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Solar Energy Challenges and Opportunities George Crabtree Materials Science Division Argonne National Laboratory with Nathan Lewis, Caltech Arthur Nozik, NREL Michael Wasielewski, Northwestern Paul Alivisatos, UC-Berkeley Preview Grand energy challenge

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solar energy challenges and opportunities

Solar EnergyChallenges and Opportunities

George Crabtree

Materials Science Division

Argonne National Laboratory

with

Nathan Lewis, Caltech

Arthur Nozik, NREL

Michael Wasielewski, Northwestern

Paul Alivisatos, UC-Berkeley

preview
Preview

Grand energy challenge

- double demand by 2050, triple demand by 2100

Sunlight is a singular energy resource

- capacity, environmental impact, geo-political security

Breakthrough research directions for mature solar energy

- solar electric

- solar fuels

- solar thermal

world energy demand

2100: 40-50 TW

2050: 25-30 TW

25.00

World Energy Demand

total

20.00

15.00

TW

industrial

10.00

developing

50

US

5.00

World Fuel Mix 2001

oil

ee/fsu

40

0.00

1970

1990

2010

2030

30

coal

%

gas

20

renew

nucl

10

0

85% fossil

World Energy Demand

energy gap

~ 14 TW by 2050

~ 33 TW by 2100

EIA Intl Energy Outlook 2004

http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/index.html

Hoffert et al Nature 395, 883,1998

fossil supply and security

World Oil Production

2037

50

Bbbl/yr

2016

40

2% demand growth

ultimate recovery:

3000 Bbbl

30

20

10

2100

2000

2050

1900

1950

Fossil: Supply and Security

When Will Production Peak?

production peak

demand exceeds supply

price increases

geo-political restrictions

gas: beyond oil

coal: > 200 yrs

EIA: http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/FTPROOT/

presentations/long_term_supply/index.htm

R. Kerr, Science 310, 1106 (2005)

World Oil Reserves/Consumption

2001

uneven distribution

 insecure access

OPEC: Venezuela, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia,

United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Libya, Nigeria, and Indonesia

http://www.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/2004/fcvt_fotw336.shtml

fossil climate change

CO2

(ppmv)

325

CH4

(ppmv)

Relaxation time

transport of CO2 or heat to deep ocean: 400 - 1000 years

CO2 in 2004: 380 ppmv

300

800

-- CO2

-- CH4

--T

275

+ 4

700

250

0

T relative to present (°C)

225

600

200

- 4

500

175

400

- 8

1.5

380

-- CO2

-- Global Mean Temp

300

360

1.0

100

400

200

300

0

340

Thousands of years before present (Ky BP)

0.5

320

Temperature (°C)

Atmospheric CO2 (ppmv)

0

300

- 0.5

280

260

- 1.0

240

- 1.5

1000

2000

1200

1800

1600

1400

Year AD

Fossil: Climate Change

Climate Change 2001: T he Scientific Basis, Fig 2.22

J. R. Petit et al, Nature 399, 429, 1999

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2001

http://www.ipcc.ch

N. Oreskes, Science 306, 1686, 2004

D. A. Stainforth et al, Nature 433, 403, 2005

the energy alternatives
The Energy Alternatives

Fossil

Nuclear

Renewable

Fusion

energy gap

~ 14 TW by 2050

~ 33 TW by 2100

10 TW = 10,000 1 GW power plants

1 new power plant/day for 27 years

no single solution

diversity of energy sources required

renewable energy
Renewable Energy

energy gap

~ 14 TW by 2050

~ 33 TW by 2100

Wind

2-4 TW extractable

Solar

1.2 x 105 TW on Earth’s surface

36,000 TW on land (world)

2,200 TW on land (US)

Biomass

5-7 TW gross (world)

0.29% efficiency for

all cultivatable land

not used for food

Tide/Ocean

Currents

2 TW gross

Hydroelectric

4.6 TW gross (world)

1.6 TW technically feasible

0.6 TW installed capacity

0.33 gross (US)

Geothermal

9.7 TW gross (world)

0.6 TW gross (US)

(small fraction technically feasible)

solar energy utilization

Solar Thermal

Solar Fuel

Solar Electric

e-

H2O

CO2

O2

h+

sugar

CO2

H2O

H2, CH4

CH3OH

N

N

H

O2

H

N

C

H

N

O

N

N

C

H

3

~ 14 TW additional energy by 2050

Solar Energy Utilization

500 - 3000 °C

heat engines

electricity generation

process heat

50 - 200 °C

space, water

heating

natural

photosynthesis

artificial

photosynthesis

.0002 TW PV (world)

.00003 TW PV (US)

$0.30/kWh w/o storage

1.4 TW biomass (world)

0.2 TW biomass sustainable (world)

0.006 TW (world)

11 TW fossil fuel

(present use)

1.5 TW electricity (world)

$0.03-$0.06/kWh (fossil)

2 TW

space and water

heating (world)

bes workshop on basic research needs for solar energy utilization

Charge

To identify basic research needs and opportunities in solar electric, fuels, thermal and related areas, with a focus on new, emerging and scientifically challenging areas that have the potential for significant impact in science and technologies.

