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TRAINING THE TRAINER. 2008. CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC. 1. Defining Education and Training. Education. Education may be thought of as the presentation of general information that may or may not be used by the learner.

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Training the trainer l.jpg

TRAINING THE TRAINER

2008

CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC



Education l.jpg
Education

  • Education may be thought of as the presentation of general information that may or may not be used by the learner.

  • “Ed-u-cer-e” (ey-doo-ker-ey) Latin…that which leads out of ignorance

    • Anything that affects our knowledge, skills, and attitudes (SKA's)


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Education

  • The “why” in safety educates about the natural and system consequences of behavior

  • Primarily increases knowledge and attitudes

  • A process through which learners gain new understanding, acquire new skills, or change their attitudes or behaviors. 


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Training

  • Training on the other hand, is the development and delivery of information that people will actually use.

    • One method of education

    • The “how” in safety

    • Primarily increases knowledge and skills


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Training

  • A specialized form of education that focuses on developing or improving skills - the focus is on performance. 


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Training

  • Training and Development - Focus: identifying, assessing and, through planned learning, helping develop the key competencies (knowledge, skill, attitudes - SKA's) that enable individuals to perform current or future jobs.

Skills Knowledge Attitude

Education Training


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Training

What training can do

  • Training is essential to every organization’s safety and health program.

  • The time and effort it takes to train workers is an investment that pays off in fewer accidents.

  • Effective training also helps inexperienced workers, who tend to have higher injury rates than experienced workers.


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Training

What training can’t do

  • Training isn’t likely to help if people don’t understand it, if they are unmotivated, or if they have poor work attitudes.

  • Finally, no amount of training is likely to reduce risk unless it is part of a sound health and safety program.



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Definitions

  • Acertifiedperson has successfully completed specialized training and that the training has been certified in writing by a professional organization.

  • An authorizedperson is permitted by an organization to be in a regulated area or assigned by the organization to perform a specific task or to be in a specific location.


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Definitions

  • Adesignatedperson has received extensive training in a particular task and is assigned by the organization to perform that task in specific operations.

  • A competent personis someone who has broad knowledge of worksite safety issues, is capable of identifying existing and predictable worksite hazards, and has management approval to control the hazards.


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Definitions

  • A qualified person is someone who, through training and professional experience, has demonstrated the ability to resolve problems relating to a specific task or process


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Goals and Objectives Reflect the Level of Training

  • Level One Training: We measure student reaction to content and presentation of training. If it’s just for fun…it’s Level One

    • General/Specific information and instruction

    • Knowledge and skills are not measured at the end of training

    • Write goals for students. Instructional objectives are not required


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Goals and Objectives Reflect the Level of Training

  • All you have to do is attend

  • Measurement focuses on student's reaction to the training session rather than learning

  • Measurement tools include - "smile sheet" evaluation forms

  • Sample goal:Be aware that personal flotation devices are used


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Goals and Objectives Reflect the Level of Training

  • Level Two Training: We measure knowledge and skills immediately after training. If it’s a “how to,” it Level Two

    • Describes general/specific policies, procedures, practices

    • Write goals and operational learning objectives for students

    • Knowledge and skills are measured immediately after training


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Goals and Objectives Reflect the Level of Training

  • You must "pass a test" to get signed off certificate

  • Measurement tools - oral/written exam, skill demonstration

  • This level is required for most safety training!

  • Sample objective: Trainees can now describe reasons for and how to wear personal flotation devices


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Tie Training to Natural and System Consequences

  • Natural consequences occur automatically in response to our behaviors/actions. We are punished or rewarded by something for what we do. If we fall down, two consequences naturally occur; we either get hurt or we don't. In safety, natural consequences refer to hurt or health as outcomes.


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Tie Training to Natural and System Consequences

  • System consequences are possible organizational responses to our behaviour/actions. We are punished or rewarded by someone forwhat we do. Various consequences may occur; someone may administer discipline, apologizes, etc.



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Role of the Trainer

  • Trainers are leaders. They are not necessarily expected to be experts on all aspects of the subject being presented. They are not responsible for each person’s learning: individuals are responsible for their own learning and their own behaviour.

  • Safety trainers are primarily change agents.


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Role of the Trainer

  • Trainers perform many roles including:

    • Leader. Everyone is always both a teacher and learner.

    • Evaluator. Identifying the extent of the impact of a safety training program. 

    • Group Facilitator. Managing group discussion and group process.  


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Role of the Trainer

  • Individual Development Counselor. Helping an employee assess personal safety competencies, values, and goals. 

  • Instructional Writer. Preparing written learning and instructional materials.

  • Instructor. Presenting safety information and directing structured learning experiences. 


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Role of the Trainer

  • Program Manager. Planning, organizing, staffing, controlling safety training and development operations/projects. 

  • Marketer. Selling safety training and development viewpoints, programs, and services. 

  • Media Specialist. Producing audio-visual materials for safety training. 


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Role of the Trainer

  • Needs Analyst. Defining gaps between ideal and actual safety performance and specifying the cause of the gaps. 

  • Program Administrator. Ensuring that the facilities, equipment, materials, participants are present and that program logistics run smoothly. 


