FEA Simulations

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# FEA Simulations - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

FEA Simulations. Usually based on energy minimum or virtual work Component of interest is divided into small parts 1D elements for beam or truss structures 2D elements for plate or shell structures 3D elements for solids Boundary conditions are applied

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## PowerPoint Slideshow about 'FEA Simulations' - noah-hendricks

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Presentation Transcript
FEA Simulations
• Usually based on energy minimum or virtual work
• Component of interest is divided into small parts
• 1D elements for beam or truss structures
• 2D elements for plate or shell structures
• 3D elements for solids
• Boundary conditions are applied
• Force or stress (i.e., pressure or shear)
• Displacement
• Multi-point constraints
FEA Simulations (Contintued)
• Solution of governing equations
• Static: solution of simultaneous equations
• Vibrations: eigenvalue analysis
• Transient: Numerically step through time
• Nonlinear: includes buckling uses an iterative solution
• Evaluation of stress and strain
• Post-processing: e.g., contour or history plots
Principal of Virtual Work

Change in energy for a “virtual” displacement, , in

the structure of volume, V , with surface, S, is

where

is the energy change

is the virtual displacement

is the internal stress

is the virtual strain due to

are the body forces (e.g., gravity, centrifugal)

are surface tractions(e.g., pressure, friction)

Principal of Virtual Work (continued)

The principal of virtual work must hold for all possible

virtual displacements. We must convert at the nodes

to in the elements.

For example if we have a beam we can take

and

or

is the strain displacement matrix.

Energy Minimization

Let where U is the internal energy and Vis

the potential energy due to the loads and are given by

and .

Recall then and

and the variation becomes

.

Since , are the moduli, and

,

is the same as virtual work.

Finite Elements
• Assume displacements inside

an element is a linear (or quadratic)

function of the displacements of

the nodes of each element.

• Assume the function outside

each element is zero.

• Add (i.e., integrate) the energy (or virtual work) of

each element to get the total energy of all elements.

Finite Elements (continued)

For example:

For element 1:

For element 2:

Hence

Interpolation Function
• Isoparametric elements have

same function for displacements

as the coordinates

• Transform to an element with

coordinates at nodes

Interpolation Function (continued)
• 2D isoparametric element
• 1D isoparametric element
• 3D isoparametric element in a similar manner
Volume Integration
• For the parallelepiped the

• The volume is

- i.e. a determinant

• For a rectangular

parallelepiped

• The volume is
Volume Integration (continued)
• Using the isoparametric coordinates
• Use similar expressions for
• The volume becomes
• The determinant is

the Jacobian

• Numerical integration is more efficient if both the multiplying factor and the location of the integration points are specified by the integration rule.
• The rule for integration along x can be expanded to include y and z.
• For example, in one dimension, let
• Transform to isoparametric coordinates

and

• Then the integral becomes
• We can write the integral as
Governing Equations
• Use virtual work or energy minimization
• Sum over each element since each element has no influence outside its boundary
• Let where is the vector of nodal displacements for element k
• Then the strains are
Boundary Conditions
• Surface forces have been included
• So far the FE model is not restrained from rigid body motion
• Hence displacement boundary conditions are needed
• Recall
• Let the displacement constraints be
• Develop an augmented energy
Boundary Conditions (continued)
• The energy minimum