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    1. Ready for take-off: Preparing teens with ADHD/LD for college Theresa E. Laurie Maitland Ph.D. Coordinator The Academic Success Program for Students with LD/ADHD; A Learning Center Program University of North Carolina At Chapel Hill 919-962-7227 tmaitlan@email.unc.edu

    3. GOOD NEWS ABOUT COLLEGE ATTENDANCE RATES. Number of college students diagnosed with ADHD and/or LD has mushroomed in recent years Tenfold increase since the late 1970s More than doubled since the 1990s; from 1% to 2.4% Make up the largest percentage of disabled students on college campuses References: (ETS, 2007, NCES, 2000, Henderson, 2001)

    4. BAD NEWS ABOUT COLLEGE ATTENDANCE RATES Still only a fraction (47%) of the students who were enrolled in LD classes go on to a postsecondary setting Only 15.9% of these students enrolled in 4 year colleges, the rest were in community colleges or vocational, business or technical schools References: (NLTS2, 2009)

    5. THE HARD TRUTH: GETTING INTO COLLEGE IS ONLY HALF THE BATTLE National Statistics: Five years after starting college: Non-disabled students: 55%-64% were still enrolled or had graduated Disabled: 52% were still enrolled or had graduated References: (NCES, 1999 and 2003)

    6. GOOD NEWS ABOUT COLLEGE EXPERIENCES OF STUDENTS WITH ADHD/LD If they access accommodations and support they may graduate at the same rate as their non-disabled peers Vogel and Adelman (1990, 2000) Dawson College in Canada (Jorgenson et al., 2003) Vogel and Adelman (1990, 2000) 37% within 6 1/2 years Dawson College in Canada (Jorgenson et al., 2003) 50% Vogel and Adelman (1990, 2000) 37% within 6 1/2 years Dawson College in Canada (Jorgenson et al., 2003) 50%

    7. BAD NEWS ABOUT COLLEGE EXPERIENCES OF STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES Only a small number (1/3) of the students who received special education services in high school sought formal accommodations in college References: NLTS2, 2009

    8. BAD NEWS ABOUT ADJUSTMENT TO COLLEGE 50% of college students seek help for emotional/social issues Reference: Kadison, Richard , and DiGeronimo, Theresa Foy.

    9. BAD NEWS ABOUT COLLEGE EXPERIENCES FOR STUDENTS WITH ADHD/LD They may have: Lower grade point averages Be placed on probation more often Take longer to graduate Even lower graduation rates than students with other disabilities References: Barkley, Murphy, & Fischer, 2007; DAmico, personal communication, January 29, 2008; Heiligenstein, Guenther, Levey, Savino, & Fulwiler, 1999; Murray, Goldstein, Nourse, & Edgar, 2000; National Center for Education Statistics, 2003; Newman, Wagner, Cameto, & Knokey, 2009; Rabiner, Anastopoulos, Costello, Hoyle, & Swartzwelder, 2008; Vogel & Adelman, 1990a, 1990b, 2000; Vogel et al., 1998; Vogel, Leyser, Wyland, & Brulle, 1999; Wagner, Newman, Cameto, Garza, & Levine, 2005

    10. Why is the transition to college challenging for many students? College is dramatically different than high school Differences in daily life Inconsistent daily schedule Little external structure: no adult supervision Instant expectation to handle it all Many competing activities and temptations: kid in a candy store, OBF (Overwhelmed by Freedom)

    11. Why is transition to college challenging for all students? Major Differences in Academic Expectations Less time in classes Onus on student to study/learn Larger classes/less interactive Professors content experts More complex and difficult assignments Fewer tests and assignments contribute to grade Less flexibility in grading, adjusting assignments First failure experience, first time needing help

    12. WHY IS TRANSITION TO COLLEGE EVEN MORE CHALLENGING FOR MANY STUDENTS WITH ADHD/LD? Can be even more challenging for students with disabilities Different laws Onus on the student for accessing help Increased academic expectations mismatched with learning differences Deficits in executive functioning and self determination skills are mismatched with demands for independence

    13. Role of adults: part of the problem? Or part of the solution? Enabling: doing something for someone else that he/she should be able to and needs to do for him/herself (rescues, protects modifies the environment rather than teach the person). Or Empowering: responding in ways that actively involve individuals and teach taking responsibility for choices, being accountable for their actions (promotes taking ownership, thinking skills and independence). Reference: Parenting for Prevention: How to stop enabling and start empowering kids. MN: Johnston Institute, Hazelton, 1997 Enabling: To avoid conflict, parents may choose to bail kids out, let them off the hook, accept their excuses, create new excuses, or blame other peopleEnabling: To avoid conflict, parents may choose to bail kids out, let them off the hook, accept their excuses, create new excuses, or blame other people

