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The Cold War . Journal #34. What do you know about the Cold War? List as many things as you can. Where did you learn or hear about this information? Write at least one thing you know on the board and then hand in your journals. . Review (pgs. 516-517) . Nuremberg Trials Denazification

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journal 34
Journal #34
  • What do you know about the Cold War? List as many things as you can.
  • Where did you learn or hear about this information?
  • Write at least one thing you know on the board and then hand in your journals.
review pgs 516 517
Review (pgs. 516-517)
  • Nuremberg Trials
    • Denazification
  • Refugees
  • Situation in Japan
    • Democratization
      • Constitution
      • Diet (parliament)
    • Demilitarization
yalta and potsdam
Yalta and Potsdam
  • Yalta Conference, 1945: Stalin promises free elections in Eastern Europe
  • But wants Poland to be a barrier between the USSR and Germany (wants Poland Communist)
  • By the Potsdam Conference:
    • Separate “spheres of influence”
    • Big 3 breakdown
occupied germany
Occupied Germany
  • Three zones under military rule
    • British, US, Russian
  • Berlin in the Soviet zone
  • Berlin divided into four zones:
    • French (West Berlin)
    • British (West Berlin)
    • US (West Berlin)
    • Soviet (East Berlin)
creation of the united nations
Creation of the United Nations
  • Founded in 1945 by 51 countries (now 192)
  • General Assembly
  • Security Council
    • 5 permanent members
      • US, China, Russia, Great Britain, France
      • Veto powers
    • 15 members total
    • Goal to settle disputes and keep peace
review of communism and contrasting us soviet goals
Review of Communism and contrasting US-Soviet goals
  • Look at the chart on pg. 532.
  • Which US and Soviet aims in Europe conflicted?
  • Communism review:
essential questions
Essential Questions
  • What was the Cold War?
  • Why did World War II cause a split between the United States and the Soviet Union?
what is the cold war
What is the “Cold” War?
  • Why “cold”?
  • Definition: Struggle over different political ideologies carried on by means short of military action or war
how was the cold war fought
How was the Cold War “fought”?
  • Espionage (spying)
  • Propaganda
  • Multinational alliances
  • Foreign aid to win allies
  • Brinkmanship
  • Surrogate wars
did the cold war ever heat up
Did the Cold War ever heat up?
  • Yes—with surrogate or proxy wars
    • Wars in which opposing powers use other countries as substitutes for fighting each other directly
  • Examples?
journal 35
Journal #35
  • What is a superpower? (there can be multiple answers for this…)
  • What are some famous superpower countries from history?
  • Who are the superpower countries today? Why?
1946 1948 beginning of the cold war
1946-1948: Beginning of the Cold War
  • Our Essential Question today: What events occurred post-World War II that increased tensions between the USSR and US?
  • Causes of the Cold War:
  • Ideological/social
  • Political
  • Economic
for each event consider
For each event, consider:
  • Is this an example of an American or Soviet escalation (“heating up”) of the Cold War?
  • Is this a social/ideological, political, or economic cause? Or all three?
expert groups
Expert Groups
  • Iron Curtain: Brendan, Madison, Roman
  • Containment: Kyle, Jacob, Tyler
  • Truman Doctrine: Morgan, Spencer, Ben
  • Marshall Plan: Anthony, Giulianna, Josh, Brian
  • Berlin Blockade/Berlin Airlift: Siany, Kevin, Evan, Peter

Rank all five events from:

-1. Most significant in escalating the war to…

-5. Least significant in escalating the war

For each ranking, write 1-2 sentences justifying your choice.