April 21-24, 2005

BES Workshop on Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization

Workshop Chair: Nathan Lewis, Caltech

Co-chair: George Crabtree, Argonne

Panel Chairs

Arthur Nozik, NREL: Solar Electric

Mike Wasielewski, NU: Solar Fuel

Paul Alivisatos, UC-Berkeley: Solar Thermal

Topics

Photovoltaics

Photoelectrochemistry

Bio-inspired Photochemistry

Natural Photosynthetic Systems

Photocatalytic Reactions

Bio Fuels

Heat Conversion & Utilization

Elementary Processes

Materials Synthesis

New Tools

Plenary Speakers

Pat Dehmer, DOE/BES

Nathan Lewis, Caltech

Jeff Mazer, DOE/EERE

Marty Hoffert, NYU

Tom Feist, GE

200 participants

universities, national labs, industry

US, Europe, Asia

EERE, SC, BES

basic research needs for solar energy
Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy
  • The Sun is a singular solution to our future energy needs
  • - capacity dwarfs fossil, nuclear, wind . . .
  • - sunlight delivers more energy in one hour
  • than the earth uses in one year
  • - free of greenhouse gases and pollutants
  • - secure from geo-political constraints
  • Enormous gap between our tiny use
  • of solar energy and its immense potential
  • - Incremental advances in today’s technology
  • will not bridge the gap
  • - Conceptual breakthroughs are needed that come
  • only from high risk-high payoff basic research
  • Interdisciplinary research is required
  • physics, chemistry, biology, materials, nanoscience
  • Basic and applied science should couple seamlessly

http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/reports/abstracts.html#SEU

solar energy challenges
Solar Energy Challenges

Solar electric

Solar fuels

Solar thermal

Cross-cutting research

solar electric
Solar Electric
  • Despite 30-40% growth rate in installation, photovoltaics generate

less than 0.02% of world electricity (2001)

less than 0.002% of world total energy (2001)

  • Decrease cost/watt by a factor 10 - 25 to be competitive with fossil electricity (without storage)
  • Find effective method for storage of photovoltaic-generated electricity
slide13

Thermodynamic

limit at 1 sun

$0.10/Wp

$0.20/Wp

$0.50/Wp

100

80

60

Efficiency %

$1.00/Wp

40

Shockley - Queisser limit: single junction

20

$3.50/Wp

400

200

500

100

300

Cost $/m2

competitive electric power: $0.40/Wp = $0.02/kWh

competitive primary power: $0.20/Wp = $0.01/kWh

assuming no cost for storage

Cost of Solar Electric Power

I: bulk Si

II: thin film

dye-sensitized

organic

III: next generation

module cost only

double for balance of system

slide14

lost to

heat

3 V

Eg

3 I

hot carriers

rich variety of new physical phenomena

challenge: understand and implement

Revolutionary Photovoltaics: 50% Efficient Solar Cells

  • present technology: 32% limit for
    • single junction
    • one exciton per photon
    • relaxation to band edge

nanoscale

formats

multiple excitons

per photon

multiple junctions

multiple gaps

slide15

O

)

n

(

O

Organic Photovoltaics: Plastic Photocells

polymer donor

MDMO-PPV

fullerene acceptor

PCBM

donor-acceptor junction

opportunities

inexpensive materials, conformal coating, self-assembling fabrication,

wide choice of molecular structures, “cheap solar paint”

challenges

low efficiency (2-5%), high defect density, low mobility, full absorption spectrum, nanostructured architecture

solar energy challenges16
Solar Energy Challenges

Solar electric

Solar fuels

Solar thermal

Cross-cutting research

solar fuels solving the storage problem
Solar Fuels: Solving the Storage Problem
  • Biomass inefficient: too much land area. Increase efficiency 5 - 10 times
  • Designer plants and bacteria for designer fuels:

H2, CH4, methanol and ethanol

  • Develop artificial photosynthesis
slide18

chlamydomonas moewusii

10 µ

Leveraging Photosynthesis for Efficient Energy Production

  • photosynthesis converts ~ 100 TW of sunlight to sugars: nature’s fuel
  • low efficiency (< 1%) requires too much land area

Modify the biochemistry of plants and bacteria

- improve efficiency by a factor

of 5–10

- produce a convenient fuel

methanol, ethanol, H2, CH4

hydrogenase

2H+ + 2e- H2

switchgrass

  • Scientific Challenges
  • understand and modify genetically controlled biochemistry that limits growth
  • elucidate plant cell wall structure and its efficient conversion to ethanol or other fuels
  • capture high efficiency early steps of photosynthesis to produce fuels like ethanol and H2
  • modify bacteria to more efficiently produce fuels
  • improved catalysts for biofuels production
slide19