    14. Transition requires adults to respond in new ways Traditional roles: Authority, Teacher, Fixer, Protector, Director, Advocate May limit growth in executive functioning and self determination skills Deliberately try on new roles: A coaching approach Targeted to promote self understanding, problem solving and decision making

    15. A Coaching Approach Borrowed from sports and life coaching Partnership; teen pilots, adults as co-pilots Students set own goals, plans and design support View teens as naturally, creative, resourceful View failure/struggles/ challenges as opportunities for growth Adults arent in the game stay on the sidelines

    16. Coaching Skills Explicitly design the relationship Ask open ended question, that promote reflection Listen and summarize or acknowledge feelings-not fixing or solving Offer suggestions with no attachment Explicitly design the goals, the plan including the adults role in it: What will you do? When? How? What can I do? Allow consequences to happen, learn from them

    17. An example A teen comes to you and asks you to talk to his history teacher for him. Apparently he has not completed a paper that is due tomorrow and since his IEP allows for extensions he is asking you to request an extension. Examples of an enabling response? Examples of an empowering response or a coaching approach?

    18. An Example A teen who qualifies for extended time on tests forgot to discuss the arrangements with her teacher and shows up in your office in a panic. The teacher refused to give her the test to bring to your office. Examples of an enabling response? Examples of an empowering response or a coaching approach

    19. How to Better prepare teens with ADHD/LD for Take-Off? Raise awareness of stark differences between high school and college Involve parents and teens in transition planning; strategically using the time in high school and a coaching approach Challenge teens to stretch and grow Dont over rely on interventions or responses that : Change aspects of the task or the environment Wont be available in college Dont promote executive functioning and self determination skills

    20. HOW TO BETTER PREPARE TEENS WITH ADHD/LD FOR TAKE-OFF? Promote important daily living, executive functioning and self determinations skills non-academic skills that are critical in college Teach critical study skills/strategies that will be necessary in college Promote good decision making during the college admissions process

    21. Resources Transition Programs & Self Determination National Center on Secondary Education and Transition. http://www.ncset.org/. Burgstahler, Sheryl. DO-IT: Helping Students With Disabilities Transition to College and Careers: Research to Practice Brief Improving Secondary Education and Transition Services through Research September 2003 Vol. 2, Issue 3 retrieved October 20, 2010 from http://www.ncset.org/publications/viewdesc.asp?id=1168. Bremer, C.D., Kachgal, M., and Schoeller, K. Self-Determination: Supporting Successful Transition Improving Secondary Education and Transition Services through Research. Research to Practice Brief April 2003 Vol. 2, Issue 1. Retrieved October 20, 2010 from http://www.ncset.org/publications/viewdesc.asp?id=962. Field, S., Martin, J., Miller, R., Ward, M., & Wehmeyer, M. (1998). A practical guide for teaching self-determination. Arlington, VA: Council for Exceptional Children. Hoffman, A. & Field, S. (2006). Steps to Self-Determination. Austin, TX: ProEd.

    22. Resources: Books 1 Barkin, C. (1999). When Your Kid Goes To College: A Parent's Survival Guide. New York. New York: Avon Books. Beattie, Melody Codependent No More: How to Stop Controlling and Start Caring for Yourself. MN: Hazelden, 1987. Coburn, K., & Treeger, M. (2003). Letting Go: A Parents' Guide To Understanding The College Years, 4*** Edition. New York, New York: HarperCollins. Johnson, H., & Schelhas-Miller, C. (2000). Don't Tell Me What to Do. Just Send Money. New York, NY: St. Martin's Griffin. Kastner, L., & Wyatt, J. (2002). The Launching Years: Strategies for Parenting from Senior Year to College Life. New York, NY: Three Rivers Press. Kadison, Richard , and DiGeronimo, Theresa Foy. (2004). College of the Overwhelmed: The Camus Mental Health Crisis and What To Do About It. San Francisco, CA : Jossey-Bass. Maitland, T., & Quinn, P. (2011). Ready for Take-Off: Preparing Teens with ADHD or LD for College. Washington, D.C. : American Psychological Association ; Magination Press.

    23. Resources : Books 2 Mullendore, R., & Hatch, C. (2000). Helping Your First-Year College Student Succeed: A Guide For Parents.. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, National Resource Center For The First Year Experience and Students in Transition. Pasick, P. (1998). Almost Grown: Launching Your Child From High School To College. New York, New York: W.W. Norton and Company. Parenting for Prevention: How to stop enabling and start empowering kids. MN: Johnston Institute, Hazelton, 1997. Quinn, P., Ratey, N., & Maitland, T. (2000). Coaching College Students with AD/HD: Issues and Answers. Silver Spring, MD: Advantage Books. Quinn, P., & Maitland, T. (2011). On Your Own: A College Readiness Guide for Teens with ADHD or LD. Manuscript submitted for publication. Washington, D.C. American Psychological Association: Magination Press. Sleeper-Triplett, J. (2010). Empowering Youth with ADHD: Your guide to coaching adolescents and young adults. Plantation Florida: Specialty Press.

