Using classroom assessment techniques low threshold assessments to promote student learning
Download
1 / 44

- PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 334 Views
  • Uploaded on

Using Classroom Assessment Techniques (Low Threshold Assessments) to Promote Student Learning. Dr. Barbara Millis University of Nevada, Reno Dr. Douglas Eder Southern Illinois University Edwardsville Dr. Ray Purdom University of North Carolina at Greensboro.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about '' - niveditha


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Using classroom assessment techniques low threshold assessments to promote student learning l.jpg

Using Classroom Assessment Techniques (Low Threshold Assessments) to Promote Student Learning

Dr. Barbara Millis

University of Nevada, Reno

Dr. Douglas Eder

Southern Illinois University Edwardsville

Dr. Ray Purdom

University of North Carolina at Greensboro


Effective teaching practices include l.jpg
Effective Teaching Practices include: Assessments) to Promote Student Learning

  • Course goals and objectives

  • Activities to foster those objectives

  • Assessment measures to determine when the goals are met.


Slide4 l.jpg
Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) Assessments) to Promote Student Learningcan help teachers learn what students know or don’t know or misunderstand.

  • Learner-Centered

  • Teacher-Directed

  • Mutually Beneficial

  • Formative

  • Context-Specific

  • Ongoing

  • Rooted in Good Teaching Practice

    --Angelo, T. & Cross, P. (1993) Classroom Assessment Techniques. 2nd Ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.


Slide6 l.jpg
Placing Classroom Assessment in the Broader Context of How Students Learn and Activities that can Foster Learning


Slide9 l.jpg

How People Learn: Students Learn and Activities that can Foster LearningBrain, Mind, Experience, and School

John D. Bransford, Ann L. Brown, and Rodney R. Cocking, editors

Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS

Washington, D.C. 1999

http://www.nap.edu/html/howpeople1/notice.html


Slide10 l.jpg

Three findings . . . have a solid research base to support them and strong implications for how we teach.—Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, Eds. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School.


Slide11 l.jpg

Learning Principle #1 them and strong implications for how we teach.

The contemporary view of learning is that people construct new knowledge and understandings based on what they already know and believe.


Slide12 l.jpg

To develop competence in an area of inquiry, students must: them and strong implications for how we teach.(a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge; (b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework; (c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application.

Learning Principle #2


Slide13 l.jpg

A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them.

Learning Principle #3


Slide14 l.jpg

Learning Principle #1 students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them.

The contemporary view of learning is that people construct new knowledge and understandings based on what they already know and believe.


Slide16 l.jpg

“There is a good deal of evidence that learning is enhanced when teachers pay attention to the knowledge and beliefs that learners bring to a learning task, use this knowledge as a starting point for new instruction, and monitor students’ changing conceptions as instruction proceeds.”

Teaching/Learning Implications from Key Finding #1


Assessing interest and prior knowledge is important also l.jpg
Assessing Interest and Prior Knowledge is important, also. enhanced when teachers pay attention to the knowledge and beliefs that learners bring to a learning task, use this knowledge as a starting point for new instruction, and monitor students’ changing conceptions as instruction proceeds.”

  • What do you want to learn about? What Questions do you have?

    • Prior to new chapter, students submit questions / preconceptions about upcoming material.


Teaching learning implications from key finding 1 l.jpg
Teaching/Learning Implications from Key Finding #1 enhanced when teachers pay attention to the knowledge and beliefs that learners bring to a learning task, use this knowledge as a starting point for new instruction, and monitor students’ changing conceptions as instruction proceeds.”

It is critically important to learn where your students are and what they already know or don’t know, including their misconceptions.


