Punang Amaripuja Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta p_amaripuja@yahoo - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Punang Amaripuja Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta p_amaripuja@yahoo

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  1. Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakartat Punang AmaripujaMuhammadiyah University of Yogyakartap_amaripuja@yahoo.com Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia

  2. General Context • Enormous population base (+/- 220 M) • Scattered through 16.000 islands • Limited physical infrastructure in outer islands • Low access to communication lines • Java centric • Human capital • Knowledge base

  3. Education in General • Pre-Elementary: 1-2 years, optional • Elementary: 6 years (compulsary) • Junior High: 3 years (compulsary) • High School: 3 years • General • Vocational • Higher Education: • General (Universities, 4 yrs) • Vocational (Academies, Polytechnics, 2-3 yrs) • Others: • Informal • Non Formal

  4. Current Issues in Education • Ammended Constitution orders 20% of National Budget for Education (not including salaries, etc.), while current budget is only 11%  outruled by Constitutional Court • Certification of Teachers and Lecturers with up to 3x current salaries • Some state universities converted to State Owned Education Corporations

  5. Some Facts on Education (Directorate General of Higher Education, 2005)

  6. NUMBER OF TEACHERSBASED ON EDUCATION IN 2007

  7. Indonesian tertiary educations qualifications framework

  8. Number of HE Students

  9. Government Support for Private Universities • Competitive Research Grants • Competitive Departmental & University Level Grants • Competitive University Unit level Grants • The grants are competed between public and private universities • Some private university lecturers (and teachers) become government officials • Both public and private univ lecturers are licensed and promoted through the Ministry of Education • Certification of public and private university lecturers • Domestic Scholarships

  10. Ministry of Education Strategic Plan Vision A Smart and Competitive Indonesia Mission Establish and education system that could develop a smart and competitive Indonesia which is just, qualified, and relevant with the needs of the local and global community • Strategic Policy • Equity and Extension of Access • Quality, Relevance, and Competitiveness • Governance, Accountability, and Public Image

  11. Targets of the DGHE 2005 -2010 Capacity building and modernization 2010 - 2015 Services Improvement 2015 - 2020 Regional Competitiveness 2020 - 2025 International Competitiveness

  12. Indonesian Higher Education Vision 2010 • On 1 April 2003 the DGHE has proclaimed HELTS 2003 - 2010 (the Higher Education Long Term Strategy 2003 – 2010) • Which incorporates the Indonesian Higher Education Vision: • In order to contribute to the nation’s competitiveness, the national higher education has to be organizationally healthy, and the same requirement also applies to institutions. A structural adjustment in the existing system is, however, needed to meet this challenge. The structural adjustment aims, by the year of 2010, of having a healthy higher education system, effectively coordinated and demonstrated by the following features : • Quality • Access and Equity • Autonomy

  13. Strategic Issues in the HELTS 2003 - 2010 One of the strategic issues described in the HELTS 2003 – 2010 point E is Quality Assurance as stated below: In healthy organizations, continuous quality improvement should become its primary concern. Quality assurance should be internally driven, institutionalized within each organization’s standard procedure, and could also involve external parties. However, since quality is also a concern of all stakeholders, quality improvement should aim at producing quality outputs and outcomes as part of public accountability.

  14. The New Paradigm Assurance/ Evaluasi Quality Autonomy Accountability Accreditation The purpose of evaluation is not to prove but to improve. (Stufflebeam et al., Educational Evaluation and Design Making, 1997)

  15. The Definition of Higher Education Quality Assurance Higher Education Quality Assurance is the process of defining and fulfillment of Higher Education Quality Management Standards in a consistent and sustainable manner in order to satisfy all its stakeholders (students, parents, industry, government, lecturers, supporting staff, and other relevant parties)

  16. Mechanism for identifying HE Quality Standards This example assumes that all HE Institutions are Educational Legal Bodies • Recruitment • Probation period • Permanent staff status • Work performance appraisal • Mutations, Promotions, Demotions • Work schedules • Overtime and paid leave • Compensations and Rewards • Social security and welfare • Development and trainings • Work health and safety • Discipline • Field work compensation • Work separations Vision Standards Stakeholder Needs

  17. HE Quality Assurance Structure Higher Education Accredi- tation External Quality Assurance Q Internal Quality Assurance IQA Program Evaluation (Self Evaluated) EPS BED Self Evaluation

  18. Sustainable Higher Education Quality Assurance Activities ACTIVITY GOAL STATUS INSTITUTION ACREDITATION External HE Quality Control and Audit Facultative (optional) HE National Acreditation Board BAN – PT and / or others SELF EVALUATED PROGRAM EVALUATION (EPSBED) Extension of Operational Permit Compulsary Directorate General of Higher Education INTERNAL QUALITY ASSURANCE Internal improvement of HE Quality Self Innitiated HE Institution