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Role of the Trainer

  • Program Designer. Preparing objectives, defining content, and selecting and sequencing activities for a specific safety training. 

  • Strategist. Developing long-range plans for safety training and development.  

  • Task Analyst. Identifying safety-related activities to attain specific results. 


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Role of the Trainer

  • Theoretician. Developing and testing theories of learning, training, and development. 

  • Transfer Agent. Helping individuals apply new safety-related learning to their work.


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Trainer Qualifications

Trainers shall:

  • have an appropriate level of technical knowledge, skills, or abilities in the subjects they teach.

  • be competent in delivery techniques and methods appropriate to adult learning.


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Trainer Qualifications

Trainers shall:

  • maintain their training skills by participating in continuing education, development programs, or experience related to their subject matter expertise & delivery skills.

  • apply adult learning principles appropriate to the target audience and the learning objectives.


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Trainer as Leader and Classroom Manager

  • The trainer has a responsibility for providing the student with an opportunity to learn.

  • In this context, the trainer looks at everything that may help or hinder the learning process in the student.


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Trainer as Leader and Classroom Manager

  • For example, if the trainer puts a lot of effort into planning and designing a training program then adapts a laissez faire attitude in the classroom, the results may be less than desirable.

  • Thus, leadership and classroom management become as important as setting objectives, deciding on content, choosing methods, etc.


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Trainer as Leader and Classroom Manager

  • The main point to remember is that a group of students is like any other group.

  • It needs challenge and leadership to perform at its best.

  • Following is a brief checklist that trainers can use to be sure they are providing good classroom leadership:


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Trainer as Leader and Classroom Manager

1. Be sure your lessons are well planned.

2. Have good knowledge of the subject being taught.

3. Build your lessons on what the students already know about the subject.

4. Let the students know what you expect of them.


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Trainer as Leader and Classroom Manager

5. Motivate the students by telling them why they need the information being presented.

6. Stimulate interest by using a variety of methods and materials wherever possible.

7. Encourage student questions and discussion.

8. Provide students with feedback and evaluation on how they are doing.


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Trainer as Leader and Classroom Manager

9. Maintain a good appearance.

10. Show enthusiasm for teaching and for the subject matter.



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Developing the Training Program

  • A "program" contains a written plan, policies, processes, procedures, rules, forms, reports, and possibly other documents.

  • In order to meet the continuing need for highly trained staff, it's important to develop a training program that includes a written plan for training new-hire and current volunteers.


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Developing the Training Program

  • The purpose of a training plan is to provide trainers with clearly written policy and guidelines for implementing an effective education and training program for employees.


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Developing the Training Program

  • The plan should contain elements that are informative and directive.

    • It should inform everyone about the safety training mission, policies, procedures

    • It should also clearly state who is responsible for carrying out the mission, policies and procedures



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Determining if Training is Needed

The first step in the training process is a basic one: to determine if a problem can be solved by training.


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Determining if Training is Needed

  • Whenever people are not performing their jobs properly, it is often assumed that training will bring them up to standard.

  • However, it is possible that other actions (such as hazard abatement) would enable employees to perform their jobs properly.


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Determining if Training is Needed

Problems that can be addressed effectively by training include:

  • those that arise from lack of knowledge of a work process

  • unfamiliarity with equipment, or

  • incorrect execution of a task


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Determining if Training is Needed

Training is less effective (but still can be used) for problems arising from:

  • an individual’s lack of motivation, or

  • lack of attention to the job

    Whatever its purpose, training is most effective when designed in relation to the goals of the organization’s health and safety program.


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Determining if Training is Needed

Poor performance may not be the result of a training deficiency


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Determining if Training is Needed

Are training or non-training interventions the solution to poor safety performance in the workplace?

Describe the

Safety Performance

Discrepancy

(The Gap)

Is

There

a deficiency in

knowledge,

ability or

skill?

Individual does know how to accomplish the task safely.

No

Individual does not know how to accomplish the task safely.

Training

Options

Yes

Has the

individual

performed task

before?

Is the task

accomplished

often?

Yes

Yes

No

No

Conduct

Formal safety

training

Provide

feedback

Non-training

Options

Conduct

practice


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Non-training

Options

Are

resources

adequate

Is safety enforced?

Is leadership adequate?

Are resources inadequate?

Is supervision adequate?

No

No

No

No

Improve supervisor oversight

Improve

safety enforcement

Improve

safety

leadership

Provide

resources

Determining if Training is Needed



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Identifying Training Needs

How Training Needs Arise

  • There are a number of triggers that may generate a training need.

  • If any of these are likely to affect the organization in the future or have in the near past, one or more individuals may need training.


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Identifying Training Needs

Potential Triggers

  • Internal promotions or transfers

  • Taking on new staff

  • New procedures or systems

  • New standards

  • New relationships

  • Change of curriculum

  • Retirements

  • Increased work load

  • Management changes

  • Changed ownership


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Identifying Training Needs

Negative Indicators

  • Individual’s concerns

  • Incident/Accident

  • Increasing grievance or discipline

  • High staff turnover

  • Poor quality ratings

  • High or increasing rates of sickness or absence

  • Disputes

  • Low levels of motivation

  • Cases of harassment

  • Missed deadlines


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Identifying Training Needs

External Influences

  • New legislation

  • Changes to legislation

  • Professional body regulations and requirements

  • Quality Assurance codes of practice

  • Funding requirements


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How to Get the Information You Need

  • Volunteers themselves can provide valuable information on the training they need.