Slide19 l.jpg

These Tuesday Teaching Tips (and more) represent LTAs useful for quick assessments to find out if your students are learning what you think you are teaching. They are available online at the Excellence in Teaching Program, University of Nevada, Reno:http://teaching.unr.edu/etp/teaching_tips/teaching_tip.html


Ltas for learning principle 1 l.jpg
LTAs for Learning Principle #1 for quick assessments to find out if your students are learning what you think you are teaching. They are available online at the Excellence in Teaching Program, University of Nevada, Reno:

  • Background Knowledge Probe

  • Focused Listing

  • Applications Card

  • Directed Paraphrasing

  • Key Principle & Restating

  • Think-Pair-Share

  • Send A Problem

  • Structured Problem Solving

  • Punctuated Lectures

  • Classroom Opinion Polls

  • Start-Stop-Continue

  • Minute Paper


Slide21 l.jpg

Tuesday Teaching Tip for quick assessments to find out if your students are learning what you think you are teaching. They are available online at the Excellence in Teaching Program, University of Nevada, Reno:

Background Knowledge Probe (BKP)(Source: T. Angelo and P. Cross, Classroom Assessment Techniques)[Effective in small and large classes]

Purpose:For students, BKP's highlight key information to be studied, offering both a preview of material to come and a review of prior knowledge; for teachers, BKP's help determine the best starting point and the most appropriate level for a lesson; for both, BKP's can be used for pre and post-lesson feedback of learning.

Steps:For either a unit of study or for the entire course, prepare and administer a diagnostic examination. Provide feedback to students, both individually and whole-class, exploring the results and their implications for learning.

Variations:A Knowledge Survey asks students, not to answer questions, but to indicate their confidence level (e.g, “I know this; I know at least 50% of the answer or know exactly where to find the answer; I don't know.”)Results are displayed in a histogram and later correlated to the final exam to determine learning gains. Both BKPs and Knowledge Surveys are easily adapted for online courses.


Slide22 l.jpg

Tuesday Teaching Tip for quick assessments to find out if your students are learning what you think you are teaching. They are available online at the Excellence in Teaching Program, University of Nevada, Reno:

Background Knowledge Probe (BKP)(Source: T. Angelo and P. Cross, Classroom Assessment Techniques)[Effective in small and large classes]

Assessment and follow-on:Use the results to assist individual students and to determine the students’ overall background knowledge—and hence the level—at which you begin your presentations/activities. When students include their names, you can assign students to cooperative groups so that each group contains a high achiever, a low achiever and two students in the middle. You can design activities to bring students “up-to-speed” with prerequisite material (e.g., special review sessions; self-directed learning modules, web-based or otherwise, etc.). You can administer the same examination after the unit or the course is complete (pre- and post-tests), so that students can measure their learning gains.

Examples from various disciplines: Define each of the following: (Chemistry) enthalpy of activation; (Astronomy) star; (Psychology) schizophrenia; (Literature) genre. Write a short essay on the following questions: (Management) Discuss the differences between a traditional and a learning organization; (Political Science) Explain the key differences between the platforms advocated by the Democratic and the Republican parties; (Child Development) How does a child acquire language?


Slide23 l.jpg

Tuesday Teaching Tip for quick assessments to find out if your students are learning what you think you are teaching. They are available online at the Excellence in Teaching Program, University of Nevada, Reno:

Background Knowledge Probe (BKP)(Source: T. Angelo and P. Cross, Classroom Assessment Techniques)[Effective in small and large classes]

Further study ---Good Classroom Assessment web pages:

http://www.siue.edu/~deder/assess/catmain.html

http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/assess-2.htm

http://www.ntlf.com/html/lib/bib/assess.htm

http://www.flaguide.org/


Background knowledge probe bkp l.jpg

Tuesday Teaching Tip for quick assessments to find out if your students are learning what you think you are teaching. They are available online at the Excellence in Teaching Program, University of Nevada, Reno:

Background Knowledge Probe (BKP)

Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) are a pedagogical way to monitor student learning as it is taking place.

a. I’ve never encountered this idea before.

b. I’ve encountered this idea but wouldn’t want to have to explain it to a naïve audience.

c. I’ve encountered this idea and can explain it with examples.

d. I’ve encountered this idea and already adopted it for my teaching environment.

2. Assessment monitors student learning; it does not evaluate faculty teaching.

a. I’ve never encountered this idea before.

b. I’ve encountered this idea but wouldn’t want to have to explain it to a naïve audience.

c. I’ve encountered this idea and can explain it with examples.

d. I’ve encountered this idea and already adopted it for my teaching environment.

