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Using Adolescent Literature and ESL Teaching Strategies for Fostering Understanding Between Native & Non-native English Speakers. Theoretical Perspectives on ESL. Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills vs. Cognitive Academic Language Skill (James Cummings 1983)

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Using Adolescent Literature and ESL Teaching Strategies for Fostering Understanding Between Native & Non-native English Speakers

theoretical perspectives on esl
Theoretical Perspectives on ESL
  • Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills vs. Cognitive Academic Language Skill (James Cummings 1983)
  • Acculturation Process (John Schumann 1978)
  • Comprehensible Input ( Stephen Krashen 1983)
  • Communicative Competence (Sandra Savignon 1983)
  • Contrastive Rhetoric (Robert Kaplan)
    • Reader vs. Writer responsibility
    • East Asian tradition
    • Appeal to the Divine
    • Explicit vs. impliciy
  • “Arguments in other cultures…recourse to analogy, intuition, beauty or shared comunal wisdom…may seem illogical, digresive or circutious.”
avoiding hegemony
Avoiding Hegemony
  • Western bias
  • Literature as a way to avoid
  • Inclusion of multicultural literature
why novels why adolescent novels
Why novels & why adolescent novels?
  • BISC and CALP – address both
  • Aculturation – moving closer to target culture and facilitating target language acquisition
  • Comprehensible input
  • Consistent rhetorical patterns (vs. short readings)…covert language acquisition
  • Vocabulary (BICS and CALP)
  • Sense of accomplishment
  • Follow characters
educational culture
Educational Culture
  • Issues
    • Classroom focus
    • Group work
    • Disagreeing with the teacher
    • Epistemology
  • “ It’s important to keep in mind that in addition to learning subject matter, ESL students also learn whole new approach to learning itself.” Ilona Leki
  • “The nail that sticks up gets hammered down.” Japanese proverb
cultural issues
Cultural Issues
  • Arranged Marriages
  • Dating
  • Parental discipline
  • Gender roles
cambodian americans p 1
Cambodian Americans (p. 1)
  • Children of the River by
  • Linda Crew
  • Biblio: Delacorte, 1990. 213 pp. $14.95
  • ISBN: 0-385-2926-8
  • ALAN Date: Spring 1991
  • Genre: Contemporary Fiction
  • Theme: Social Issues
  • Grade: High School
  • Sundara was thirteen when she fled the Khmer Rouge army with her aunt's family. Now seventeen, she struggles to adjust to her new life in Oregon: the never-ending work, uncertainty at the Fate of her own family in Cambodia, the clash of her home/community and school/community cultures. Traditional students will gain an understanding of the immigrant experience by reading this very moving story. At the same time, they'll see themselves from a new perspective; through Sundara's eyes common aspects of American life appear strange, humorous, or shocking. Immigrant adolescents, on the other hand, will identify with Sundara's courageous attempts to cope with new surroundings and situations.
  • At a time when young adult fiction with characters from multicultural backgrounds is badly needed, Children of the River will be a welcome addition to any high school library. It would make excellent independent or group reading, especially for females.
  • Review: Bonnie Ericson, California State University, Northridge for the ALAN REVIEW
korean americans p 2
Korean Americans (p. 2)
  • Finding My Voice
  • by Marie G. Lee
  • Reading level: Ages 9-12
  • Paperback Reprint edition (September 1994)
  • Laureleaf; ISBN: 0440218969
  • Editorial Reviews
  • From Horn Book In the small Minnesota town of Arkin, Ellen Sung is the only Asian student in her high school. Pressured by her parents' expectations that she attend Harvard, as does her high-achieving sister, Ellen struggles to assert her own identity. Finding the balance between her studies, the gymnastics team, parties, and dating is made more painful by the racism Ellen confronts at school. One of few young adult books about a Korean American, this story reflects a resonating experience of adolescence that is very accessible to readers.
japanese americans
Japanese Americans
  • Under the Blood-Red Sun
  • by Graham Salisbury
  • Reading level: Ages 9-12
  • Paperback - 246 pages Reprint edition (December 1995)
  • Yearling Books; ISBN: 0440411394
  • Editorial Reviews
  • From Booklist Gr. 5-9. Salisbury captures the dilemma of the Japanese who lived in Hawaii during World War II through the narrator, Tomi, born in Hawaii, and his Japanese parents, who had escaped the poverty of Japan, only to find themselves enmeshed in a war they are unprepared to fight. As tensions between Japan and the U.S. mount, eighth-grader Tomi finds himself more and more the target of his classmates' and neighbors' suspicions. Well aware of the increasing tension between native islanders and Japanese immigrants, Tomi desperately tries to tone down his grandfather's displays of nationalistic and family pride, a job the boy finds distasteful (he, too, loves the stories of his ancestors), yet horrifyingly necessary. Neither his grandfather nor the rest of the family can ignore the seriousness of the situation after the Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor. On a baseball field when the first planes fly over, Tomi and his best friend, Billy, climb a nearby tree to escape the strafing and to see what is happening. Salisbury spares few details--the fear, the horror, the sounds, the smells all envelop the reader as they do the characters. And so do the grief and shame. The Japanese embarrassment is palatable, and, of course, life is never the same again. Tomi's father is eventually deported to a U.S. prison camp; his mother loses her job; and his little sister is so traumatized that she refuses to leave the house. The action-packed novel focuses on the Japanese American perspective during World War II; yet, there are few real villains here. The author subtly reveals the natural suspicions of the Americans and the equally natural bewilderment of the Japanese immigrants when they suddenly become the personification of the enemy. It is a tribute to the writer's craft that, though there are no easy answers in the story, there is empathy for both cultures.
