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SESSION 5 INTEGRATING GENDER INTO VALUE CHAINS - THEORY. SESSION GOAL. To enable workshop participants to: become familiar with value chain analysis understand the process of gender analysis in value chain development . A Value Chain. VALUE CHAIN CONCEPTS.

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session goal
SESSION GOAL

To enable workshop participants to:

  • become familiar with value chain analysis
  • understand the process of gender analysis in value chain development
value chain concepts

A Value Chain

VALUE CHAIN CONCEPTS

…is a linked set of activities and enterprises that brings a product from conception through disposal.

Value chain Supply chainMarket chain

  GLOBAL commodity chain filiere (thread)INTERNATIONAL ASSEMBLY LINE

value chain concepts5
VALUE CHAIN CONCEPTS

Value Chain Analysis

… is the process of documenting and analyzing the operation of a value chain, and usually involves mapping the chain actors and calculating the value added along its different links

competitiveness

VALUE CHAIN CONCEPTS

Competitiveness

…is the ability of a firm or industry to develop and maintain an edge over market rivals

competitiveness can be achieved through

COMPETITIVENESS CONTINUED

Competitiveness can be achieved through:
  • producing and delivering goods and services more efficiently
  • differentiating products or services through quality; standards and branding
  • exploiting new market demand

The Value Chain Framework Briefing Paper, AMAP

value chain concepts8

Upgrading

VALUE CHAIN CONCEPTS

…is a process of increasing the economic competitiveness of enterprises, occupying new positions in a global value chain. or delivering to new markets and buyers. Upgrading is achieved by, e.g., improving working conditions, job and employment security, and maintaining a clean environment are all important means by which to upgrade.

types of upgrading

UPGRADING CONTINUED

Types of Upgrading:
  • Chain upgrading: moving to a new chain
  • Functional upgrading: changing the mix of activities
  • Process upgrading: increasing the efficiency
  • Product upgrading: introducing new products
common value chain constraints
COMMON VALUE CHAIN CONSTRAINTS
  • Small land holdings
  • Low productivity or lack of access to productive technologies
  • Limited range of finance and credit options
  • Lack of access to affordable inputs and BDS
  • Weak producer associations
  • Weak market linkages
  • Lack of access to market information
  • Lack of coordination between public and private sector stakeholders
  • Trust
characteristics of the shift to producing in value chains
Characteristics of the Shift to Producing in Value Chains

Shift from production processed that draws on indigenous or local knowledge to practices that depend on technical knowledge received from other input suppliers or buyers

Increasing coordination of the activities from production to end user

More complex contractual arrangements

Greater concentration in procurement processes and end retailing

value chains for development
VALUE CHAINS FOR DEVELOPMENT
  • Global value chains can create employment opportunities and improve living standards for the poor
  • To achieve this design and implementation of projects must aim to:
    • increase the total amount and value of products that the poor sell in value chains; and,
    • sustain the share of the poor in a given sector or increase their margins per product, so that
    • poor producers and employees gain both an absolute increase in income as well as an increase in the relative income of the poor compared to other actors along the chain
part 2

PART 2

GENDER AND VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS

what does it mean
WHAT DOES IT MEAN?

Looking beyond women’s role as farm laborers towards increasing their participation as farmer-entrepreneurs

Recognizing that women and men can be equally productive when given access to equivalent agricultural inputs and technology

  • Providing more equitable access to all factors of production: land, labor, water, credit, and information for both women and men
slide15

WHY DOES IT MATTER?

  • Increasing women’s employment increases economic growth
  • Increasing women’s employment can reduce poverty
  • Addressing gender constraints to employment and productivity can increase competitiveness
  • Ignoring gender may limit the strategies considered
slide16

APROACHES TO ADDRESSING GENDER ISSUES IN VALUE CHAINS

  • Analysis of men and women’s distribution throughout the chain
  • Analysis of gender relations that influence patterns described and measured in value chains
gate s two gender vca approaches
RESEARCH

Describe men and women’s roles in value chains

Reveal sex segmentation and gender bias in labor markets

Link economic data to power and gender differences along the chain

IMPLEMENTATION

Examine underlying gender issues using a qualitative gender analysis framework

Link gender analysis to program objectives

Build the capacity of USAID and partner staff to recognize gender constraints and opportunities in value chain programs

GENDER VCA APPROACHES

GATE’S Two Gender VCA Approaches
a gender and pro poor value chain analysis
GATE uses a gender and pro-poor value chain analysis:

to explore the nature of production and the terms and conditions of employment along a specific chain; and,

to identify opportunities to improve market outcomes, raise productivity and wages, and foster pro-poor growth in the sector

GATE conducted two gender and pro-poor value chain analyses examining the shrimp sector in Bangladesh and the artichoke sector in Peru.