3. The principles for using CATs in an on-line environment are much the same as those for using CATs in a F2F environment.

a. I’ve never encountered this idea before.

b. I’ve encountered this idea but wouldn’t want to have to explain it to a naïve audience

c. I’ve encountered this idea and can explain it with examples.

d. I’ve encountered this idea and already adopted it for my teaching environment.

4. Because CATs engage students in their own learning, they do not add to the teaching workload but, rather, reduce it by making teaching easier.

a. I’ve never encountered this idea before.

b. I’ve encountered this idea but wouldn’t want to have to explain it to a naïve audience.

c. I’ve encountered this idea and can explain it with examples.

d. I’ve encountered this idea and already adopted it for my teaching environment.


Slide25 l.jpg

Tuesday Teaching Tip for quick assessments to find out if your students are learning what you think you are teaching. They are available online at the Excellence in Teaching Program, University of Nevada, Reno:

Focused Listing (Source: T. Angelo and P. Cross, Classroom Assessment Techniques)[Effective in small and large classes]

Purpose:To determine what learners recall about a specific topic, including the concepts they associate with the central point. This technique can be used before, during, or after a lesson.

Steps:Ask students to write the key word at the top of a page and within a set time limit (usually 2-3 minutes) to jot down related terms important to understanding that topic.

Variations:Have students pair to compare their entries. Working in pairs can help students build their knowledge base and clarify their understanding. Easily adapted for online courses.

Assessment:After collecting the index cards, compare students' lists with a master one you have generated, looking at both the quantity and quality of their responses. Categorize responses into "related" or "unrelated" or "appropriate" or "inappropriate" stacks. Sorting cards into three stacks, you might use categories such as “on target,” “OK,” and “clueless.” Consider compiling a master list and having students then sort them by categories.


Slide26 l.jpg

Tuesday Teaching Tip for quick assessments to find out if your students are learning what you think you are teaching. They are available online at the Excellence in Teaching Program, University of Nevada, Reno:

Focused Listing(Source: T. Angelo and P. Cross, Classroom Assessment Techniques)[Effective in small and large classes]

Follow-on:Share with students what you discover and act accordingly (e.g., deliberately spending more time than planned on a concept students clearly find difficult). Use student responses, as appropriate, in your mini-lecture.

Examples from various disciplines:Antenna, Symbolism, Astronaut, Myth, Reinforcement, Corporation, Random Distribution, Electrical Circuits, Momentum, Bonding, Schizophrenia

Further study --- Good Classroom Assessment web pages:

http://www.siue.edu/~deder/assess/catmain.html

http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/assess-2.htm

http://www.ntlf.com/html/lib/bib/assess.htm

http://www.flaguide.org/


Focused listing l.jpg

Tuesday Teaching Tip for quick assessments to find out if your students are learning what you think you are teaching. They are available online at the Excellence in Teaching Program, University of Nevada, Reno:

Steps:Would you please write the key phrase at the top of a page and, within about 2 minutes, jot down related terms important to understanding that topic.

Key word: Distance assessment

Focused Listing


Slide28 l.jpg

Tuesday Teaching Tip for quick assessments to find out if your students are learning what you think you are teaching. They are available online at the Excellence in Teaching Program, University of Nevada, Reno:

Application Card (Source: T. Angelo and P. Cross, Classroom Assessment Techniques)[Effective in small and large classes]

Purpose:To determine if students understand definitions or concepts in sufficient depth to go beyond textbook or teacher terms by reaching the application level. This technique can be used before, during, or after a lesson.

Steps:Ask students to write the key word at the top of a page and within a set time limit (usually 2-3 minutes) to give one or more real-world applications for an important principle, generalization, theory, or procedure.

Variations:Have students pair to compare their entries. Working in pairs can help students build their knowledge base and clarify their understanding. Easily adapted for online courses.

Assessment and follow-on:After collecting the index cards, review the student responses, looking for accuracy and even creativity. The responses can be sorted as “unacceptable,” “marginal,” “adequate,” or “excellent.” Provide feedback to students about the depth of their understanding, sharing particularly apt applications.