  19. Community services • Information Systems • Alliances & Cooperations • Student affairs • 5. Academic atmosphere • 6. Financial resources • 7. Others (Inst. based) Overview ofHE Quality Assurance Other standards (above the National Education Standard) Internally Driven (HELTS) A Smart and Competitive Indonesia 1. Content 2. Process 3. Graduate Competence 4. Academic staff 5. Infrastructure 6. Operations 7. Financial 8. Academic Appraisal 8 Minimal Standard (NED) Compul- sary T.Frame 2015 2020 2025 HE Quality Assurance

  20. Standards Improvement Strategy EXTERNAL QUALITY ASSURANCE / ACCREDITATION (HE-NAB) ASSISTANCE 100 INDEPENDENCY Higher Education INTERNAL QUALITY ASSURANCE Acquire AUN Standard 100 best in Asia / World Acquire Internasional Standard 100 best in Asia / World Surpass NES, AUN Quality Label, Acquire AUN Standard ASSISTANCE LAW OBEDIENCY NASIONAL REGIONAL INTERNASIONAL 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2015 2020 2025

  21. Quality Assurance Process • a. The HE Institution defines its vision and mission • b. Every program defines its vision and mission based on the institution’s vision and mission • c. The program’s vision is broken down into a set of quality standards • d. The HE Institution sets the organization and mechanism of quality assurance • e. The HE Institution implements quality assurance through quality control management • f. The HE Institution evaluates and revises its quality standard through ongoing benchmarking

  22. Leadership Relevance Environmental sensitivity Graduate quality Industry acceptance Academic Atmosphere Lecturer – student, lecturer – lecturer, & student - student interactions SOP Discipline Internal Management & Organization Decision making processes Budget priorities Internal and external evaluations Sustainability Assure institutional existance Assure quality level Resources Efficiency and Productivity Length of study, length of thesis, etc. Ability to produce good output Self Evaluated Items (LRAISE)

  23. Summary I. Self Evaluation Process II. Background a. Department & Program History b. Long Term Development Plans c. External Environment III. Academis Program Evaluation a. Education b. Research c. Community Services d. Quality Assurance Programs IV. Management of Resources a. Financial Management b. Human Resources Management c. Physical Facilities Management 1. Infrastructure (Buildings) 2. Laboratories 3. Libraries d. Data and Information Management V. Departmental Performance Indicators a. Primary Performance Indicators b. Supporting Performance Indicators VI. Identified Problems VII. Alternative Solutions VIII. Appendix Self Evaluation Report

  24. NATIONAL ACCREDITATION SYSTEM (Current) Ministry of Education HE-National Accreditation Board HE Institution A HE Institution B ACCREDITATION P 1 P 2 P 3 P 4 P W P X P Y P Z

  25. NATIONAL ACCREDITATION SYSTEM (Alternate) Ministry of Education ASSOCATION OF HEI HE-NAB ACCREDITATION HE Institution A HE Institution B P 1 P 2 P 3 P 4 P W P X P Y P Z Program Accreditation

  26. Goals of Accreditation • Protect the community • Assist Quality Assurance of HE Institutions • Public Accountability of HEI • Standardization of academic credit to allow student mobilization • Basis for accreditation / license • Consideration for grants • Consideration for employee recruitment • International recognition of certificate / competence • Input for meta-evaluation of HE quality

  27. Scope of Accreditation • Quality Control : • System and mechanism to assess comlpiance with performance indicators • Quality Audit: • Appraisal of internal Quality Control mechanisms • Quality Assessment: • System efficiency and effectiveness

  28. Who is responsible for HE Quality? • HE Institutions • Association of HEI (self regulation) • Directorate General of HE • HE National Accreditation Board

  29. Functions of the HE-NAB • Prepare organization • Formulate technical policy • Setup appraisal criteria • Collect data • Operate appraisals • Determine accreditation • Publish accreditation certificates • Announce accreditation results • Give recommendation for supervision • Assist self evaluation of HE Institutions • Periodic reports to the Ministry of Education Kepmendikbud 187/U/1998

  30. TYPE OF INSTIT-UTIONS LEVEL OF ACCREDITATION ACCRE-DITED D-3 STUDY PROGRAMS NUMBER OF D-3 STUDY PROGRAMS ACCREDITED D-3 FROM TOTAL D-3 STUDY PROGRAMS A B C D State Univer-sities 12 10.6% 58 51.4 % 39 34.5 % 4 3.5 % 113 16.2 % 464 17.0 % 24.4 % Private Univer-sities 43 8.9 % 209 43.5 % 218 45.3 % 11 2.3 % 481 89.4 % 2013 73.9 % 23.9 % Institute for Religious Studies 0 0 % 0 0 % 0 0 % 0 0 % 0 0 % 44 1.6 % 0 % Service Institutes 0 0 % 7 50.0 % 7 50.0 % 0 0 % 14 2.6 % 204 7.5 % 6.9 % TOTAL 55 9.0 % 274 45.1 % 264 43.4 % 15 2.5% 608 2725 22.3 % Accreditation results of Diploma (D-3) programs (25 Aug 2004)