  • Safety and health hazards can be identified through volunteers’ responses to such questions as whether anything about the operation frightens them, if they have had any near-miss incidents, if they feel they are taking risks, or if they believe that their jobs involve hazardous operations.


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How to Get the Information You Need

To get information about the audience

  • Observe volunteers doing work

  • Interview and/or survey volunteers

  • Review the personnel records

  • Determine demographics (age, gender, race)

  • Determine experience level

  • Determine learning styles


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How to Get the Information You Need

  • Determine aptitudes, knowledge

  • Determine attitudes toward subject being taught


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How to Get the Information You Need

To get information about the tasks

  • Observe experts doing the task

  • Interview experts about the task

  • Review job descriptions, policy statements, reports


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How to Get the Information You Need

Once the kind of training that is needed has been determined, it is equally important to determine what kind of training is not needed.

Individuals should be made aware of all the steps involved in a task or procedure, but training should focus on those steps on which improved performance is needed.

This avoids unnecessary training and tailors the training to meet the needs of the individuals.



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Developing Goals and Objectives

  • Establish clear-cut, competency-based learning objectives that describe what the learner will be able to do at the end of the training presentation.


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Developing Goals and Objectives

What is a goal?

  • A goal is nothing more than a wish. For instance, a training goal might state, "Train our new volunteers in correct use of personal protective equipment." In this course we focus on getting beyond goals.


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Developing Goals and Objectives

What is a learning objective?

  • A learning objective is a statement describing a learning outcome, rather than a learning process or procedure.

  • It describes results, rather than the means of achieving those results.


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Developing Goals and Objectives

Why do we need to write objectives?

  • They help the instructor design and select instructional content and procedures

  • They help the instructor evaluate or assess the success of instruction


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Developing Goals and Objectives

What are the five criteria for an effective learning objective?

  • “(1) At the end of the training session, (2) with all necessary personal protective equipment and without help, (3) you will (4) perform (5) all of the steps of dressing for a mission without error.“


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Developing Goals and Objectives

  • The objective states a time limit. "At the end of the training session"

  • The objective specifies the conditions of performance. "without help"

  • The objective identifies the performer(s). "you"

  • The objective contains one or more action verbs.“perform"

  • The objective specifies an acceptable standard of performance."all steps, without error“


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Action Verbs to Use in Writing Objectives

  • Action verbs describe observable/measurable behaviours.

  • Use action verbs when writing objectives for Level Two training.

  • Use concrete vs abstract verbs. For instance, if you use the verb, “demonstrate,” in an objective, you’ll have to figure out how the student will demonstrate. The action verb that answers that question is the one you want to use.


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Action Verbs

Comprehension: Interpret information in one's own words

classify recognize

describe report

discuss restate

explain review

express select

identify sort

indicate tell

locate translate


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Action Verbs

Knowledge: Recall information . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .

arrange name

define order

duplicate list

label match

relate recall

repeat reproduce


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Action Verbs

Application: Use knowledge in a new situation

apply operate

choose prepare

practice dramatize

schedule employ 

sketch illustrate 

solve interpret 

use


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Action Verbs

Analysis: Break down knowledge into parts and show relationships among parts

analyze appraise test

discriminate calculate

distinguish categorize

examine compare

experiment contrast

inventory criticize

question diagram


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Action Verbs

Synthesis: Bring together parts of knowledge to form a whole and build relationships for new situations

arrange manage design

assemble organize write

collect formulate plan

compose prepare set up

construct propose

create synthesize


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Action Verbs

Evaluation: Make judgments on basis of given criteria

appraise evaluate rate

argue judge score

assess predict select

attack support value

choose defend

compare estimate


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Action Verbs

Attitude: Behaviour that demonstrates underlying thoughts and feelings 

acclaims cooperates joins agrees volunteers disagrees

defends offers argues complies with praises avoids

shares assumes disputes

attempts engages in resists challenges participates in helps


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To Develop Objectives, Work Backwards

  • The trainer should develop the criterion or performance test first, then write the objectives.

  • The following approach outlines this simplified procedure for writing training objectives.


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To Develop Objectives, Work Backwards

Step 1: Complete a simulated task analysis

  • Picture in your mind the job environment, materials, and events so you have an understanding of the job to be performed. (An actual task analysis would be better if it could be done.)


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To Develop Objectives, Work Backwards

Step 2: Identify performance requirements

  • Identify the specific things the trainee is required to do in order to perform the job in question.

  • These specific "performance items" should be written down in preparation for developing the criterion test.


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To Develop Objectives, Work Backwards

Step 3: Develop a criterion test

  • The criterion test should have a direct relationship to the performance requirements of the job. It should also require the actual behavior that we want the learners to be able to perform. If we want them to be able to explain, the criterion test item should ask for an explanation. For instance: If we want them to be able to properly use a respirator, the test should tell them to inspect it, and so on.


