Marketing Channels and Supply Chain Management - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Marketing Channels and Supply Chain Management

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  1. Marketing Channels and Supply Chain Management Chapter 12

  2. Learning Goals • Know why companies use distribution channels and understand the functions that these channels perform. • Learn how channel members interact and how they organize to perform the work of the channel. • Know the major channel alternatives that are open to a company. • Comprehend how companies select, motivate, and evaluate channel members. • Understand the nature and importance of marketing logistics and integrated supply chain management.

  3. Dominates world’s markets for heavy construction and mining equipment. Independent dealers are key to success Dealer network is linked via computers Caterpillar stresses dealer profitability, extraordinary dealer support, personal relationships, dealer performance and full, honest, and frequent communications Case StudyCaterpillar

  4. Definitions • Value Delivery Network • The network made up of the company, suppliers, distributors, and ultimately customers who “partner” with each other to improve the performance of the entire system. • Marketing channel • Set of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption by the consumer or business user Goal 1: Know why companies use channels and understand their functions

  5. Nature & Importance of Marketing Channels • Channel choices affect other decisions in the marketing mix • Pricing, Marketing communications • A strong distribution system can be a competitive advantage • Channel decisions involve long-term commitments to other firms Goal 1: Know why companies use channels and understand their functions

  6. Nature & Importance of Marketing Channels • How Channel Members Add Value • Intermediaries require fewer contacts to move the product to the final purchaser. • Intermediaries help match product assortment demand with supply. • Intermediaries help bridge major time, place, and possession gaps that separate products from those who would use them. Goal 1: Know why companies use channels and understand their functions

  7. Nature & Importance of Marketing Channels Goal 1: Know why companies use channels and understand their functions

  8. Nature & Importance of Marketing Channels Risk Taking Information Financing Promotion Contact Physical Distribution Matching Negotiation

  9. Nature & Importance of Marketing Channels • Number of Channel Levels • The number of intermediary levels indicates the length of a marketing channel. • Direct Channels • Indirect Channels • Producers lose more control and face greater channel complexity as additional channel levels are added. Goal 1: Know why companies use channels and understand their functions

  10. Nature & Importance of Marketing Channels Goal 1: Know why companies use channels and understand their functions

  11. Physical Flow Payment Flow Information Flow Promotion Flow Nature & Importance of Marketing Channels Channel Members Are Connected Via A Variety of Flows • Flow of Ownership Goal 1: Know why companies use channels and understand their functions

  12. Channel Behavior and Organization • Channel Conflict • Occurs when channel members disagree on roles, activities, or rewards. • Types of Conflict: • Horizontal conflict: occurs among firms at the same channel level • Vertical conflict: occurs among firms at different channel levels Goal 1: Know why companies use channels and understand their functions

  13. Channel Behavior and Organization • Conventional Distribution Channels • Consists of one or more independent channel members • Lack leadership and power • Often result in poor performance • Vertical Marketing Systems • Consists of members acting as a unified system • Use contracts, ownership or power Goal 1: Know why companies use channels and understand their functions

  14. Corporate VMS Contractual VMS Administered VMS Corporation owns production and distribution Coordination and conflict management through regular organizational channels Channel Behavior and Organization Vertical Marketing Systems Goal 2: Learn how channel members interact and how they organize

  15. Corporate VMS Contractual VMS Administered VMS Individual firms who join through contracts Franchise organizations Manufacturer-sponsored retailer franchise system Manufacturer-sponsored wholesaler franchise system Service-firm-sponsored retailer franchise system Channel Behavior and Organization Vertical Marketing Systems Goal 2: Learn how channel members interact and how they organize

  16. Corporate VMS Contractual VMS Administered VMS Leadership through the size and power of dominant channel members Leadership could be manufacturer or retailer Channel Behavior and Organization Vertical Marketing Systems Goal 2: Learn how channel members interact and how they organize

  17. Channel Behavior and Organization • Horizontal Marketing Systems • Companies at the same level work together with channel members ie: Bank in store • Multichannel Distribution Systems • Also called hybrid marketing channels • Occurs when a firm uses two or more marketing channels ie: web sales & retailers • Changing Channel Organization • Disintermediation ie: airlines vs Travel Agency Goal 2: Learn how channel members interact and how they organize

  18. Channel Behavior and Organization Goal 2: Learn how channel members interact and how they organize

  19. Channel Design Decisions • Step 1: Analyzing Consumer Needs • Cost and feasibility of meeting needs must be considered • Step 2: Setting Channel Objectives • Set channel objectives in terms of targeted level of customer service • Many factors influence channel objectives Goal 3: Know the major channel alternatives open to a company

