testing the efficacy of an intensive yogic meditation course for wellness l.
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TESTING THE EFFICACY OF AN INTENSIVE YOGIC MEDITATION COURSE FOR WELLNESS Manoj Sharma, MBBS, Ph.D. Yoga Derived from Sanskrit word meaning ‘union’ Physical & Psychic practice First written records in Yogasutra of Patanjali (200 B.C.)

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Presentation Transcript
slide2
Yoga
  • Derived from Sanskrit word meaning ‘union’
  • Physical & Psychic practice
  • First written records in Yogasutra of Patanjali (200 B.C.)
  • Systematic practice of developing harmony in body, mind and environment around oneself
asthangayoga
Asthangayoga
  • All schools of yoga use some or all of the steps of Asthangayoga:
    • Yama (Rules for living in society)
    • Niyama (Self-restraining rules)
    • Asaana (Low physical impact postures)
    • Pranayama (Breathing techniques)
    • Pratihara (Detachment of mind from sense objects)
    • Dharana (Concentration)
    • Dhyana (Meditation)
    • Samadhi (Complete union with Super consciousness)
kundalini yoga
Kundalini Yoga
  • Hallmark is start from the seventh step in Asthangayoga that of meditation
  • Fundamental technique is one of “formless” internal contemplation on Pituitary and Hypothalamus glands
  • In addition asanas for strain relieving, pranayama for enhancing vital capacity of the lungs, and relaxation for stress relief are used
benefits of yoga
Benefits of Yoga
  • Wellness/Health Promotion: Improved body flexibility, performance, stress reduction, attainment of inner peace, self-realization
  • Complementary treatment: Depression, anxiety disorders, coronary heart disease, bronchial asthma, extensive rehabilitation requiring disorders
  • Behavioral therapy: Smoking cessation and substance abuse treatment
purposes of the study
Purposes of the study
  • Develop a replicable intensive Kundalini yoga training intervention
  • Develop psychometric tools for ascertaining changes in behavioral antecedents and yoga-related behaviors
  • Pilot test the intensive intervention in a sample of healthy volunteers
  • Assess the changes in behavioral antecedents and yoga-related behaviors
intervention
Intervention
  • Week end course with overnight stay
  • Implemented at a Dance Laboratory of a Midwestern University
  • Techniques:
    • Candle gazing (Lau dharana)
    • Mirror gazing (Pritibimb dharana)
    • Recitational meditation (Mantra dharana)
    • Primordial sound meditation (Nada dhyana)
    • Primordial energy meditation (Kundalini dhyana)
    • Absolute meditation (Thuriyateeth dhyana)
instrumentation
Instrumentation
  • 30 item self-report instrument
  • Perceived knowledge about yoga (Range 0-20)
  • Outcome expectations from learning Kundalini Yoga (Range 0-96)
  • Self-efficacy to perform yoga related behaviors (Range 0-24)
  • Past week performance of yoga-related behaviors of asanas, relaxation, and meditation
  • Demographic data: age, gender, race, and education
  • Rating of instruction, master teacher, facilities, food, willingness for future participation, & recommendation to others
results
RESULTS
  • 20 participants completed the entire course (Valid entries=17)
  • Age Range: 21-67 years (Mean = 45 years)
  • Gender: 9 men (52.9%) and 8 women (47.1%)
  • Education: College education (82.4%), High school (17.6%)
  • Race: White Caucasian (70.6%), Asian (29.4%)
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Construct

n

Mean score (std. dev.)

at pre-test

Mean score (std. dev.)

at post-test

p-value

Perceived knowledge

17

9.23

(3.15)

11.88

(2.59)

0.003

Outcome expectations

15

55.00

(22.76)

56.67

(15.95)

0.760

Self-efficacy for meditation

15

9.13

(4.69)

13.93

(3.90)

0.001

Changes in mean scores between pre-test and post-test for perceived knowledge, outcome expectations from learning meditation, and self-efficacy for meditation practice

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Practical and statistical significant increase in perceived knowledge
  • No significant increase in outcome expectations
  • Practical and statistical significant increase in self-efficacy and its components
  • Instruments are useful for process and impact evaluation in future efficacy trials
  • Intervention is replicable and can be applied for efficacy testing
limitations
Limitations
  • Pilot test with no long term follow-up data
  • No comparison group
  • Instruments not tested for reliability and validity
  • Sample predominantly white (Caucasian)