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To Develop Objectives, Work Backwards

  • In developing a criterion test there are three areas of concern:

    1. What questions do we want the trainee to be able to answer, and what are the minimum critical components of an acceptable answer?

    2. What problems do we want the trainee to be able to solve, and what are the critical components of an acceptable solution?


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To Develop Objectives, Work Backwards

3. What actions or tasks do we want the trainee to be able to carry out, and what are the critical components of acceptable action?



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Determining Course Content

  • The content is the subject matter of the lesson which is everything the trainee will have to learn in order to achieve a learning objective.

  • Trainers must decide what and how much about a particular area of study they want trainees to learn or know.


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Determining Course Content

  • If the objective is to teach someone to safely drive a vessel, then the course content may be learning to start, undock, manoeuvre, go up on a plane, steer, steer, stop, and dock.

  • It is the step-by-step process of what the trainee must learn if the objective is to be attained.


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Determining Course Content

  • Two important criteria

    • The content must be appropriate. Ideally, each particular topic within the training session should directly support one or more objectives. If it does not, then that part of the content may be perceived as inappropriate, unclear or not well thought out.


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Determining Course Content

  • The content must be useful. It needs to be important, relevant and useful to the trainee.


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Determining Course Content

  • If the objective is to learn how to drive the vessel, all of the following would be useful and appropriate for the student to learn except?

    • a. The related parameters affecting vessel manoeurability

    • b. Overview of the history and development of the rigid hull inflatable

    • c. How to operate the vessel since he or she will be driving the vessel


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Determining Course Content

Candidates shall always wear the minimum flotation gear required by CCGA and unit specific standing orders and small vessel regulations.

Each candidate shall explain the minimum required floatation device for the CCGA crew member. Each crew member shall demonstrate the ability to understand the information on the PFD or life jacket and the requirements of the small vessel regulations. Each candidate shall describe the difference between a PFD and a life jacket.

  • 02.01 Flotation

Evaluation:The candidate shall identify the information on the PFD to determine its approval and suitability. Candidates shall be able to perform the skills consistently over time. The course shall provide lots of opportunities to test this.


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Sequencing Course Content

  • The sequencing of training content and material is almost as important as the content itself.

  • Trainers should be concerned about the logical sequencing of training, because if the lesson does not unfold in a building, reinforcing way, learning may be less effective.


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Sequencing Course Content

  • As an example, a trainer would not have a trainee jump into a hazardous task without first learning some basic information covering related hazards and necessary steps to operate safely.


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Sequencing Course Content

Five “strategies” to consider in sequencing safety training:

1. Information should flow from the general to the specific - Move gradually to the many and varied specific on-the-job applications of the concepts discussed.


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Sequencing Course Content

2. Information should develop from the simple to the complex - The design should begin with a fairly simple overview of the subject to be learned.

3. Training concepts should move from theory to practical application.

4. Training may transition from known to unknown concepts, ideas, or processes.


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Sequencing Course Content

5. For on-the-job training, sequence the content so that it corresponds to the order in which the tasks are actually performed.


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On the Job Training

  • Step 1. Introduction. Tell the trainee what you’re going to train. Emphasize the importance of the procedure to the success of the mission. Invite questions. Emphasize natural and system consequences.


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On the Job Training

  • Step 2. Trainer describes. The trainer first explains and then demonstrates the relevant procedures associated with the task. In this step the trainee becomes familiar with each work practice and why it is important.

    • Trainer:EXPLAINS a step and then PERFORMS a step.

    • Trainee:OBSERVESeach stepandQUESTIONS the trainer.


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On the Job Training

  • Step 3. Trainer ask and show. The trainee explains the procedure to the trainer, while the trainer does it, allowing the trainer to discover whether there were any misunderstandings in Step 1. This also protects the trainee because the trainer still performs the procedure. The trainee also responds to the trainer’s questions.


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On the Job Training

  • Step 3.

    • Trainee:EXPLAINSeach stepandRESPONDS to questions.

    • Trainer:PERFORMS each step andQUESTIONS the trainee.


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On the Job Training

  • Step 4. Trainee does it. The trainer has the trainee do it. The trainee carries out the procedure but remains protected because the trainee explains the process before doing it

    • Trainee:EXPLAINS, getsPERMISSIONand thenPERFORMSeach step.

    • Trainer:GivesPERMISSION, OBSERVESeach stepandQUESTIONS the trainee.


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On the Job Training

  • Step 5. Conclusion. The trainer recognizes accomplishment, and reemphasizes the importance of the procedure, with how it fits into the overall process. Tie the training to accountability.

  • Step 6. Document. Effective documentation is more than an attendance sheet. Make sure you sign off achievement of adequate knowledge and skills.


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On the Job Training

Course Content Development Worksheet

This worksheet helps determine everything the learner needs to know and do to meet this objective.

What will learners need to know and have to do to meet the objective?

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________


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On the Job Training

Presentation Sequence: Determine the sequence strategy you will use (i.e. known to unknown). List the sequence of training topics to be discussed.

Sequence strategy: _______________________________________________

1 ________________________________________________________________

2 ________________________________________________________________

3 ________________________________________________________________

4 ________________________________________________________________



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Developing Learning Activities

  • Two factors will help determine the type of learning activity to use in training.