journal 36
Journal #36
  • What has been the most challenging part of the research process for you so far?
  • Is there anything you feel that you need more information about or more help on to succeed in your research paper?
  • Containment (1947)
  • Truman Doctrine (1947)
  • Marshall Plan (1947)
  • Berlin Blockade and Airlift (1948-49)
  • Iron Curtain (1949)
finding primary sources
Finding Primary Sources
  • A huge list here:
journal 37
Journal #37
  • What makes someone a great leader? What qualities do they possess that make people want to follow them?
china background
China: Background
  • Nationalist Leader: Jiang Jieshi (or Chiang Kai-shek)
    • Nationalists overthrew the Qing dynasty (emperor) in 1911
    • Formed a republic, but it was corrupt
  • Communist Leader: Mao Zedong (or Mao Tse-tung)
    • Formed the Communist Party in 1921
    • Peasants (not city proletariat) are the revolutionaries
  • Civil war: 1930-1938
civil war
Civil War
  • 1946-1949
  • World War II:
    • Occupied by the Japanese
    • Death toll: 10-22 million
    • Both sides join forces against the Japanese
  • Post World War II:
    • Civil war resumes
1949 another domino falls
1949: Another domino falls
  • Despite US support for Nationalists, Communists defeat them
  • New government: People’s Republic of China
    • Supported by USSR
  • Nationalists set up their own government on the island of Taiwan
    • Supported by US
communist china
Communist China
  • Key terms to look out for in the film:
  • Collective farms/communes
  • “The Great Leap Forward” (1958-1961)
  • Red Guards
  • The Cultural Revolution (1966-1968)
journal 38
Journal #38
  • What is one similarity you notice between the Communist countries we have learned about so far (Russia and China)?
arms race and space race
Arms race and space race
  • 1949: USSR gets the bomb
  • 1952 and 1953: US and USSR create the H-bomb, more powerful than the A-bomb
  • Brinkmanship
  • 1957: Soviets create ICBM rocket (intercontinental ballistic missile) and launched Sputnik
  • 1958: American satellite Explorer
  • 1960: U-2 spy plane incident
primary source analysis practice
Primary source analysis practice
  • Step 1: Read the title, author, and intro.
  • Step 2: Read the questions, especially the long answer question!
  • Step 3: Highlight or underline:
    • Main ideas
    • Answers to the questions
  • Carefully re-read the sections of the text when you answer the questions!
journal 39
Journal #39
  • How was your Thanksgiving break?
  • Review: Today and tomorrow we will be learning about the Korean and Vietnam Wars. Make a prediction: with what we have learned about Eastern Europe and China, what do you think happens in these countries? Why do you think the US gets involved?
  • 1950-1953
  • First “hot war” of the Cold War
  • World War II:
    • With Japanese surrender, Allies divide Korea at the 38th parallel (dividing the country)
    • North: Soviet Union, communist
    • South: United States, democratic
korean war
Korean War
  • Both sides wanted to reunify the country
  • 1950: N. Korea invades S. Korea
    • US, United Nations fights with the South
    • China backs the North, sends 300,000 troops
  • Result: Cease fire and stalemate at the 38th parallel
textbook analysis
Textbook Analysis
  • Why might textbooks from different countries offer different versions of the same historical events?
  • When textbooks offer conflicting accounts, how do you decide which textbook to believe?
who started the korean war
Who started the Korean War?
  • According to each textbook, how did the war start?
  • Which textbook do you find more trustworthy? Why?
  • Where else would you look to find out how the Korean War started?
  • Which textbook comes from North Korea? Which comes from South Korea?
  • Compare these textbooks with ours.
north korea today
North Korea Today
  • Demilitarized zone
  • Communist dictator Kim Il Sung and son Kim Jong Il
  • Development of nuclear weapons
journal 40
Journal #40
  • 1. What did you think of the North Korea travel clips yesterday?
  • 2. List the divided countries following World War II.
  • 3. What are problems of divided countries?
vietnam war
Vietnam War
  • America’s longest war: 1950-1975
  • Millions of Vietnamese deaths and 58,000 American deaths
roots of the conflict
Roots of the conflict
  • Vietnam a French colony
  • Ho Chi Minh: Communist revolutionary
  • 1945: Beginning of fight for Vietnam’s independence
result of independence 1954
Result of independence:1954
  • Geneva Convention divided Vietnam along the 17th parallel
  • S. Vietnam:
    • Anti-communist Ngo Dinh Diem backed by US
    • Corrupt dictatorship
  • N. Vietnam:
    • Communist Ho Chi Minh
war begins 1960
War begins 1960
  • Northern plan to unify the country
  • Revolt in the South:
    • National Liberation Front (NLF) or the Vietcong
    • Guerilla warfare
    • Took control of the countryside
  • Ho Chi Minh Trail: Armies from the North move South
us involvement
US involvement
  • Gulf of Tonkin, 1965:
    • Justification to go to war (Pres. Johnson)
    • Stated that N. Vietnamese boats had attacked 2 US destroyers
    • In fact, it is likely that no attack took place
  • Obstacles to victory:
    • Jungle fighting
      • Tunnels
  • Anti-war feeling at home
  • Vietnamization: Giving more responsibility for the fighting to the Vietnamese
  • Tet Offensive, 1968
  • My Lai
  • US leaves the war in 1974; in 1975 S. Vietnamese gov’t. falls to N. Vietnam

Khmer Rouge and Pol Pot in Cambodia

    • Communist rebels
    • Pol Pot murdered 2 million people
third world
“Third World”
  • Industrialized, capitalist nations: 1st world
  • Communist nations: 2nd world
  • Developing nations: 3rd world
  • Asia, Africa, Latin America, Middle East
  • “Nonaligned”
    • Not with either side
third world research
Third World Research
  • Cuba:
    • Revolution
    • Missile Crisis
    • Bay of Pigs
  • Nicaraguan Civil War
  • Iranian Revolution
  • Soviets in Afghanistan
journal 41
Journal #41
  • Imagine you’ve gotten into an argument with your best friend and now you are in a “cold war.”
  • How could you “relax the tensions” between the two of you?
d tente
  • French for “relaxation”
  • Relaxation of tensions between the US and USSR in the 1970s
  • Why?
    • Duck and Cover Video Clip
    • Arms Race Terms
    • Discussion Question: What might have led to détente in the middle of the Cold War?
journal 42
Journal #42
  • What was an example of détente that you learned from yesterday’s presentations?
  • What does evidence mean?
  • What does analysis mean?
  • Finally, take a look at your thesis statement. Is it arguable?
evidence and analysis
Evidence and Analysis
  • Evidence: Facts that support your argument
  • Analysis: How these facts support or prove your argument
    • Why the evidence is relevant and significant
peer editing
Peer Editing
  • Step 1: Complete the “Self” category on your checklist.
  • Step 2: Trade papers and checklists with your neighbor. Read the paper silently to yourself. As you read, make comments in the margins and correct spelling and grammar.
  • Step 3: Complete the “Peer” category on their checklist.
  • Step 4: Give general comments (on the back of the sheet).
  • Step 5: Discuss your comments with your partner.