  20. Channel Design Decisions • Step 3: Identifying Major Alternatives • Types of intermediaries • Company sales force, manufacturer’s agency, industrial distributors • Number of marketing intermediaries • Intensive, selective, and exclusive distribution • Responsibilities of channel members Goal 3: Know the major channel alternatives open to a company

  21. Question • Decide which distribution strategy--intensive, selective, or exclusive--is used for the following products, and why: • Piaget watches, • Acura automobiles, • Snickers candy bars. Goal 3: Know the major channel alternatives open to a company

  22. Channel Design Decisions • Step 4: Evaluating Major Alternatives • Economic criteria • Control issues • Adaptive criteria Goal 3: Know the major channel alternatives open to a company

  23. Channel Design Decisions • Designing International Distribution Channels • Global marketers usually adapt their channel strategies to structures that exist within foreign countries • Key challenges: • May be complex or hard to penetrate • May be scattered, inefficient, or totally lacking Goal 3: Know the major channel alternatives open to a company

  24. Selecting Channel Members Identify characteristics that distinguish the best channel members Managing and Motivating Channel Members Partner relationship management (PRM) is key Evaluating Channel Members Performance should be checked against standards Channel members should be rewarded or replaced as dictated by performance Channel Management Decisions Goal 4: Comprehend how companies select, motivate and evaluate channels

  25. Selecting channel members Managing and motivating channel members Evaluating channel members Which characteristics are important? Years in business Lines carried Growth and profit record Cooperativeness and reputation Type of customer location Channel Management Decisions Decisions Goal 4: Comprehend how companies select, motivate and evaluate channels

  26. Selecting channel members Managing and motivating channel members Evaluating channel members Partner relationship management (PRM) for long-term partnerships Software available to coordinate members Channel Management Decisions Decisions Goal 4: Comprehend how companies select, motivate and evaluate channels

  27. Selecting channel members Managing and motivating channel members Evaluating channel members Check channel performance of: Sales Inventory Customer delivery Promotion and training Customer service Channel Management Decisions Decisions Goal 4: Comprehend how companies select, motivate and evaluate channels

  28. Public Policy and Distribution Decisions • Exclusive distribution • Only certain outlets are allowed to carry a firm’s products • Exclusive dealing • Exclusive territorial agreements • Tying agreements Goal 4: Comprehend how companies select, motivate and evaluate channels

  29. Marketing Logistics and Supply Chain Management • Marketing Logistics • Outbound distribution • Inbound distribution • Reverse distribution • Involves the entire supply chain management system Goal 5: Understand marketing logistics & integrated supply chain management

  30. Marketing Logistics and Supply Chain Management Goal 5: Understand marketing logistics & integrated supply chain management

  31. Marketing Logistics and Supply Chain Management • Why Greater Emphasis is Being Placed on Logistics: • Offers firms a competitive advantage • Can yield cost savings • Greater product variety requires improved logistics • Improvements in distribution efficiency are possible due to information technology Goal 5: Understand marketing logistics & integrated supply chain management

  32. Marketing Logistics and Supply Chain Management • Goals of the Logistics System • No system can both maximize customer service and minimize costs. • Firms must first weigh the benefits of higher service against the costs. • State goals in terms of a targeted level of customer service at the least cost. Goal 5: Understand marketing logistics & integrated supply chain management

  33. Major Logistics Functions Order Processing Received Processed Shipped Costs Minimize Costs of Attaining Logistics Objectives Logistics Functions Transportation Rail, Truck, Water, Pipeline, Air, Intermodal Warehousing Storage Distribution Automated Inventory When to order How much to order Just-in-time Goal 5: Understand marketing logistics & integrated supply chain management

  34. Marketing Logistics and Supply Chain Management Rail Nation’s largest carrier, cost-effective for shipping bulk products, piggyback Truck Flexible in routing & time schedules, efficient for short-hauls of high value goods Water Low cost for shipping bulky, low-value, non-perishable goods, slowest form Pipeline Ship petroleum, natural gas, and chemicals from sources to markets Air High cost, ideal when speed is needed or distance markets have to be reached Goal 5: Understand marketing logistics & integrated supply chain management

  35. Marketing Logistics and Supply Chain Management • Integrated Logistics Management • Cross-functional teamwork inside the company is critical • Logistics partnerships are also built through shared projects • Outsourcing of logistics firms to third-party firms is becoming more common Goal 5: Understand marketing logistics & integrated supply chain management