Slide29 l.jpg

Tuesday Teaching Tip for quick assessments to find out if your students are learning what you think you are teaching. They are available online at the Excellence in Teaching Program, University of Nevada, Reno:

Application Card (Source: T. Angelo and P. Cross, Classroom Assessment Techniques)[Effective in small and large classes]

Examples from various disciplines:Business: Stephen Covey recommends “Win-win performance agreements”: give two specific applications, one related to current news and one related to your own life; Government/Law: Give a concrete example of the concept “due process”; Engineering: Give two real-world applications of “torque.”

Further study ---Good Classroom Assessment web pages:

http://www.siue.edu/~deder/assess/catmain.html

http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teach tip/assess-2.htm

http://www.psu.edu/celt/CATs.html

http://www.flaguide.org/


Application card l.jpg

Tuesday Teaching Tip for quick assessments to find out if your students are learning what you think you are teaching. They are available online at the Excellence in Teaching Program, University of Nevada, Reno:

Application Card

Steps:Would you please write the key phrase at the top of a page and, within about 2 minutes, give one or more real-world applications for how you might use this idea in your on-line course.

Key phrase: Background knowledge probe


Slide31 l.jpg

Tuesday Teaching Tip for quick assessments to find out if your students are learning what you think you are teaching. They are available online at the Excellence in Teaching Program, University of Nevada, Reno:

Directed Paraphrasing(Source: T. Angelo and P. Cross, Classroom Assessment Techniques)[Effective in small and large classes]

Purpose:To determine if students understand definitions or concepts in sufficient depth, rather than merely “regurgitating” textbook or teacher terms. This technique can be used before, during, or after a lesson.

Steps:Ask students to write the key word at the top of a page and within a set time limit (usually 2-3 minutes) to create in their own words a definition of a term or concept for a specific audience or purpose.

Variations:Have students pair to compare their entries. Working in pairs can help students build their knowledge base and clarify their understanding. Easily adapted for online courses.

Assessment and follow-on:After collecting the index cards, review the student responses, looking for accuracy and even creativity. Categorize responses into "related" or "unrelated" or "appropriate" or "inappropriate" stacks. Sorting cards into three stacks, you might use categories such as “on target,” “OK,” and “clueless.” Provide feedback to students about the depth of their understanding, sharing particularly apt examples.


Slide32 l.jpg

Tuesday Teaching Tip for quick assessments to find out if your students are learning what you think you are teaching. They are available online at the Excellence in Teaching Program, University of Nevada, Reno:

Directed Paraphrasing(Source: T. Angelo and P. Cross, Classroom Assessment Techniques)[Effective in small and large classes]

Examples from various disciplines:Management: explain the concept of “corporation” to high school students; Accounting/ Economics: explain an “irrevocable trust” to a group of retirees; Engineering: explain, using a suitable analogy or image, the term “circuit” to a friend who is an English major; Biochemistry: define or describe the term “polymer” to a group of nursing students, giving five examples of proteins in the body.

Further Study --- Good Classroom Assessment web pages:

http://www.siue.edu/~deder/assess/catmain.html

http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/ teachtip/assess-2.htm

http://www.ntlf.com/html/lib/bib/assess.htm

http://www.flaguide.org/


John hertel s key principles and restating l.jpg
John Hertel’s “Key Principles and Restating” for quick assessments to find out if your students are learning what you think you are teaching. They are available online at the Excellence in Teaching Program, University of Nevada, Reno:

Comedy Cottage

Key Point = whether the manager violated the duty of loyalty and competition by opening his business in the same location

--------------------------------------

Key point= issue injunction to stop lease order to prevent him from competing in the comedy club business with a certain distance

Comedy Cottage

No idea what this case is about. Don’t remember.

----------------------------------------------------------------------

One principle is that of loyalty. In a corporation you are required to be loyal and not to take their secrets and go creatyour own business (Copy Cat).


Slide34 l.jpg

Tuesday Teaching Tip for quick assessments to find out if your students are learning what you think you are teaching. They are available online at the Excellence in Teaching Program, University of Nevada, Reno:

Key Principle and Restating(Source: John Hertel, a law professor at the United States Air Force Academy)[Effective in small and large classes]

Purpose:To help both you and your students determine the knowledge gains from a single lesson.