    1. The kind of skills or knowledge to be learned. Is the learning oriented toward physical skills (such as the use of special equipment) or toward mental processes and attitudes?


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Developing Learning Activities

2. The training resources available to the organization. Can the station manage with its own resources (trained its own personnel to train), or is an outside firm required?


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Developing Learning Activities

  • Such factors will influence the type of learning activity designed by organization.

  • The training activity can be group-oriented, with lectures, role play, and demonstrations or designed for the trainees with self-paced instruction.


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Developing Learning Activities

  • It's important to consider appropriate learning activities because:

    • They provide an effective means for the trainee to learn specific information.

    • They keep the trainee interested and involved in the learning process.


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Developing Learning Activities

  • Six important questions to ask about the training methods used include:

    1. Will the activity effectively help the learner accomplish the learning objective?

    2. Does the activity work for the number of trainees participating?

    3. Does the activity take into account any special characteristics of the group?


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Developing Learning Activities

4. Will the activity work at the training location?

5. Will there be enough classroom time to complete the activity?

6. Will the employer be able to provide the resources to support the activity?


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What Motivates Adult Learners?

  • Adults, by definition, are responsible people who seek to build their self-esteem through practical learning activities in which their competency is enhanced.

  • Adults have a strong need to be able to successfully apply what they learn to the job.

  • If they think training is a waste of their time, they are not likely to be motivated to learn.


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What Motivates Adult Learners?

I really want to do this!

  • Adult learners are motivated in a training session on four integrated and increasingly more effective levels:

    • Success. The learner believes that he or she has the ability to successfully complete the training. "Hey, I can do this!“


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What Motivates Adult Learners?

  • Volition.Along with a feeling of success, the trainee has a sense of choice or willingness to learn. This is the most critical level of motivation for adult learning. "I can do it my way."


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What Motivates Adult Learners?

  • Value. In addition to success and volition, the trainee thinks the training is important. The trainee may not particularly enjoy the material, but they take it seriously. "I want to do this because it's important."


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What Motivates Adult Learners?

  • Enjoyment.Finally, the trainee not only feels confident about completing the training, they are willing and they believe it's important, they also have fun learning. "I like doing this!"


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What is My Learning Style?

Check yes or no beside each of the following statements to discover how you generally learn. Be honest and think in terms of most of the time, not exceptions.

YES NO

1. I learn a lot from listening to instructors. ______ ______

2. I figure things out best by trial and error. ______ ______

3. Books are easy for me to learn from. ______ ______

4. Give me a map and I can find my way. ______ ______

5. I like to have directions explained to me verbally. ______ ______

6. I can assemble something without looking at ______ ______

instructions.


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What is My Learning Style?

YES NO

7. I learn a lot from discussions. ______ ______

8. I’d rather watch an expert first and then try a ______ ______

new skill.

9. I like to take things apart to see how they work. ______ ______

10. I can remember most of what is said without ______ ______

taking notes.

11. My best classes involve activities and movement. ______ ______

12. Diagrams and drawings help me understand ______ ______

new concepts.


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What is My Learning Style?

How to interpret the results

This short quiz cannot diagnose accurately how you learn, it can give you insight into how you see yourself and the learning process.

You learn by hearing. You are a strong auditory learner if you answered “yes” to questions 1, 5, 7 and 10.

You learn by seeing. You are a strong visual learner if you answered “yes” to questions 3, 4, 8 and 12.

You learn by doing. You are a strong kinesthetic learner if you answered “yes” to questions 2, 6, 9 and 11.

How many hearers, seers, and doers are there?


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What Activities Work for You?

  • There are more than a hundred different methods of helping others learn. Here are but a few, but probably the most common, popular, and easiest to use.


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What Activities Work for You?

  • Indicate the training activity that you like the most and least for you as a learner.

    ___1. Case study: Actual or hypothetical situation.

    ___2. Lecture: Oral presentation of material, usually from prepared notes and visual aids.

    ___3. Role play: Participants improvise behavior of assigned fictitious roles.

    ___4. Small Group: Participants divide into sub-groups for discussion or exercise.


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What Activities Work for You?

___5. Stories: Actual or mythical examples of course content in action.

___ 6. Class exercise: Various tasks related to specific course content.

___ 7. Class discussion: Facilitated opportunity for participants to comment.

___ 8. Brainstorm: Participants generate ideas on a problem situation.

___ 9. Other:____________________________



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Developing Training Aids

  • Training aids are devices which can be used to clearly, concisely and quickly record and deliver training. 

  • What are some advantages of using audio/ visual aids in training?


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The Pros and Cons of Visual Aids

The Pros The Cons

Videotapes __________________ __________________________

35mm slides __________________ __________________________

Computer slides __________________ __________________________

Overheads __________________ __________________________

Handouts __________________ __________________________

Charts/Boards __________________ __________________________

Job aids/Props __________________ __________________________


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Developing Training Aids

Three days after an event, people retain 10% of what they heard from an oral presentation, 35% from a visual presentation, and 65% from a visual and oral presentation.



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Writing Lesson Plans

  • Whether you train a subject once, or often, it's important that you develop a lesson plan.