chinese american p 5
Chinese American (p. 5)
  • Dragonwings
  • by Laurence Yep
  • Reading level: Ages 9-12
  • Paperback - 248 pages (September 1989)
  • HarperTrophy; ISBN: 0064400859
  • A Newbery Honor Book, 1976. "Moon Shadow's father works in the family laundry, but he is also a maker of fantastic kites & his dream is to build & fly an airplane. The pursuit of this dream unifies the story, which is enriched by Chinese folklore, details of family relationships, & problems of discrimination...An unusual historical novel, unique in its perspective of the Chinese in America & its portrayal of early 20th-century San Francisco."--School Library Journal.
  • A Chinese immigrant and his son build a flying machine in "an unusual historical novel, unique in its perspective of the Chinese in America and its portrayal of early 20th century San Francisco, including the Earthquake, from an immigrant's viewpoint."--"School Library Journal." 1976 Newbery Honor Book; ALA Notable
  • Children's Books of 1971-1975; 1976 "Boston Globe/Horn Book" Award Honor Book; "New York Times" Outstanding Children's Books 1975; "School Library Journal" Best of the Best 1966-1978.
mexican americans p 6
Mexican Americans (p. 6)
  • Baseball in April and Other Stories
  • by Gary Soto
  • Reading level: Ages 9-12
  • Paperback - 111 pages 10th edition (April 2000)
  • Harcourt Brace; ISBN: 0152025677
  • Editorial Reviews
  • Los Angeles Times Book Review [Soto's] sensitivity to young people's concerns and his ability to portray the world as it is perceived by children is nothing less than remarkable. --This text refers to the Hardcover edition.
  • The Boston Globe A fine collection of stories that offers a different cultural perspective about feelings common to all teenagers. Soto writes well and with tremendous insight into the process of growing up.
puerto rican americans p 7
Puerto Rican Americans (p. 7)
  • Going Home
  • by Nicholasa Mohr
  • Reading level: Ages 9-12
  • Paperback - 192 pages Reprint edition (September 1999)
  • Puffin; ISBN: 0141306440
  • Editorial Reviews
  • Synopsis -- Feeling like an outsider when she visits her relatives in Puerto Rico for the first time, eleven-year-old Felita tries to come to terms with the heritage she always took for granted. --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.
  • From the Publisher -- Felita's whole life seems to change the year that she turns twelve. Her mother begins to insist that her brothers go with her everywhere, and she's not allowed to hang out like she did last year. Nothing about growing up in a strict Hispanic household seems fair. Then Felita learns that one of her dreams will come true--she'll be spending the summer in Puerto Rico with her uncle Jorge. Even though she'll miss her family and her friends--especially Vinny--Felita knows she'll be happy.
cultural awareness p 8
Cultural Awareness (p. 8)
  • The Chosen
  • by Chaim Potok
  • Paperback - 271 pages Reissue edition (July 1995)
  • Fawcett Books; ISBN: 0449213447
  • THE WALL STREET JOURNAL -- It is the now-classic story of two fathers and two sons and the pressures on all of them to pursue the religion they share in the way that is best suited to each. And as the boys grow into young men, they discover in the other a lost spiritual brother, and a link to an unexplored world that neither had ever considered before. In effect, they exchange places, and find the peace that neither will ever retreat from again....
cultural awareness p 815
Cultural Awareness (p. 8)
  • My Name Is Asher Lev
  • by Chaim Potok
  • Paperback - 369 pages Reissue edition (August 1996)
  • Ballantine Books (Trd Pap); ISBN: 0449911683
  • Editorial Reviews
  • Book Description "Memorable...A book profound in its vision of humanity, of religion, and of art."
  • THE WALL STREET JOURNAL -- Here is the original, deeply moving story of Asher Lev, the religious boy with an overwhelming need to draw, to paint, to render the world he knows and the pain he feels, on canvas for everyone to see. A loner, Asher has an extroardinary God-given gift that possesses a spirit all its own. It is this force that must learn to master without shaming his people or relinquishing any part of his deeply felt Judaism. It will not be easy for him, but he knows, too, that even if it is impossible, it must be done....
