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Preventing Columbine . Youth Violence as a Public Health Issue Presented by Melissa Kline. Overview of Presentation. Purpose Objectives Why youth violence is a public health issue: Statistics, Healthy People 2010, Groups at Risk

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preventing columbine

Preventing Columbine

Youth Violence as a Public Health Issue

Presented by Melissa Kline

overview of presentation
Overview of Presentation
  • Purpose
  • Objectives
  • Why youth violence is a public health issue: Statistics, Healthy People 2010, Groups at Risk
  • Individual, Family, Peer/School, Neighborhood/Community Risk Factors
  • Protective Factors
  • Federal, State, and Local Resources
  • Training Exercise
  • Summary and Sources Cited
purpose
Purpose

To assemble, educate, and prepare a task force of social work professionals to address the issue of youth violence for the State of Maryland, in an inter-disciplinary team.

slide4
Memo

To: Maternal Child Health Leadership Team

From: Melissa Kline, MSW, MBA

Chair, Maryland Task Force on Youth Violence Prevention

Maryland Senate

CC: Senator Edward Pecukonis

Date: April 2, 2004

Re: Maryland Task Force on Youth Violence Prevention Training

Congratulations! You have been nominated, by Senator Pecukonis, as proven leaders in Maternal Child Health [MCH] Social Work to serve on a task force for Youth Violence Prevention.

Senator Pecukonis requests that you receive training on this topic so that you may work in an inter disciplinary team, along with other experts, addressing this issue as a task force.

The objectives of this meeting will be outlined for you at the training.

objectives
Objectives

1. To provide knowledge on the issue of youth violence as a public health issue, according to *Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General.

2. To provide an overview of resources at the Federal, State, and Local levels.

  • To provide the task force with the opportunity to apply knowledge of youth violence, resources, and social work theory, to a Columbine Case Study .
objective 1
Objective 1

To provide knowledge on the issue of youth violence, according to *Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General.

  • Columbine Video Clip
  • Youth Violence: A public health issue
  • Youth Violence Fact Sheet
  • Healthy People 2010
  • Groups at Risk
  • Risk Factors
  • Protective Factors
slide7
“Violence is a public health issue because of its tremendous impact on the health and well-being of our youth.”

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

youth violence fact sheet
Youth Violence: Fact Sheet
  • In 2002, more than 877,700 young people ages 10 to 24 were injured from violent acts. Approximately 1 in 13 required hospitalization (CDC 2004).
  • Homicide is the second leading cause of death among young people ages 10 to 24 overall. In this age group, it is the leading cause of death for African-Americans, the second leading cause of death for Hispanics, and the third leading cause of death for American Indians, Alaskan Natives, and Asian Pacific Islanders (Anderson and Smith 2003).
  • In 2001, 5,486 young people ages 10 to 24 were murdered, an average of 15 each day (CDC 2004).
  • In 2001, 79% of homicide victims ages 10 to 24 were killed with firearms (CDC 2004).
  • More than 50% of all school-associated violent deaths occur at the beginning or end of the school day or during lunch (Anderson et al. 2001).
  • In a nationwide survey, 17% of students reported carrying a weapon (e.g., gun, knife, or club) on one or more days in the 30 days preceding the survey (Grunbaum et al. 2004).
  • Among students nationwide, 33% reported being in a physical fight one or more times in the 12 months preceding the survey (Grunbaum et al. 2004).
healthy people 2010
Healthy People 2010

Our Nation’s health depends on preventing youth violence. For communities wishing to address some aspect of youth violence prevention, the opportunities to tie in Healthy People 2010 are nearly limitless and include:

  • 15-3 Reduce firearm-related deaths.
  • 15-6 Extend State-level child fatality review of deaths due to external causes for children  aged 14 years and under.

(Developmental objective)

  • 15-32 Reduce homicides.
  • 15-37 Reduce physical assaults.
groups at risk
Groups at Risk
  • Among 10 to 24 year olds, homicide is the leading cause of death for African-Americans, the second leading cause of death for Hispanics, and the third leading cause of death for American Indians, Alaskan Natives, and Asian Pacific Islanders (Anderson and Smith 2003).
  • Of the 5, 486 homicides reported in the 10 to 24 age group in 2001, 85% (4,659) were males and 15% (827) were females (CDC 2004).
  • A nationwide survey found male students (41%) more likely to have been involved in a physical fight than female students (25%) in the 12 months preceding the survey (Grunbaum et al. 2004).
individual factors that increase the probability of violence during adolescence and young adults
INDIVIDUAL FACTORSThat Increase the Probability of Violence During Adolescence and Young Adults
  • Attention deficits/ Hyperactivity
  • Antisocial beliefs and attitudes
  • History of early aggressive behavior
  • Involvement with drugs, alcohol, or tobacco
  • Early involvement in general defenses
  • Poor cognitive or information processing deficits
family factors that increase the probability of violence during adolescence and young adults
FAMILY FACTORSThat Increase the Probability of Violence During Adolescence and Young Adults
  • Poor monitoring or supervision of children
  • Exposure to violence
  • Parental drug/ alcohol abuse
  • Poor emotional attachment to parents or caregivers
peer factors that increase the probability of violence during adolescence and young adults
PEER FACTORSThat Increase the Probability of Violence During Adolescence and Young Adults
  • Association with delinquent peers
  • Involvement in gangs
  • Social rejection by peers
  • Lack of involvement in conventional activities
  • Poor academic performance
  • Low commitment to school and school failure
slide14
NEIGHBORHOOD/COMMUNITY FACTORSThat Increase the Probability of Violence During Adolescence and Young Adults
  • Diminished economic opportunity
  • High concentrations of poor residents
  • High levels of transience
  • High levels of family disruption
  • Low community participation
  • Socially disorganized neighborhoods
protective factors
Protective Factors

