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Mobile Government in Turkey: Investigating Drivers and Barriers

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  1. Mobile Government in Turkey: Investigating Drivers and Barriers Anil Ustun(1), Ali Yazici(2), K. İbrahim Akman(2), Ali Arifoglu(3) (1)Dept. of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, Old Dominion Univ., USA (2) Atilim University, Dept. of Computer Engineering, Ankara, Turkey (3) Middle East Technical University, Institute of Informatics, Ankara, Turkey

  2. Agenda • Introduction • Turkey’s Readiness in Mobile Government • A Case Study: Determining M-Drivers and M-Barriers for Turkey • Results • Conclusions Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  3. Introduction • The OECD (2003) defines e-gov as “the use of information and communication technologies, and particularly the Internet, as a tool to achieve better government”. • M-gov is a new research area with respect to e-gov. (Kushchu and Kuscu (2003) defined m-gov as “Strategy and its implementation involving the utilization of all kinds of wireless and mobile technology, services, applications and devices for improving benefits for citizens, business and all government units” Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  4. Readiness • In the UN e-Government Readiness Index for 2007, Turkey is assigned a rank of 42 out of a total of 69 nations, a placement behind countries such as the Australia (9), South Korea (16), and Japan (18). • Turkey is well-developed in the in both fixed and mobile technologies and it has a very large population with a mix of market segments. • However, it is the only country that doesn’t have 3G licenses among European member or candidate countries. Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  5. … Readiness • In Turkey, use and development of mobile and wireless services by a critical mass is achieved. Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008


