religion in public
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The Evolution of the British Empire
  • Both of these uprisings in New York and Maryland had more to do with local factions and religious divisions than with the colonies exerting some authority over the crown and trying out independence.