“Protective factors are individual or environmental aspects that buffer young

People from the effects of risk….However, to date, protective factors have not been studies as extensively,” (DHHS 2001).

objective 2
Objective 2

To provide an overview of resources at the Federal, State, and Local levels.

federal resources
Federal Resources
  • School Associated Violent Deaths Study (CDC and Departments of Education and Justice).
  • Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (CDC)
  • National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center
  • National Academic Centers of Excellence on Youth Violence
  • All website links can be found at:

Department of Health and Human Services (US). Youth violence: a report of the Surgeon General [online] 2001 Available from: URL: www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/youthviolence. [Cited 2004 Sept 24].

federal resources national academic centers of excellence on youth violence
Federal Resources:National Academic Centers of Excellence on Youth Violence

1. Develops and Implements community response plans

2. Trains health care professionals, and

3. Conducts small pilot projects to evaluate effective strategies for preventing youth violence.

state resources
STATE RESOURCES:
  • “Model and Promising Program” : Maryland Blueprints Manual.
  • * “This manual helps community planning groups select youth-focused prevention programs based on their individual goals and objectives.”
  • * “The programs included in this site have been shown by research to reduce or prevent substance use/abuse, crime, delinquency, and/or anti-social behavior.”
  • *For other Maryland Resources, including the full scope of “Model and Promising Programs,” please refer to Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; Center for the Prevention of Youth Violence. Available at : www.jhsph.edu/PreventYouthViolence. [Cited 2004 Oct 1]
slide20
Advocacy

After-School Resources

Agencies

Bullying

Community Youth Leadership

Evaluation Tools

For and By Young People

For Families

Funding Sources

Gang Resources

Listservs

Maryland Resources

Media Campaigns

Mental Health

Mentoring

Model Programs

Research, Data, and Statistics

School Resources

Youth as Leaders

www.jhsph.edu/PreventYouthViolence.

[Cited 2004 Oct 1]

LOCAL RESOURCES: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthCenter for the Prevention of Youth Violence(CPYV)
objective 3
Objective 3

To provide the task force with an experiential opportunity to apply new knowledge about youth violence, resources, and social work theory, to a Columbine Case Study (for training purposes only).

case analysis
Case Analysis
  • Please review this case file, from your envelope, and highlight risk factors and protective factors in the case.
  • Work as a team to create an intervention plan, using ecological theory (or other relevant social work theory) and existing resources at the individual, family, peer/school and neighborhood/community levels.
  • Prepare to meet with an inter-disciplinary team of public health experts from the CPYV to share your team’s recommendations.
summary of knowledge
Summary of Knowledge
  • 1. You now understand why youth violence is a public health issue by reviewing:

Youth Violence Fact Sheet

Healthy People 2010

Groups at Risk

Risk Factors

Protective Factors

  • 2. You now know where to find resources at the Federal, State, and Local levels.
  • 3. You have reviewed a Case Study, with a team of MCH social workers, and created an intervention plan using knowledge of risk factors, protective factors, resources, and social work theory.
  • 4. You are prepared to share your recommendations in an inter-disciplinary team addressing youth violence as a public health issue.
sources cited
Sources Cited
  • Anderson MA, Kaufman J, Simon TR, Barrios L, Paulozzi L, Ryan G, et al. School-associated violent deaths in the United States, 1994-1999. Journal of the American Medical Association 2001;286:2695–702.
  • Anderson RN, Smith BL. Deaths: leading causes for 2001. National Vital Statistics Report 2003;52(9):1–86.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) [online]. (2004). Available from: URL: www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars. [Cited 2004 Oct 1].
  • Department of Health and Human Services (US). Youth violence: a report of the Surgeon General [online] 2001 Available from: URL: www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/youthviolence. [Cited 2004 Oct 1].
  • Foshee VA, Linder GF, Bauman, KE, et al. The Safe Dates Project: theoretical basis, evaluation design, and selected baseline findings. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Supplement 1996;12(5):39-47.
  • Grunbaum JA, Kann L, Kinchen S, Ross JG, Lowry R, Harris WA, et al. Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2003. MMWR 2004;53(SS-2):1–100. Available from: URL: www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5302a1.htm
  • Lipsey MW, Derzon JH. Predictors of violent and serious delinquency in adolescence and early adulthood: a synthesis of longitudinal research. In: Loeber R, Farrington DP, editors. Serious and violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions. Thousand Oaks (CA): Sage Publications; 1998. p. 86−105.
  • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; Center for the Prevention of Youth Violence. Available from : URL: www.jhsph.edu/PreventYouthViolence. [Cited 2004 Oct 1]