TRAINING THE TRAINER. 2008. CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC. 1. Defining Education and Training. Education. Education may be thought of as the presentation of general information that may or may not be used by the learner.
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CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
Skills Knowledge Attitude
What training can do
What training can’t do
1. Be sure your lessons are well planned.
2. Have good knowledge of the subject being taught.
3. Build your lessons on what the students already know about the subject.
4. Let the students know what you expect of them.
5. Motivate the students by telling them why they need the information being presented.
6. Stimulate interest by using a variety of methods and materials wherever possible.
7. Encourage student questions and discussion.
8. Provide students with feedback and evaluation on how they are doing.
9. Maintain a good appearance.
10. Show enthusiasm for teaching and for the subject matter.
The first step in the training process is a basic one: to determine if a problem can be solved by training.
Problems that can be addressed effectively by training include:
Training is less effective (but still can be used) for problems arising from:
Whatever its purpose, training is most effective when designed in relation to the goals of the organization’s health and safety program.
Poor performance may not be the result of a training deficiency
Are training or non-training interventions the solution to poor safety performance in the workplace?
a deficiency in
Individual does know how to accomplish the task safely.
Individual does not know how to accomplish the task safely.
Is the task
Is safety enforced?
Is leadership adequate?
Are resources inadequate?
Is supervision adequate?
Improve supervisor oversight
resourcesDetermining if Training is Needed
How Training Needs Arise
To get information about the audience
To get information about the tasks
Once the kind of training that is needed has been determined, it is equally important to determine what kind of training is not needed.
Individuals should be made aware of all the steps involved in a task or procedure, but training should focus on those steps on which improved performance is needed.
This avoids unnecessary training and tailors the training to meet the needs of the individuals.
What is a goal?
What is a learning objective?
Why do we need to write objectives?
What are the five criteria for an effective learning objective?
Comprehension: Interpret information in one's own words
Knowledge: Recall information . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application: Use knowledge in a new situation
Analysis: Break down knowledge into parts and show relationships among parts
analyze appraise test
Synthesis: Bring together parts of knowledge to form a whole and build relationships for new situations
arrange manage design
assemble organize write
collect formulate plan
compose prepare set up
Evaluation: Make judgments on basis of given criteria
appraise evaluate rate
argue judge score
assess predict select
attack support value
Attitude: Behaviour that demonstrates underlying thoughts and feelings
acclaims cooperates joins agrees volunteers disagrees
defends offers argues complies with praises avoids
shares assumes disputes
attempts engages in resists challenges participates in helps
Step 1: Complete a simulated task analysis
Step 2: Identify performance requirements
Step 3: Develop a criterion test
1. What questions do we want the trainee to be able to answer, and what are the minimum critical components of an acceptable answer?
2. What problems do we want the trainee to be able to solve, and what are the critical components of an acceptable solution?
3. What actions or tasks do we want the trainee to be able to carry out, and what are the critical components of acceptable action?
Candidates shall always wear the minimum flotation gear required by CCGA and unit specific standing orders and small vessel regulations.
Each candidate shall explain the minimum required floatation device for the CCGA crew member. Each crew member shall demonstrate the ability to understand the information on the PFD or life jacket and the requirements of the small vessel regulations. Each candidate shall describe the difference between a PFD and a life jacket.
Evaluation:The candidate shall identify the information on the PFD to determine its approval and suitability. Candidates shall be able to perform the skills consistently over time. The course shall provide lots of opportunities to test this.
Five “strategies” to consider in sequencing safety training:
1. Information should flow from the general to the specific - Move gradually to the many and varied specific on-the-job applications of the concepts discussed.
2. Information should develop from the simple to the complex - The design should begin with a fairly simple overview of the subject to be learned.
3. Training concepts should move from theory to practical application.
4. Training may transition from known to unknown concepts, ideas, or processes.
5. For on-the-job training, sequence the content so that it corresponds to the order in which the tasks are actually performed.
Course Content Development Worksheet
This worksheet helps determine everything the learner needs to know and do to meet this objective.
What will learners need to know and have to do to meet the objective?
Presentation Sequence: Determine the sequence strategy you will use (i.e. known to unknown). List the sequence of training topics to be discussed.
Sequence strategy: _______________________________________________
1. The kind of skills or knowledge to be learned. Is the learning oriented toward physical skills (such as the use of special equipment) or toward mental processes and attitudes?
2. The training resources available to the organization. Can the station manage with its own resources (trained its own personnel to train), or is an outside firm required?
1. Will the activity effectively help the learner accomplish the learning objective?
2. Does the activity work for the number of trainees participating?
3. Does the activity take into account any special characteristics of the group?
4. Will the activity work at the training location?
5. Will there be enough classroom time to complete the activity?
6. Will the employer be able to provide the resources to support the activity?
I really want to do this!
Check yes or no beside each of the following statements to discover how you generally learn. Be honest and think in terms of most of the time, not exceptions.