  • It's a valuable planning tool that helps you make sure trainees receive all the information they need in order to learn, and it enables you to conduct your training in an organized, professional manner.


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Writing Lesson Plans

  • The lesson plan is a written record detailing how you intend to actually conduct the training course.

  • It includes the learning objective, training content, sequencing, and the training methods and training aids you will use in teaching the content.


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Writing Lesson Plans

Your training plan serves different purposes at different points in time, as shown below.

1. During lesson development it's a planning tool for helping you plan the details of the lesson.

2. Before conducting the lesson it is serves as a preparation guide for rehearsing the lesson.


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Writing Lesson Plans

3. While presenting the lesson it's a roadmap for you to follow.

4. After the lesson it's a document that you (or others) can improve or use as is to present the lesson again.


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Outline of a Typical Training Session

  • Opening Segment - Tell them what you're going to tell them! (___ min)

    • Introduce.

      • Participants and instructor

      • Reason for the course - motivation

      • Goals and Objectives

      • Facilities and Ground rules

    • Warm-up

      • Ice breaker


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Outline of a Typical Training Session

  • Each module contains - Tell them! (_ min.)

    • Introduction - overview goal/objective (Motivator, attention-getter)

    • Present information

    • Demonstrate application of information

    • Clarification - any questions?

    • Module review quiz

    • Review and Bridge - transition to next module or final segment.


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Outline of a Typical Training Session

  • Final Segment - Tell them what you've told them! (___ min.)

    • Overall Summary

    • Ask for final questions

    • Final Test

    • Review test

    • Thanks!



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Develop Evaluation Methods

Level 1 Evaluation: Measures learner reaction

  • This first level of evaluation gets feedback from participants about what they thought and felt about various aspects of the program.

  • Were the trainees pleased and satisfied?


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Develop Evaluation Methods

  • Process Evaluation- trainees describe their reaction to the presentation of the instructor, the quality of the materials, the understandability of the exercises, and so on.


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Develop Evaluation Methods

  • Content Evaluation- trainees describe their reactions to and satisfaction with the specific content of the training. Trainees judge the trainer’s knowledge and how much they believe they learned about each specific topic.

  • Methods:Evaluations, questionnaire immediately after the program. Post-program conversations.


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Develop Evaluation Methods

  • Guidelines for evaluating reaction:

    • Determine what you want to find out

    • Design a form that will quantify reactions

    • Encourage written comments and suggestions

    • Get 100 percent immediate response

    • Get honest responses

    • Develop acceptable standards


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Develop Evaluation Methods

  • Measure reactions against standards, take appropriate action

  • Communicate reactions as appropriate


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Level 2 Evaluation - Measures the Learning

  • This involves measuring the learning that took place during the training session.

  • Evaluation occurs immediately after the training is presented.

  • Quantifying the learning that took place by measuring increased knowledge and improved skills.


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Level 2 Evaluation - Measures the Learning

  • Did the participants learn anything as a result of the training?

  • This level of evaluation is necessary for most safety training that requires the ability to correctly perform a procedure or practice.

  • Proficiency should be evaluated and documented by the use of awritten assessment, and a skill demonstration.

  • Use these guidelines when developing testing methods for your safety training:

    • The evaluation should evaluate individual knowledge and skills

    • The level of minimum achievement should be specified in writing.

    • If a written test is used, a minimum of 25 questions should be used for more complex subjects.

    • If a skills demonstration is used, the tasks chosen and the means to rate successful completion should be fully documented.

    • The content of the written test or of the skill demonstration should be relevant to the objectives of the course.

    • The written test and skill demonstration should be updated as necessary to reflect changes in the curriculum.

  • The proficiency assessment methods, regardless of the approach or combination of approaches used, should be justified, documented and approved by the employer.


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    Level 2 Evaluation - Measures the Learning

    • Use these guidelines when developing testing methods for your safety training:

      • The evaluation should evaluate individual knowledge and skills

      • The level of minimum achievement should be specified in writing.


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    Level 2 Evaluation - Measures the Learning

    • If a written test is used, a minimum of 25 questions should be used for more complex subjects.

    • If a skills demonstration is used, the tasks chosen and the means to rate successful completion should be fully documented.

    • The content of the written test or of the skill demonstration should be relevant to the objectives of the course.


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    Level 2 Evaluation - Measures the Learning

    • The written test and skill demonstration should be updated as necessary to reflect changes in the curriculum.

  • The proficiency assessment methods, regardless of the approach or combination of approaches used, should be justified, documented and approved by the organization.


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    Level 3 Evaluation - Evaluates the Application

    • This level of evaluation measures both the learner and the safety culture.

    • It gauges how well the trainee applied the training in the actual work environment.

    • Evaluation at this level may also indicate the degree to which the safety culture supports the training.

    • It is good policy to help make sure training is effective.


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    Level 3 Evaluation - Evaluates the Application

    Safety culture must support safety training

    • For training to be truly effective, the safety culture must support the training.

    • A supportive safety culture is most immediately demonstrated by the trainee’s immediate supervisor.


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    Level 3 Evaluation - Evaluates the Application

    • There are five coxswain behaviours that affect learner attitudes about safety training:

      1. Preventing. The coxswain does not allow the crewman to use the procedures or practices that have been taught.

      2. Discouraging. The coxswain does not encourage behavioural change. They send implicit messages that they want behaviour to remain the same.