Smart Matrices for Solar Fuel Production

  • Biology: protein structures dynamically control energy and charge flow
  • Smart matrices: adapt biological paradigm to artificial systems

smart matrices carry energy and charge

photosystem II

  • Scientific Challenges
  • engineer tailored active environments with bio-inspired components
  • novel experiments to characterize the coupling among matrix, charge, and energy
  • multi-scale theory of charge and energy transfer by molecular assemblies
  • design electronic and structural pathways for efficient formation of solar fuels
slide20

O2

H2

-

+

Efficient Solar Water Splitting

demonstrated efficiencies 10-18% in laboratory

  • Scientific Challenges
  • cheap materials that are robust in water
  • catalysts for the redox reactions at each electrode
  • nanoscale architecture for electron excitation  transfer  reaction
solar powered catalysts for fuel formation
new catalysts targeted for

H2, CH4, methanol and ethanol

are needed

oxidation

reduction

2 H2O

CO2

4e-

Cat

Cat

HCOOH

CH3OH

H2, CH4

O2

4H+

Solar-Powered Catalysts for Fuel Formation

“uphill” reactions enabled by sunlight

simple reactants, complex products

spatial-temporal manipulation of

electrons, protons, geometry

multi-electron transfer

coordinated proton transfer

bond rearrangement

Prototype Water Splitting Catalyst

solar energy challenges22
Solar Energy Challenges

Solar electric

Solar fuels

Solar thermal

Cross-cutting research

solar thermal

space heat

mechanical

motion

fuel

electricity

heat

process heat

Solar Thermal
  • heat is the first link in our existing energy networks
  • solar heat replaces combustion heat from fossil fuels
  • solar steam turbines currently produce the lowest cost solar electricity
  • challenges:

new uses for solar heat

store solar heat for later distribution

slide24

concentrated

solar power

concentrated solar power

fossil fuels

gas, oil, coal

Solar Reactor

MxOy xM + y/2 O2

1/2 O2

MxOy

M

Solar

Gasification

Solar

Reforming

Solar

Decomposition

Hydrolyser

xM + yH2O  MxOy +yH2

H2

H2O

CO2 , C

Sequestration

MxOy

Solar H2

Solar Thermochemical Fuel Production

high-temperature hydrogen generation500 °C - 3000 °C

Scientific Challengeshigh temperature reaction kinetics of - metal oxide decomposition - fossil fuel chemistryrobust chemical reactor designs and materials

A. Streinfeld, Solar Energy, 78,603 (2005)

thermoelectric conversion

2.5

PbTe/PbSe superlattice

Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3

superlattice

LAST-18

AgPb18SbTe20

1.5

Zn4Sb3

ZT

TAGS

SiGe

LaFe3CoSb12

CsBi4Te6

0.5

PbTe

Bi2Te3

Temperature (K)

R

T

0

2

0

0

4

0

0

6

0

0

8

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

2

0

0

1

4

0

0

Thermoelectric Conversion

thermal gradient  electricity

figure of merit: ZT ~ (/) T

ZT ~ 3: efficiency ~ heat engines

no moving parts

Scientific Challenges

increase electrical conductivity

decrease thermal conductivity

nanowire superlattice

nanoscale architectures

interfaces block heat transport

confinement tunes density of states

doping adjusts Fermi level

Mercouri Kanatzidis

solar energy challenges26
Solar Energy Challenges

Solar electric

Solar fuels

Solar thermal

Cross-cutting research

slide27

Molecular Self-Assembly at All Length Scales

The major cost of solar energy conversion is materials fabricationSelf-assembly is a route to cheap, efficient, functional production

physical

biological

Scientific Challenges- innovative architectures for coupling light-harvesting, redox, and catalytic components- understanding electronic and molecular interactions responsible for self-assembly- understanding the reactivity of hybrid molecular materials on many length scales

defect tolerance and self repair
Defect Tolerance and Self-repair

the water splitting protein in Photosystem II

is replaced every hour!

  • Understand defect formation

in photovoltaic materials and

self-repair mechanisms in

photosynthesis

  • Achieve defect tolerance and

active self-repair in solar

energy conversion devices,

enabling 20–30 year operation

nanoscience

TiO2

nanocrystals

adsorbed

quantum dots

liquid

electrolyte

N

Solar energy is interdisciplinary nanoscience

Nanoscience

manipulation of photons, electrons, and molecules

artificial

photosynthesis

natural

photosynthesis

nanostructured

thermoelectrics

quantum dot solar cells

nanoscale architectures

top-down lithography

bottom-up self-assembly

multi-scale integration

characterization

scanning probes

electrons, neutrons, x-rays

smaller length and time scales

theory and modeling

multi-node computer clusters

density functional theory

10 000 atom assemblies

perspective
Perspective

The Energy Challenge

~ 14 TW additional energy by 2050

~ 33 TW additional energy by 2100

13 TW in 2004

Solar Potential

125,000 TW at earth’s surface

36,000 TW on land (world)

2,200 TW on land (US)

Breakthrough basic research needed

Solar energy is a young science

- spurred by 1970s energy crises

- fossil energy science spurred by industrial revolution - 1750s

solar energy horizon is distant and unexplored