Steps:Before beginning a discussion/lesson have students write on an index card a broad concept such as the primary conclusion in a science article, the key point in a mini-case study, or the theme of a work of literature. Conduct the lesson. Before adjournment, have students draw a line on the index card under their original comment and restate the same broad concept.

Variations:Easily adapted to online courses.

Assessment and follow-on:By comparing students’ understanding prior to the lesson to their understanding after the lesson has concluded, you get an idea of how well their knowledge has deepened—or not. You can discuss with students in a subsequent meeting the class’s overall comprehension, sharing particularly cogent student summaries. You can also use the responses to identify and subsequently address misconceptions.


Slide35 l.jpg

Tuesday Teaching Tip for quick assessments to find out if your students are learning what you think you are teaching. They are available online at the Excellence in Teaching Program, University of Nevada, Reno:

Key Principle and Restating(Source: John Hertel, a law professor at the United States Air Force Academy)[Effective in small and large classes]

Examples: Two actual student responses to a mini-case study in business law, “Comedy Cottage”

Comedy Cottage

Key Point = whether the manager violated the duty of loyalty and competition by opening his business in the same location

---------------------------------------------

Key point = issue injunction to stop lease order to prevent him from competing in the comedy club business within a certain distance

Comedy Cottage

No idea what this case is about. Don’t remember.

One principle is that of loyalty. In a corporation you are required to be loyal and not take their secrets and go create you own business (Copy Cat)


Slide36 l.jpg

Store for quick assessments to find out if your students are learning what you think you are teaching. They are available online at the Excellence in Teaching Program, University of Nevada, Reno:

by Similarity

Long-Term

Storage

Working

Memory

Retrieve

by Difference


Compare or contrast the items being compared or contrasted can be l.jpg
Compare or Contrast for quick assessments to find out if your students are learning what you think you are teaching. They are available online at the Excellence in Teaching Program, University of Nevada, Reno:The items being compared or contrasted can be:

  • Theories, methods, or models

  • Examples of writing, music, art

  • Problems or solutions

  • Aspects of historical or current events

  • Authentic or mythical scenarios.

    —Susan Johnston & Jim Cooper, (1997) “Quickthinks:Active-Thinking Tasks in Lecture Classes and Televised Instruction.”


Graphic organizer l.jpg
Graphic Organizer for quick assessments to find out if your students are learning what you think you are teaching. They are available online at the Excellence in Teaching Program, University of Nevada, Reno:

A diagram to organize information in a visual format that suggests relationships.

“Helping students to organize their knowledge is as important as the knowledge itself, since knowledge organization is likely to affect students’ intellectual performance.”

—Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, Eds. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School.


What are the differences between greek drama l.jpg

Tragedy for quick assessments to find out if your students are learning what you think you are teaching. They are available online at the Excellence in Teaching Program, University of Nevada, Reno:

Comedy

What are the differences between Greek Drama?


What are the differences between formative and summative assessment l.jpg

Formative for quick assessments to find out if your students are learning what you think you are teaching. They are available online at the Excellence in Teaching Program, University of Nevada, Reno:

Summative

What are the differences between Formative and Summative Assessment?


Applications for comparison contrast in other disciplines l.jpg
Applications for Comparison/Contrast in other Disciplines for quick assessments to find out if your students are learning what you think you are teaching. They are available online at the Excellence in Teaching Program, University of Nevada, Reno:

  • Literature: How are Antigone and Creon alike?

  • History: What are the similarities between the Revolutionary War and the Civil War?

  • Biology: What are the differences between mitosis and meiosis?

  • Psychology: What are the differences between schizophrenia and manic-depressive?


Questions l.jpg
Questions? for quick assessments to find out if your students are learning what you think you are teaching. They are available online at the Excellence in Teaching Program, University of Nevada, Reno:


Slide43 l.jpg

The for quick assessments to find out if your students are learning what you think you are teaching. They are available online at the Excellence in Teaching Program, University of Nevada, Reno:

End!

Happy Teaching!


ad