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    Level 3 Evaluation - Evaluates the Application

    3. Neutral. The coxswain does not acknowledge the training received. There is no objection to behavioural change as long as the job gets done on time.

    4. Encouraging.The coxswain acknowledges the training and encourages the crewman to use what they learned.


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    Level 3 Evaluation - Evaluates the Application

    5. Requiring. The coxswain knows what training was received and insists that the learning is transferred to the job. This response is the most supportive and will be necessary most of the time for effective safety training.



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    Conducting the Training

    • With the completion of the lesson plan, you're ready to begin conducting the training.

    • To the extent possible, the training should be presented so that its organization and meaning are clear to the trainees.


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    Conducting the Training

    Motivating learners

    • In order to be motivated to pay attention and learn the material that the trainer is presenting, trainees must be convinced of the importance and relevance of the material.


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    Interesting Introductions

    How to make the introductions interesting during the Presentation:

    • Thank the audience for coming to listen to the presentation

    • Establish your credibility - explain your experience, share your interest in the materials being presented

    • Present the agenda (the main ideas)


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    Interesting Introductions

    • Determine expectations from the audience

    • Discuss the schedule for breaks

    • Give a time frame for your presentation

    • Tell the audience what you hope they will learn by the end of your presentation

    • Do not come across as arrogant and having all the answers. Confess that you probably don’t know all the answers. You don’t need to be the “font of all knowledge.”


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    Interesting Introductions

    • Encourage everyone to participate with their own ideas, opinions, feelings.

    • Once you've gained attention, transition into the body of your presentation


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    Presentation Styles

    • There are as many presentation styles as there are presenters.

    • The key to effective presentation is in being able to adapt your natural presentation style so that it best fits the needs/wants of the audience.

    • Since you will be training adults, let’s take a look at some tips on effective presentation skills.


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    Presentation Styles

    • Tip: Use the categories below to evaluate your trainer and their use of :

      • Voice

      • Pace

      • Position

      • Control

      • Dress

      • Attitude

      • Expertise


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    Asking and Answering Questions

    The two basic types of questions trainers use during a presentation --- open questions and closed questions.

    1. Open questions require an extended response: a discussion of ideas, opinions, feelings. Stimulates thinking, discussion. Usually begins with "what”, "when”, “which”, ”who”, "why”, and "how”.


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    Asking and Answering Questions

    2. Closed questions only a one word "yes" or "no" answer. Closes off discussion. Usually begins with "is," "can," "how many," "does."


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    Listening to Questions

    • Listen to your audience’s questions and comments first before thinking of your response

    • Welcome difficult questions (or at least appear to welcome them!)

    • To build rapport, say, "That’s a good question." or, "I’m glad you asked that."

    • Make direct eye contact with the person


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    Listening to Questions

    • Focus on the person when they are asking the question.

    • Move towards the person.

    • Repeat the question so the rest of the audience can hear it.

    • Ask the person to rephrase the question if you are not clear what is being asked .


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    Answering Questions

    • Respond initially to the person who asked the question

    • Then shift eye contact to the broad audience

    • Answer the question clearly and briefly

    • Hold your ground and don’t back down with hostile questions


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    Answering Questions

    • If you don’t know the answer, say so

    • Conclude by transitioning attention back to the person who asked the question

    • If appropriate, ask, "Did I answer the question for you?" or "Does that help?“


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    Audience Feedback

    Match the Feelings/Thoughts listed on the left with the non-verbal behaviours on the right.

    Feelings/Thoughts Behaviours

    a. Motivated/Likes it ____ Smiling

    b. Bored/Not important ____ Frowning

    c. Confused/Doesn't understand ____ Yawning

    ____ Nodding affirmatively

    ____ Vacant stare

    ____ Scratching head

    ____ Shuffling feet

    ____ Leaning forward

    ____ Direct eye contact

    ____ Leaning back in chair

    ____ Pursing lips

    ____ Looking at clock

    ____ Avoiding eye contact


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    Handling Problem Situations

    • They may be rare, but problem situations, in which learning is inhibited due to the behaviour of one or more of the trainees, may occur.

    • Problem situations have something to do with the level of participation of individual trainees: when trainees participate too much or too little.


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    Handling Problem Situations

    • Too much participation. Trainees may not be able to fully participate in group or class activities when an individual trainee is too vocal. Overly vocal trainees may be merely the result of an enthusiastic interest in the course material.


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    Handling Problem Situations

    • Too little participation. When one trainee is too vocal, others may not feel comfortable participating, and remain silent. Their valuable input may be lost from the group. In addition, the trainer may not be able to accurately assess the degree of learning that's taking place when trainees are silent. On the other hand, silent trainees may just be nervous about expressing themselves in front of others.


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    Handling Problem Situations

    • Problem situations may occur when learner behaviour is perceived by the trainer as inappropriate.

      • Hostility. A trainee may express hostility towards the trainer, the organization, or another trainee. Don’t assume that such behaviour on the part of trainees is a reflection of their hostility toward you or your training.