A GENDER AND PRO-POOR VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS
approach
APPROACH

The value chain analysis is conducted from a distributional perspective:

  • Segmentation analysis of labor markets by sex
  • Estimating costs, returns and value-added
  • Multipliers and spillover effects
mixed methods data collection

METHODOLOGY

Mixed Methods Data Collection
  • Quantitative
    • Primary data collection through surveys
    • Secondary analysis of household surveys and national accounts data
  • Qualitative
    • Key informant interviews
    • Group interviews
  • All data is disaggregated by sex
slide21

PRO-POOR ANALYSIS OF SHRIMP SECTOR IN BANGLADESH

  • Valuable export crop: in 2004, over $360 million annually in earnings and 4.9 percent of foreign exchange
  • Ranks second in foreign exchange
  • Generates signification employment
  • Two types cultivated
    • Saltwater shrimp (Bagda)
    • Freshwater shrimp (Golda)
  • Farm methods range from traditional to semi-intensive
sex segmentation along the chain

PRO-POOR ANALYSIS OF SHRIMP SECTOR IN BANGLADESH

Sex Segmentation Along The Chain
  • Women and men cluster in different segments of the chain and have clearly gender-defined tasks, roles and responsibilities
  • Wage differentials: Women earn between 70-80% of men’s wages
  • Women are disproportionately temporary or casual workers: 70% of all temporary workers in processing
power and inequality along the chain

PRO-POOR ANALYSIS OF SHRIMP SECTOR IN BANGLADESH

Power and Inequality Along the Chain
  • Small producers and women are the most vulnerable participants in the chain
  • Small producers are locked into sub-optimal contracts
  • Women are invisible at certain nodes or in casual/temporary labor
  • Intermediaries, larger farmers, and processors have more power to negotiate
illustrative program and policy recommendations

PRO-POOR ANALYSIS OF SHRIMP SECTOR IN BANGLADESH

Illustrative Program and Policy Recommendations
  • Develop a Welfare Fund to extend benefits, including health care and pensions, to informal and subcontracted workers
  • Increase cultivation of ‘golda’ prawn which is less virus prone; earns consistently higher prices; cultivated in smaller household ponds; greater involvement of women
  • Expand spot markets and inject credit to release many small farmers and intermediaries from usurious contracts
overview

GENDER AND PRO-POOR ANALYSIS OF ARTICHOKE SECTOR IN PERU

Overview
  • Two varieties of artichokes:
    • Traditional variety, “Criolla”
    • Export variety, “Hybrid”
  • Two modes of production:
    • Coastal
    • Highland
  • USD 70 million in exports (2006)
  • 20% of US market
  • Potential to produce all year
  • Opportunities to expand acreage and number of small producers
sex segmentation along the chain26

GENDER AND PRO-POOR ANALYSIS OF ARTICHOKE SECTOR IN PERU

Sex Segmentation Along the Chain
  • Women make up 51 percent of employment along the chain
  • Women and men cluster in different occupations
  • Women are employed for specific tasks: peeling, cutting and de-leafing
economic spillovers

GENDER AND PRO-POOR ANALYSIS OF ARTICHOKE SECTOR IN PERU

Economic Spillovers
  • Forward linkages are strong
  • Greatest backward linkages are with small and medium-sized farmers who capture least amount of value-added along the chain
  • Promoting better sales price for small and medium producers would amplify spillover effects and create more dynamism
illustrative program and policy recommendations28

GENDER AND PRO-POOR ANALYSIS OF ARTICHOKE SECTOR IN PERU

Illustrative Program and Policy Recommendations
  • Strengthen mechanisms for labor supervision to hold processing plants accountable for providing adequate benefits for their men and women workers
  • Increase agricultural product portfolios including use of traditional artichoke varieties to expand the market opportunities of small and medium-sized farmers
  • Develop an appropriate technological package that includes low-cost irrigation technology and use of local inputs
what are the different challenges facing women and men
What are the Different Challenges Facing Women and Men?

Can women/men be incorporated in value chains in a way that improves farm enterprise and/or sector competitiveness?

The challenges to women/men are:

  • Meeting quality and environmental standards
  • Maintaining consistent and reliable supplies
  • Meeting the costs of certification
  • Identifying multiple sales outlets
integrating gender into value chain development
INTEGRATING GENDER INTO VALUE CHAIN DEVELOPMENT
  • Map the participation of men and women in the value chain
  • Identify the gender-based constraints and opportunities
  • Design solutions to remove gender-based constraints
  • Construct indicators to measure success of action
  • Revise program objectives as needed to be more gender-sensitive

30

identifying the gender constraint in the general constraint
General Constraints

Small land holdings

Limited range of finance and credit options

Lack of access to market information

Low productivity

Gender-based Constraints

Laws or customs that restrict women’s land ownership

Bank policies that do not allow a married woman to obtain a loan without her husband’s signature

Social norms limit women’s networking abilities

Inequitable distribution of harvest income

IDENTIFYING GENDER-BASED CONSTRAINTS

Identifying the Gender Constraint in the General Constraint
general constraint

IDENTIFYING GENDER-BASED CONSTRAINTS

GENERAL CONSTRAINT

GENDER-BASED CONSTRAINT

Small landholdings

Laws or customs that restrict women’s land ownership

Limited range of finance and credit options

Bank policies that require a married women to obtain her husband’s signature

Lack of access to market information

Social norms that limit women’s networking abilities

Inequitable distribution of household income

Low productivity

gender based constraints

DESIGNING SOLUTIONS

GENDER-BASED CONSTRAINTS

POSSIBLE SOULTIONS

Social norms limit women’s networking abilities

  • Use multiple mediums for communicating price and marketing information (e.g. cell phones and radio)
  • Increase women’s participation in producer associations
  • Promote joint accounts or accounts in women’s names
  • Create innovative payment incentives to ensure married women producers receive returns from their labor

Inequitable distribution of harvest income