    24. References 1 Barkley, R. A., Murphy, K. R., & Fischer, M. (2007). Adults with ADHD: Clinic-referred cases vs. children grown up. ADHD Report, 15(5), 1-7, 13. Cortiella, C. (2009, June 8). The state of learning disabilities. New York, NY: National Center for Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.ncld.org/stateofld. DeBerard, M. S., Spielmans, G. I., & Julka, D. L. (2004). Predictors of academic achievement and retention among college freshmen: A longitudinal study. College Student Journal, 38, 66-80. Gerber, P. J., Reiff, H. B., & Ginsberg, P. (1996). Reframing the learning disabilities experience. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29, 98-101. Heiligenstein, E., Guenther, G., Levey, A., Savino, F., & Fulwiler, J. (1999). Psychological and academic functioning in college students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of American College Health, 47, 181-185

    25. References 2 Kuh, G., Kinzie, J., Schuh, J., Whitt, E., & Associates. (2005). Student success in college: Creating conditions that matter. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Mattson, C. E. (2007). Beyond admission: Understanding pre-college variables and the success of at-risk students. Journal of College Admissions, 196, 8-13. Murray, C., Goldstein, D., Nourse, S., & Edgar, E. (2000). The postsecondary school attendance and completion rates of high school graduates with LD. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 15, 119-127. National Center for Education Statistics. (2000). Postsecondary students with disabilities: Enrollment, services and persistence (NCES 2000-092). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2000/2000092.pdf.

    26. References 3 National Center for Education Statistics. (2003). CD-ROM: Beginning postsecondary students longitudinal study: Second follow-up Data Analysis System (DAS) BPS:96/01 (Tables on degree attainment and persistence of 1995-96 beginning postsecondary students in 2001 by disability status and learning disability status). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2003159. Newman, L., Wagner, M., Cameto, R., & Knokey, A. M. (2009). The post-high school outcomes of youth with disabilities up to 4 years after high school: A report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2) (NCSER 2009-3017). Retrieved from www.nlts2.org/reports/2009_04/nlts2_report_2009_04_complete.pdf. Rabiner, D., Anastopoulos, A., Costello, J., Hoyle, R., & Swartzwelder, H. (2008). Adjustment to college in students with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 11, 689-699. Ridgell, S. D., & Lounsbury, J. W. (2004). Predicting academic success: General intelligence, Big Five personality traits, and work drive. College Student Journal, 38, 607-618.

    27. References 4 U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (2000). Postsecondary Students with Disabilities: Enrollment, Services and Persistence. NCES 2000-092. Retrieved March 25, 2010 from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2000/2000092.pdf. U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics(2002). Descriptive Summary of 199596 Beginning Postsecondary Students: Six Years Later, NCES 2003151, by Lutz Berkner, Shirley He, and Emily Forrest Cataldi. Project Officer: Paula Knepper. Washington, DC. U.S. Department of Education National Center for Education Statistics. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study Second Follow-up BPS:96/01. Tables on Degree Attainment and Persistence of 1995-96 Beginning Postsecondary Students in 2001 by Disability Status and Learning Disability Status. Email from Aurora DAmico: January 29, 2008. http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2003159.

    28. References 5 United States Government Accountability Office Report (October 2009) Higher Education and Disability. GAO-10-33 . website: http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d1033.pdf. Vogel, S. and Adelman, P. (1990). Extrinsic and intrinsic factors in graduation and academic failure among LD college students. Annals of Dyslexia(Orton Dyslexia Society), 40, 119-137. Vogel, S. and Adelman, P. (1990). Intervention effectiveness at the postsecondary level for the learning disabled. In T.Scruggs & B. Wong (Eds.) Intervention research in learning disabilities. 329-344. New York: Springer-Verlag. Vogel, S. and Adelman P (2000). Adults with Learning Disabilities 8-15 years after College, Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 10 (3) 165-182 Vogel, S., Leonard, F., Scales, W., Hayeslip, P, Hermansen, J., & Donnells, L. (1998). The national learning disabilities postsecondary data bank: An overview. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31, 234-247.

    29. References 6 Vogel, S., Leyser, Y., Wyland, S. & Brulle, A. (1999). Students with learning disabilities in higher education: Faculty attitudes and practices. Learning disabilities Research & Practice, 14, 173-186. Wagner, M., Newman, L., Cameto, R., Garza, N., & Levine, P. (2005). After high school: A first look at the post school experiences of youth with disabilities: A report from the national longitudinal transition study-2 (NLTS2). ). Retrieved May 16, 2008 from: http://eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/27/fb/9d.pdf.