  • "A novel of finely articulated tragic power...Little short of a work of genius."-- THE NEW YORK TIMES
immigrants stories
Immigrants’ Stories
  • New Kids on the Block: Oral Histories of Immigrant Teens by Janet Bode
  • Biblio: Franklin Watts, 1990. 126 pp. $12.90
  • ISBN: 0-531-10794-9
  • ALAN Date: Spring 1991
  • Genre: Nonfiction
  • Theme: Race/Ethnicity/Social Issues
  • Grade: High School
  • Teen immigrants from a myriad of countries help to make our classrooms places rich in culture and individual stories. Janet Bode presents oral histories of eleven teens whose families have come to America, often under harrowing circumstances, to claim their piece of the dream. Whether it's Von's story of his flight from Vietnam or Amitabh's story of leaving India, these adolescents share concerns about leaving homeland and loved ones, feeling alone in a country of strangers, wanting to fit in but not wanting to give up a cultural heritage, and their dreams of success coupled with the realities of hard work. The teen stories here speak to all of us about courage, freedom, and acceptance, but youngsters aren't likely to gravitate to this book on their own. Booktalk this one along with Ashahranner's fine Into a Strange Land: Unaccompanied Refugee Youth in America.
  • Review: Richard F. Abrahamson, University of Houston for the ALAN REVIEW
immigrants stories p 10
Immigrants’ Stories (p. 10)
  • Journey of the Sparrows by
  • Fran Leeper Buss with Daisy Cubias
  • Biblio: Lodestar, 1991. 155 pp. $14.95
  • ISBN: 0-525-67362-8
  • ALAN Date: Spring 1992
  • Genre: Contemporary Fiction
  • Theme: Identity/Self, Social Issues
  • Grade: High School
  • Maria, her pregnant sister Julia, and her frail brother Oscar barely escape the political upheaval in El Salvador with their lives. They flee to Mexico, and from there are transported to Chicago camouflaged as produce sealed in a flimsy crate. Once they arrive in the United States, their situation improves by only small degrees. As an undocumented worker Maria is at the mercy of unscrupulous hirings; as a stranger in an unfamiliar land, she is lonesome, afraid, and homesick; and as both the emotional and financial support of her small family Maria is burdened with the immediate care of her siblings as well as with the well-being of her mother and sister who wait in Mexico to be smuggled north. Despite her predicament, Maria's story is one of quiet triumph, not only of what one young girl can endure entering and living in this country, but also of what she can establish here.
  • Review: Betty Carter, Texas Woman's University for the ALAN REVIEW
immigrants stories p 12
Immigrants’ Stories (p. 12)
  • Rising Voices: Writings of Young Native Americans by
  • Arlene B. Hirschfelder and Beverly R. Singer (eds.)
  • Biblio: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1992. 115 pp. $12.35
  • ISBN: 0-684-13207-1
  • ALAN Date: Winter 1993
  • Genre: Poetry
  • Theme: Race/Ethnicity, Social Issues
  • Grade: Middle / High School
  • The book is a collection of short essays and poems written by young Native Americans during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Simply, directly, eloquently, in lyrical honesty, without literary pretense, they open their hearts, minds, and souls. They speak of identity, family, homelands, nature, ritual, education, and the harsh realities of living in a world within a world. Their passions run deep. The non-Native American has to be moved by their innocence, their inner strength, their struggle—and ashamed of their treatment. Well documented, Rising Voices is an excellent resource for teachers interested in pursuing Native American studies in depth. Quite simply, it is a must book for helping students inform themselves of the heart and soul of the American Indian. What better way than through their own young voices? There is something here for all readers.
  • Review: Mike Angelotti, University of Oklahoma for the ALAN REVIEW
reference works p 12
Reference Works (p. 12)
  • Day , Frances Ann. Multicultural Voices in Contemporary Literature: A Resource for Teachers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1994 . 0-435-08826-2 / 1994 / 244pp / Paper / $25.00
  • Frances Ann Day presents ideas for bringing students and authors together in a way that promotes stimulating reading, imaginative writing, and cultural sensitivity. Her book, a true celebration of the lives and works of thirty-nine inspiring authors and illustrators from twenty different cultures, nurtures students' responses to literature. Educators and students alike are encouraged to learn more about the multiplicity of beliefs, experiences, lifestyles, and communities within each cultural group.
references p 13
References (p. 13)
  • *Miller-Lachmann, Lyn. Our Family, Our Friends, Our World: An annotated Guide to Significant Multicultural Books for Children and Teenagers. Bowker, 1992. 0-8352-3025-2
  • Editorial Reviews From Book News, Inc. , June 1, 1992 A comprehensive, global guide to 1,038 of the best fiction and nonfiction books focusing on the cultures, identities, and histories of minority groups within the US and Canada, as well as native cultures in Asia, Central America, Africa, and others. Each chapter features an introduction, a map of the region highlighted, and an annotated list of books for preschool to grade 12 students. Three appendixes include professional sources, a series list, and a publishers directory. Indexed by author, title/series, and subject. Annotation copyright Book News, Inc. Portland, Or.