1. I learn a lot from listening to instructors. ______ ______
2. I figure things out best by trial and error. ______ ______
3. Books are easy for me to learn from. ______ ______
4. Give me a map and I can find my way. ______ ______
5. I like to have directions explained to me verbally. ______ ______
6. I can assemble something without looking at ______ ______
7. I learn a lot from discussions. ______ ______
8. I’d rather watch an expert first and then try a ______ ______
9. I like to take things apart to see how they work. ______ ______
10. I can remember most of what is said without ______ ______
11. My best classes involve activities and movement. ______ ______
12. Diagrams and drawings help me understand ______ ______
How to interpret the results
This short quiz cannot diagnose accurately how you learn, it can give you insight into how you see yourself and the learning process.
You learn by hearing. You are a strong auditory learner if you answered “yes” to questions 1, 5, 7 and 10.
You learn by seeing. You are a strong visual learner if you answered “yes” to questions 3, 4, 8 and 12.
You learn by doing. You are a strong kinesthetic learner if you answered “yes” to questions 2, 6, 9 and 11.
How many hearers, seers, and doers are there?
___1. Case study: Actual or hypothetical situation.
___2. Lecture: Oral presentation of material, usually from prepared notes and visual aids.
___3. Role play: Participants improvise behavior of assigned fictitious roles.
___4. Small Group: Participants divide into sub-groups for discussion or exercise.
___5. Stories: Actual or mythical examples of course content in action.
___ 6. Class exercise: Various tasks related to specific course content.
___ 7. Class discussion: Facilitated opportunity for participants to comment.
___ 8. Brainstorm: Participants generate ideas on a problem situation.
___ 9. Other:____________________________
The Pros The Cons
Videotapes __________________ __________________________
35mm slides __________________ __________________________
Computer slides __________________ __________________________
Overheads __________________ __________________________
Handouts __________________ __________________________
Charts/Boards __________________ __________________________
Job aids/Props __________________ __________________________
Three days after an event, people retain 10% of what they heard from an oral presentation, 35% from a visual presentation, and 65% from a visual and oral presentation.
Your training plan serves different purposes at different points in time, as shown below.
1. During lesson development it's a planning tool for helping you plan the details of the lesson.
2. Before conducting the lesson it is serves as a preparation guide for rehearsing the lesson.
3. While presenting the lesson it's a roadmap for you to follow.
4. After the lesson it's a document that you (or others) can improve or use as is to present the lesson again.
Level 1 Evaluation: Measures learner reaction
Safety culture must support safety training
1. Preventing. The coxswain does not allow the crewman to use the procedures or practices that have been taught.
2. Discouraging. The coxswain does not encourage behavioural change. They send implicit messages that they want behaviour to remain the same.
3. Neutral. The coxswain does not acknowledge the training received. There is no objection to behavioural change as long as the job gets done on time.
4. Encouraging.The coxswain acknowledges the training and encourages the crewman to use what they learned.
5. Requiring. The coxswain knows what training was received and insists that the learning is transferred to the job. This response is the most supportive and will be necessary most of the time for effective safety training.
How to make the introductions interesting during the Presentation:
The two basic types of questions trainers use during a presentation --- open questions and closed questions.
1. Open questions require an extended response: a discussion of ideas, opinions, feelings. Stimulates thinking, discussion. Usually begins with "what”, "when”, “which”, ”who”, "why”, and "how”.
2. Closed questions only a one word "yes" or "no" answer. Closes off discussion. Usually begins with "is," "can," "how many," "does."
Match the Feelings/Thoughts listed on the left with the non-verbal behaviours on the right.
a. Motivated/Likes it ____ Smiling
b. Bored/Not important ____ Frowning
c. Confused/Doesn't understand ____ Yawning
____ Nodding affirmatively
____ Vacant stare
____ Scratching head
____ Shuffling feet
____ Leaning forward
____ Direct eye contact
____ Leaning back in chair
____ Pursing lips
____ Looking at clock
____ Avoiding eye contact
What to do when the trainee appears to be overactive or inhibited in some way, there are three important strategies to consider:
1. Eliminate or reduce the problem behaviour, by resolving the problem to the extent necessary.
2. Maintain the self-esteem of the trainee causing the disruption.
3. Avoid further disruptions by making sure that the learning environment is relaxed and conducive to learning.
These and other questions are important logistical considerations when planning the training.
1. Where and when the training will occur?
2. What will classroom set-up be?
3. Who must be contacted to coordinate training?
Make sure your documentation is adequate
Other training outside the Auxiliary may also include:
The following eight methods should include tests for understanding and acceptance.
1. Trainees report their own results.
2. Prepare pre-training and post-training productivity reports.
4.Usefulness and self-evaluation questionnaire.
5.Manager productivity report.
6.File unsolicited reports.
7. Using a new session to evaluate the previous one.
8. Conduct role plays that require the use of skills learned in a previous session.
We'll take a look at one proven change model that can be applied to safety training.
Step 1: Plan – Design the change or test
Step 2: Do - Carry out the change or test
Step 3: Study - Check how the change or test works
Step 4: Act - Put the change into full operation