  31. TYPE OF INSTIT-UTIONS LEVEL OF ACCREDITATION ACCRE-DITED S-1 STUDY PROGRAMS NUMBER OF S-1 STUDY PROGRAMS ACCREDITED S-1 FROM TOTAL S-1 STUDY PROGRAMS A B C D State Univer-sities 307 23.0 % 697 52.1 % 317 23.7 % 16 1.2 % 1337 25.7 % 1805 25.2 % 74.1 % Private Univer-sities 266 8.0 % 1537 46.3 % 1364 41.1 % 152 4.6 % 3319 63.3 % 4246 61.6 % 78.2 % Institute for Religious Studies 46 9.3% 250 50..6 % 157 31.8 % 41 8.3 % 494 8.4 % 807 12.7 % 61.2 % Service Institutes 3 8.3 % 14 55.6 % 10 33.3 % 0 2.8 % 27 0.6 % 37 0.6 % 73.3 % TOTAL 622 12.0 % 2498 48.3 % 1848 35.7 % 209 4.0 % 5177 6895 75.1 % Accreditation results of S-1 programs (25 Aug 2004)

  32. TYPE OF INSTIT-UTIONS LEVEL OF ACCREDITATION ACCRE-DITED S-2 STUDY PROGRAMS NUMBER OF S-2 STUDY PROGRAMS ACCREDITED S-2 FROM TOTAL S-2 STUDY PROGRAMS A B C D State Universities 15 27.8 % 26 48.1 % 13 24.1 % 0 0 % 54 57.4 % 378 69 % 14.3 % Private Univer-sities 3 7.5 % 14 35.0 % 18 45.0 % 5 12.5 % 40 445.1 % 136 25 % 29.4 % Institute for Religious Studies 0 0 % 0 0 % 0 0 % 0 0 % 0 0 % 37 7 % 0 % Service Institutes 0 0 % 0 0 % 0 0 % 0 0 % 0 0 % 0 0 % TOTAL 18 19.1 % 40 42.6 % 31 33.0% 5 5.3 % 94 551 17.1 % Accreditation results of S-2 programs (Jan 2003 - Aug 2004)

  33. KOPERTIS (Coordinator of Private HE Institutions) • There are 12 regional offices covering all provinces • Their functions include: • Implement supporting policies towards private HE institutions in its jurisdiction • Support implementation of the three HE services • Support resources to private HE institutions • Technical guidance and support to private HE institutions

  34. HE SystemProblems and Constraints • Immature system • Wide variety in stage of development of institutions and programs • Wide variety of quality within programs in different institutions • Wide variety of quality between programs within institutions

  35. HE Quality AssuranceProblems and Constraints • Lack synchronization between internal HEI system and data and external requirements (Self Evaluation, NAB, Competitive Grants) • Limited awareness of HEI senior officials towards the impotance of accurate and complete data collection • Limited data utilization in the decision making process

  36. Accreditation Problems & Constraints • Huge number of programs • Limited number of experts • Limited number of reviewers • Limited funding

  37. PROBLEMS IN COMPILATION OF SELF EVAL, NAB, AND QA DATA • Data spread out over several units and levels • Different data codification and stratification in each unit and HEI • Different content and format between Self Eval, NAB, and HE-QA data • Limited use of data in planning of HEI • Underutilization of existing units for data collection • Underutilization of Self Evaluation data for planning in HEI

  38. References • Badan Akreditasi Nasional Perguruan Tinggi, DGHE of MOE, Akreditasi Dalam Uu Sistem Pendidikan Nasional (Uu No. 20/2003) • DGHE-MOE, Kebijakan Nasional Sistim Penjaminan Mutu Perguruan Tinggi (Spm-pt), “Sub Tema: Sinkronisasi Sistim Penjaminan Mutu Internal (Spm-pt), Epsbed Dan Penjaminan Mutu Eksternal (Akreditasi) • Gunawan, J. Pedoman Penjaminan Mutu (Quality Assurance) Pendidikan Tinggi • M. K. Tadjudin, Capacity Building In Quality Assurance And Accreditation In Higher Education In The Asia Pacific Region • Rapat Kerja Wilayah Pimpinan Perguruan Tinggi Swasta (Pts) (2006), Kebijakan Nasional Spm-pt Untuk Sinkronisasi Sistem Penjaminan Mutu Internal (Spmpt), Penjaminan Mutu Eksternal (Akreditasi) Dan Perijinan (Epsbed)