  6. … Readiness • The Turkish mobile market is currently home to three operators, Turkcell, Vodafone and Avea. • The m-gov infrastructure still supports 2.5G services as of January 2006. • At the start of 2007, Turkey’s officials announced the introduction of MNP (Mobile Number Portability) for its 3 mobile operators, Vodafone, Turkcell and Avea. Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  7. Table 1. Household technology ownership in Turkey (%) (SSI, 2005) … Readiness Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  8. A Case Study • Identify the most significant m-drivers and m-barriers for m-gov in Turkey. • A quantitative analysis through a total of 238 completed survey questionnaires. • The respondents of this survey were IT professionals from major government and private sector organizations who were the attendees of the meeting on issues in the use of IT in organizations, organized by the Turkish Informatics Society (TBD) Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  9. …A Case Study • Reviews and definitions of dependent factors can be seen below: The dependent variables were categorized into two divisions as follows: • M-Drivers: Move towards Mobile Government Applications • M-Barriers: Mobile Government Challenges Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  10. M-Drivers • With reference to the potential field of application we consider nine main areas of content (Kushchu & Kuscu, 2003): • Local taxation: Information channel for local residents, payment of house taxes, income taxes, etc. • Personal Data: Request/renewal of documents, certificates, changes of place of residence. • Postal Services: Postal notification service, etc. • Education: Application forms, payment of school taxes, test results, academic status, courses. • Banking and Finance: Stock exchange, fund exchange, banking services • Security: Crisis information channel, emergency services • Health: Reservation of hospital visits, monitoring vital parameters. • Tourism: Information channel for tourists, hotel reservations • Social Security: Pension information systems Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  11. M-Barriers • The challenges and their definitions can be seen below (Kushchu & Kuscu, 2003): • Lack of technological infrastructure: Increasing mobile infrastructure can be considered as a force in adopting mobile government activities. • Low credit card penetration: In developing countries, the number of persons with credit cards is too small when compared to the number of potential users for m-gov transactions. • Security and privacy gaps: Citizens have concerns about sending their credit card information over the mobile and wireless devices. • Insufficient number of its users: Citizens participation depending on socio-economic factors will play an important role in the success of mobile government. • Citizen adaptation process: Especially in the rural areas of developing countries, citizens adaptation to the mobile and wireless applications and services is an important factor to be successful in mobile government. • Problems with laws and political process: There is no clear legal status for mobile applications, no regulations and laws for online fillings, online signings, and on online taxable transactions. • Compatibility of the mobile systems with the existing e-gov systems: It may not be easy to integrate both systems in terms of functionalities and data administration. Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  12. Hypotheses • We use a systematic and exploratory analysis approach to investigate the impact of demographic factors on selected m-gov driver and barrier factors. • The demographic factors referas independent variables and • the selected drivers and barriers refer as dependent variables. • Each empirical factor was extracted based on prior literature, and the corresponding hypotheses were made according to similar researches on demographic factors. Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  13. …Hypotheses • H1. Demographic parameters have impact on the “mobile government applications”. • H2. Demographic parameters have impact on the “mobile government challenges”. Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  14. Research Design • Each respondent was asked to evaluate the importance of each attribute through a five point Likert scale. According to this, all items were measured on a 5-point scale ranging from strongly agree (5) to strongly disagree (1), with (3) being neutral. • The reliability of the multiple-item scales is high as coefficient alpha value accepted as 0.95. • Gender, age, education information, and work experience (years) along with career information were also examined as they are accepted as independent variables. • First of all, we compare the mean of one or more groups based on one independent variable (or factor) by using the One-Way ANOVA. In the discussion section, important findings are supported by the Pearson Chi-Square test. Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  15. Results: Respondant Information Figure 2. Demographic factors Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  16. Willingness to use m-gov services Figure 3. Preferred mobile government services Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  17. Challenges for m-gov Figure 4. Mobile Government challenges Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  18. ANOVA Test Results • Personal attitudes towards Mobile Government Drivers • Gender has significant impact on Local Taxation and Banking & Finance • Age has significant impact on the Education, Health and SocialSecurity Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  19. Referred services by gender Figure 5. Referred services by gender of respondents Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  20. Referred services by age Figure 6. Referred services by age of respondents Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  21. Personal attitudes towards m-govbarriers • Gender factor has significant impact on the Security and Privacy Gap, and occupation factor has significant impact on Problems with Laws and Political Process. Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  22. Perceived challenges by gender Figure 7. Perceived challenges by gender of respondents Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  23. Perceived challenges by age Figure 8. Perceived challenges by age of respondents Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  24. Discussions (Gender) • Our study indicates that, gender has significant impact on the some of the preferred m-gov services to be seen in future. • Male respondents are more likely to prefer “local taxation” (mean: 4.17) (Table 2: H111) and, “banking &finance” (mean: 3.69) (Table 2: H151) services than female respondents (mean: 3.80 and mean: 3.17) as seen in Figure 5. • Our explanation of this result may be that, majority workers in these fields are men in Turkey. Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  25. …Discussions • Another implication is that gender also affects “security and privacy” (Table 3: H231) challenge. • Female respondents (mean: 4.27) are more fragile in this issue as well than male respondents (mean: 3.93). • However, this finding is not supported by the χ2 test results (χ2 = 7.59, df = 3, p-value = 0.055), that there is not significant relationship between gender and “security and privacy” challenge Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  26. Discussions (Age) • The test results indicated that age has significant impact on specific factors as seen in Anova Tables. • In terms of 3G mobile application services, age has impact on “education” and “social security” as seen in Anova Tables. • Younger aged group of respondents (mean: 4.28) are more willing to see “education” services than older aged group • Secondly, age has impact on “social security” as seen in Figure 6, however, it is interesting to note that the relationship between age and the reason for “social security” was not found to be significant Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  27. Discussions (Education & Occupation) • Surprisingly, we have investigated that education has no significant impact on none of our dependent factors as seen in Anova Tables. • Occupation has significant impact on one of the mobile government challenges: “Problems with law and political process” • IT managers (mean: 4.28) perceive political process as more challenging factor while other group of respondents (mean: 3.85) perceive it less challenging. Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  28. Discussions (Years of Experience) • There were nosignificant association for m- govdriver and barrier factors in thiscategory. Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  29. Conclusions • Purpose of this survey was to examine most significant drivers and barriers of the m-gov and impact of demographic factors on these driving and challenging factors among IT-oriented respondents in Turkey. • The analysis revealed that, “Health” (mean: 4.65) fields of m-gov is the most critical field that should be primarily developed in Turkey. • We observed that the most significant barriers to the adoption of m-gov services will be the “Problems with laws and political process” (mean: 4.10) and “Security and privacy gaps” (mean: 4.03). • On the other side, we observed that gender and age were the key factors for the tendency towards selected m-gov drivers and barrier factors. Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  30. References • Chang, A., & Kannan, P. (2002). “Preparing for Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Government”. Arlington, VA: IBM Endowment for the Business of Government.Economist (2007) E-Readiness Scores, http://www-03.ibm.com/ industries/government/ doc/content/bin/ e-Readiness_2007.pdf • Gang S. (2005) “Transcending e-Government: A Case of Mobile Government in Beijing”, http://www.mgovworld.org/whitepapersandcasestudies/1trascending_egov.pdf • Germanakos P., Samaras G., & Christodoulou E. (2005) “Multi-channel Delivery of Services The Road from eGovernment to mGovernment: Further Technological Challenges and Implications”. Proceedings of the EGOV 2005 – InternationalConference on E-Government - Workshop Program (EGOV05), Copenhagen, August 22-26, 2005, Trauner Verlag, pp. 78-85. • Germanakos, P., Samaras, G., & Christodoulou, E. (2007) “Multi-Channel Delivery of E-Services in the Light of M-Government Challenge”. In Mobile Government: AnEmerging Direction in E Government (pp.292-317). Hershey, PA: IGI • ITU (2007) Case Study: Broadband - Ubiquitous Network Societies: The Case Of Japan, http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/ni/ubiquitous/Papers/UNSJapanCaseStudy.pdf • Kuscu, M.H., Kushchu, I, & Yu, B. (2007). “Introducing Mobile Government”. In Mobile Government: An Emerging Direction in E Government (pp.1-11). Hershey, PA: IGI Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  31. …References • Kushchu, I., & Kuscu, H. (2003). “From E-government to M-government: Facing the Inevitable”. In the Proceeding of European Conference on E-Government(ECEG 2003), Trinity College, Dublin, July 3-4 (pp. 253-260). Reading, UK: Academic Conferences International • Lallana, E. C. (2004). “eGovernment for Development, mgovernment Definition on and Models age. http://www.edevexchange.org/eGov/mgovdefn.htm • OECD (2003) e-Government Imperative, http://webdomino.oecd.org/ comnet/ pum/ egovproweb.nsf/ viewhtml/index/ $FILE/ e_gov_project.htm • State Statistical Institute (SSI). (2005). Turkish Household Technology Ownership Studies 2004 & 2005, http://www.die.gov.tr/TURKISH/SONIST/HHBilisim/hhbilisim.html • Sell A., Patokorpi E., Walden P., & Anckar B. (2007) Adoption of Mobile Communication Technologies in the Municipal Open Care Service Sector. In the Kushchu, I.. In Mobile Government: An Emerging Direction in E Government (pp.134-154). Hershey, PA: IGI • Turkey now (2006): Information and Communication Technologies, http://www.turkeynow.org/ db%5cdocs%5c%5ctechnology06.doc • Yildiz M. (2007) “The State of Mobile Government in Turkey: Overview, Policy Issues, and Future Prospects”. In Mobile Government: AnEmerging Direction in E Government (pp. 252-268). Hershey, PA: IGI Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008

  32. Thanks for your patience… Euro mGov 2008 - Antalya 15-16 September 2008