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    Handling Problem Situations

    What to do when the trainee appears to be overactive or inhibited in some way, there are three important strategies to consider:

    1. Eliminate or reduce the problem behaviour, by resolving the problem to the extent necessary.

    2. Maintain the self-esteem of the trainee causing the disruption.


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    Handling Problem Situations

    3. Avoid further disruptions by making sure that the learning environment is relaxed and conducive to learning.


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    Handling Problem Situations

    • Important strategies for handling problem situations

      • Remain emotionally neutral.

      • Identify possible strategies you or other trainers have used before in the a similar situation.

      • Evaluate alternative strategies against the considerations above.


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    Handling Problem Situations

    • Select the strategy that best satisfies the criteria for the situation.


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    How would you handle this?

    • Scenario 1: Robin dominates the class discussion of proper conduct of search routine procedures and answers all the questions the trainer asks before anyone else in the group has a chance to speak.

    • Scenario 2: Dawn is continually interrupting the trainer's lecture on the elements of personal protective equipment to debate technical details of the subject. Her information is quite accurate. It's obvious that she has a thorough knowledge of the subject and extensive experience managing the program.

    • Scenario 3: Bob is responding to an open question related to mission safety with a lengthy diatribe including "war stories" that have nothing to do with the subject.



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    Coordinating Logistics

    These and other questions are important logistical considerations when planning the training.

    1. Where and when the training will occur?

    2. What will classroom set-up be?

    3. Who must be contacted to coordinate training?


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    Coordinating Logistics

    • What is generally the best time of day to train? Best day(s) of the week?

    • What are some tips to remember about coordinating the training with others?

    • What should you consider when setting up a room for training?



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    Documenting Training

    Make sure your documentation is adequate

    • All training should be entered on the SAR Management System, and will cover:

      • The name of trainee(s) and trainer(s)

      • The date of training

      • A description of the subject(s) being trained - procedures, practices, related policies, rules, etc.


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    Documenting Training

    • A trainer statement that measurement (testing) of knowledge and skills was conducted and that trainees met or exceeded required levels of performance


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    Documenting Training

    Other training outside the Auxiliary may also include:

    • Certification - a place for trainee and trainer signatures

    • A trainee statement of understanding and intent to comply

    • A trainee statement that he/she was provided opportunity to ask questions and practice.


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    Documenting Training

    • A trainer statement that all questions were answered and an opportunity to practice was provided



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    Evaluating the Training Program

    • To make sure that the training program is accomplishing its goals, an evaluation of the training program can be valuable.

    • Safety training should have, as one of its critical components, a method of measuring the effectiveness of the training, itself, and those presenting the training.


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    Evaluating the Training Program

    • Training program management. Training works best when it's designed and implemented as an integrated system rather than a series of unrelated training sessions.


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    Evaluating the Training Program

    • Elements to evaluate include:

      • Responsibility

      • Facilities and equipment

      • Development

      • Delivery

      • Documentation and records


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    Evaluating the Training Program

    • Training process. This should be systematic, and have a needs assessment, objectives, course materials, lesson plans, evaluation strategies, and successful completion criteria. Areas of emphasis include:

      • Training goals

      • Learning environment

      • Learning objectives

      • Training effectiveness


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    Evaluating the Training Program

    • Training results. By evaluating these, it is possible to make improvements to existing plans and gain awareness of the need for new training. Items to evaluate include:

      • Training action-plan

      • Long-term planning

      • Needs assessment

      • Prioritizing

      • Adequate support and funding


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    Eight Ways to Evaluate the Training Program

    The following eight methods should include tests for understanding and acceptance.

    1. Trainees report their own results.

    2. Prepare pre-training and post-training productivity reports.

    3.Supervisory observation.

    4.Usefulness and self-evaluation questionnaire.


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    Eight Ways to Evaluate the Training Program

    5.Manager productivity report.

    6.File unsolicited reports.

    7. Using a new session to evaluate the previous one.

    8. Conduct role plays that require the use of skills learned in a previous session.



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    Improvement of Training

    • There's always room for improvement in any training program.

    • This can apply to the program, or the culture that supports the training.

    • Ultimately, improving training is all about change management.

    • Effective change management is crucial to long term success.


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    Improvement of Training

    We'll take a look at one proven change model that can be applied to safety training.


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    Improvement of Training

    Step 1: Plan – Design the change or test

    • Purpose: Take time to thoroughly plan the proposed change in the training program before it’s implemented.

    • Pinpoint specific conditions, behaviors, results you expect to see as a result of the change.

    • Plan to ensure successful transition (instructors, supervisors) as well as change.


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    Improvement of Training

    Step 2: Do - Carry out the change or test

    • Purpose: Implement the change or test it on a small scale.

    • Educate, train, communicate the change in program to instructors.

    • Keep the change limited in scope to better measure variables.


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    Improvement of Training

    Step 3: Study - Check how the change or test works

    • Purpose: Monitor and evaluate the processes and results against objectives and specifications and report the outcome.

    • Does it work with all trainers?


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    Improvement of Training

    Step 4: Act - Put the change into full operation

    • Purpose: Apply actions to the outcome for necessary improvement. This means reviewing all steps (Plan, Do, Check, Act) and modifying the process to improve it before its next implementation.