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The Brown Web Environment. FTP, OS, PHP, IP, CHMOD What does it all mean?. Topics. Hardware, OS, Server – what’s the difference? File Structure Accounts Files and permissions URLs and IPs Getting files there and back Special Stuff. What is this?. What is this? Hardware Server OS

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the brown web environment

The Brown Web Environment


What does it all mean?

  • Hardware, OS, Server – what’s the difference?
  • File Structure
  • Accounts
  • Files and permissions
  • URLs and IPs
  • Getting files there and back
  • Special Stuff
what is this
What is this?
  • What is this?
    • Hardware
    • Server
    • OS
    • All of the above?
what s an os
What’s an OS?
  • What is an OS?
  • Operating system
  • Turns hardware into a computer.
  • Basic set of instructions on how to run software
what s a server
What’s a Server?
  • So what is a server then?
  • A server is actually software
  • Hardware can contain lots of servers
  • Examples: Apache, MySQL, print, Novell
about webpub
About Webpub
  • Which OS and Server does webpub use?
  • OS: Red Hat Linux and Solaris (more later)
  • Server: Apache
brown s web environment
Brown’s Web Environment
  • Actually 3 servers
    • webpub
    • charlie
    • delta
  • Where our accounts are
  • The only server we have access to
  • OS is Solaris
charlie delta
  • The actual web servers
  • They are connected to webpub via a “mount”
  • “Load Balanced”
  • Request comes in, they find the files
  • OS is Red Hat Linux
  • Only system admins have direct access
directory structure
Directory Structure
  • Charlie/Delta
  • Hundreds of different directories on the server
  • “Root Level” – top of the chain, a.k.a. “slash” or /
  • “Web Root Level” - /www/data/httpd/htdocs
directory structure1
Directory Structure
  • Webpub
  • /home/<username>/www
  • The www is really a link to your site space
  • Web servers can’t find /home/username
  • Requested at
  • What gets created:
    • Username (same as your Brown username)
    • Password (not the same)
    • Home directory
    • Link to your web space in your home directory
    • Server group (if needed)
    • Web space/URL (if needed)
  • How to connect:
    • SFTP
      • ie. Dreamweaver, Contribute, MacSFTP, WinSFTP
    • SSH – ‘secure shell’
      • ie. Winssh, BbEdit, Terminal
    • SCP – ‘secure copy’
      • ie. WinSCP, Terminal
  • Enter server, username, password – starts in your home directory
on the server
On the Server
  • Dreamweaver and Contribute are “drag and drop”
  • Other clients can show a terminal or command-line view
  • Not graphical, all text
  • Not a browser
the index file
The index file
  • The “default” page in a site: index.html
  • If no page is indicated, you get index.html
  • ie.,
  • Error 403 – Forbidden
    • Index listing is turned off
file permissions
File Permissions
  • Every file/directory has 9 permissions (3x3)
  • Owner, group, world – read, write, execute
  • Owner: the creator of the file
  • Group: at least one user who has access to the web space
  • World: anyone with an account on server
file permissions1
File Permissions
  • Owner, group, world has 3 permissions each: read, write, execute
  • Read: Able to open the file or download it
  • Write: Able to change and save the file
  • Execute: Able to open a directory or run a file if it is a script
file permissions2
File Permissions
  • Every file has the 9 permissions:
    • Examples: rwxrwxr-x, rwxr-----
  • Directories begin permissions with a d, files with a hyphen
    • Examples: drwxrwxr-w, -rwxr-----
file permissions3
File Permissions
  • How to check:
    • Terminal or command line type: ls –la
    • The ls is list, -la is all information for all files
  • Look in a different directory:
    • Use the cd command, ie. cd images
  • Which directory am I in?
    • pwd: shows the full path
file permissions4
File Permissions
  • How to change – your account needs edit permission
    • chmod
      • u, g, o, a
      • chmod ug+rw index.html (adds read/write to owner and group)
      • chmod o-w index.html (removes write to world)
    • -R: recursive
      • chmod –R ug+rw directory
file permissions binary
File Permissions - Binary
  • chmod 775 index.html
  • Each of the three numbers are binary for rwx
other funny characters
Other funny characters
  • Dot, slash, dot dot, and star
    • . – refers to the directory you’re in, usually coupled with slash
    • / - the separator between directories and file names
    • .. – refers to the directory before the current directory
    • * - refers to all files in that directory
other funny characters1
Other funny characters
  • Examples:
    • chmod 775 ./*
    • cd ..
    • chmod 775 images/*
    • ls *.jpg
  • Every URL has at least one group
  • Groups need to have at least one user
  • Users can be added/removed from groups
  • ls –la to see group name:
    • Permissions, owner, group, file name
    • ie. rwxrwxr-x plaverty cis index.html
  • Currently, each user may only be in max 16 groups
  • The web server itself is a user
  • Over 1,000 groups on server
  • How does the web server read files?
editing on the server
Editing on the Server
  • Open Terminal or command line
  • Use nano, pico or vi
    • nano index.html
  • Simply save the file. No upload needed.
  • Be careful of overwrites
ftp vs sftp
  • Webpub does not accept FTP connections
  • SFTP is required
  • S = Secure
  • Passwords are encrypted
  • Bad guys “sniff” the network for passwords
cname vs short url
cname vs. Short URL
    • Requires extra work (virtual host)
    • Requires much less extra work (1 line)
  • cnames are for absorbed servers
password protection
Password Protection
  • We use .htaccess and WebAuth
  • Only restrict as little as possible
  • Use .htaccess file generation tool
  • Copy results to a file and name it .htaccess (no .txt or .html extension)
getting your own domain
Getting Your Own Domain
  • Find and purchase domain name
  • Decide on hosting
  • Point the DNS
  • Upload an index.html file

What’d I forget to cover?