Fedoskino - Федоскиноthe most recognizable style as artists from Fedoskino use a realistic style of painting. Artists use oil paints for their drawings instead of the egg-based temperas of Mstera, Khouli and Palekh. Subjects range from folklore and fairy tales to everyday events of simple village life; from beautiful Russian landscapes and distinctive architecture to the rich history of Russian people. Kholui - Холуй works are known for their tight color palettes, relying on one primary set of tones within the composition. Kholuy has personified the magical elements of Russian folklore Mstera – Mctepa art is recognizable by its characteristic use of pale tones on a light-colored background. Mstera artists have been able to combine elements of their icon painting tradition with new styles. Blue, silver, yellow and red paints prevail in Mstera color spectrum. Mstera imagery is often drawn from songs, legends, and Russian fairy tales. Palekh - Палех boxes are polished with transparent lacquer, that's why the surface is smooth. Each item is unique and signed by the artist. The main themes of Palekh lacquer miniature are fairy tales and genre scenes.
четьре школы искусства Палех 360 Miles Юговостк o Mockbe Холуй Mctepa Федоскино 25 Miles Cebep o Mockbe
Палех В ХVI-ХVII веках в селе зародился иконописный промысел Владимиро-Суздальской Руси в Палехе. Палехские иконы славились особой тонкостью исполнения темперными красками с применением золота. In the 16-17th centuries, there was born the Icon painting of Vladimiro-Suzdalskaya Rus в Палехе. Палех icons were famous for especially fine works painted in distemper with the use of gold. The boxes present expressive masterpieces. The skills of Палех craftsmen are transmitted from generation to generation and are zealously kept in secret. Each box is polished with transparent lacquer, that's why the surface is smooth. Each item is unique and signed by the artist. The main themes of Palekh lacquer miniature are fairy tales and genre scenes.
The Process of Making Палех Boxes • The process of making of the lacquer box is began from making a form box of papier-mache. For this purpose paper strips are glued together with flour paste, wrapped around molds of desire shape, then pressed together, and placed in a drying room. • Then strips are steeped in a hot linseed oil bath, dried again in an airtight oven. This gives the pieces the hardness and strength. It also makes them resistant to changes in weather and climatic conditions. The material neither warps or cracks. • After drying, pieces are sawed, planed and sanded before assembly into a box of the desired size and shape. • Handmade hinges are added to some boxes. The box is primed with paint made of clay, drying oil, and soot. • The primed pieces are dried and covered several times with natural black and clear lacquer on the outside and red lacquer on the inside. All this preliminary work takes about a month and a half for a simply shaped box. • Before starting to paint the scene the artist sands the surface of the box with pumice-stone to make a surface rough - it will allows paints to lay well. Then the artist makes a rough drawing on the surface with a blunt iron needle. • If the drawing is satisfactory, she sets to work with egg tempera, usually first with white zinc and then colored pigments. Every artist begins his working day with the preparation of egg tempera. The white of the egg is separated, vinegar is added, and then the contents are mixed with dry pigment. All pigments are natural and do not fade regardless of exposure to direct sunlight. Pigments are from minerals - yellow ochre, lapis lazuli. As well animal pigments -carmine and crimson lake (made from the dyestuff of the cochineal beetle). Some pigments are from vegetables, such as rose. • For painting squirrel-hair brushes are used. Very often these brushes are made by the artist himself and can be as fine as a single hair. The colors are applied in a strict sequence that dates back to the origins of icon painting. • After painting and varnishing, the gold is applied. A very fine gold leaf is carefully rubbed into gum arabic by finger. Again a squirrel-hair brush is used to apply gold to the painting and on the sides of the box. To give the gold a burnished sheen, the artist polishes it with a wolf's tooth, which has a remarkably smooth surface. • Finally the artist signs her name, the name of village, and the year the box is finished on the top • From 5 to 7 layers of lacquer are applied. • After varnishing the box is polished. Polishing begins on a velvet-covered wheel.
The 4 Painting Traditions • FФедоскино • Fedoskino is a village that is situated in 40 kilometers to the north of Moscow. This one of oldest center of art of lacquer miniature in Russia. At the late 18th century Russian merchant P. Lukutin built his factory in Fedoskino village not far from Moscow. For the first time in Russia the industrial manufacturing of lacquer boxes and brooches was organized there. Through the Fedoskino painters worked in Western European art technique, they used the scenes of Russian everyday life for their miniatures. • Fedoskino work is instantly recognizable. Artists from Fedoskino use a realistic style of painting than the other villages. They use oil paints for their drawings instead of the egg-based temperas. Three to four layers of the oil paints, along with seven coats of lacquer, are applied to each box before it is completed. This layering brings out a radiant quality in the drawings and the colors seem to emanate from within. Sometimes, an underlay of gold leaf or mother of pearl enhances this radiance and adds a lovely iridescence of its own. • Холуй • The Kholuy School of Miniature Painting follows the traditions passed down from the Kholuy Icon School which founded in 1883. The founders were graduates from St. Petersburg Emperor's Academy of Art N. Harlamov and E. Zarin. Since the beginning of the school's existence, it has trained about 2000 artists of miniature drawing and decorative sewing. • The preparation of miniature artists has been conducted since 1943 and is the main course of study at the Kholuy School of Miniature Painting. Students become familiar with the skills necessary to create lacquer miniatures, icon art, and mural art. The high level of training allows graduates from the school to successfully work in the industry by continuing the traditions of Kholuy's founders of lacquer miniature art, as well as work on the revival of icon art. The works of Kholuy miniature art students and graduates are consistently and successfully represented in Russian and international exhibits and competitions. • Kholuy the other village closely associated with Palekh and Mstera, and had its own icon painting tradition. But whereas Palekh produced elegant icons for the nobility, and Mstera produced strict Orthodox icons for the Old Believers, Kholuy icon painters excelled at producing plain and inexpensive icons for the masses of the lower class. Their icons were painted with noticeably simpler, more naturalistic and unconventional than the traditional style • Палех • Palekh is situated in 65 km to the east from Ivanovo town, the capital of the Ivanovo region. Before the Revolution Palekh was on the territory of Vladimir province. In ancient time this land belongs to Vladimir-Suzdal principality. According to a legend Palekh was founded by the people from Vladimir and Suzdal escaped from tatar-mongol invasion. • Since old times Palekh was know as a center of icon painting. With artist from Palekh developed their own style which till this time can be recognized even in modern fashion works. Peculiar and delicate Palekh lacquered miniature art inhaled the main features of ancient Russian painting and people's art. Nowadays Palekh miniature is a part of native decorative-applied art. It has both ancient traditions and poetic vision of surroundings like Russian folk songs and fairy-tales. • Mctepa • Mstera miniature art is recognizable by its characteristic use of pale tones on a light-colored background. Unlike Palekh, the Mstera artists leave no blank spaces in their composition, and the black lacquer exterior of the box is only visible on the sides or bottom of the piece. They have a certain ability to execute a charming and expressive picture within a limited space. Color palettes are more balanced, and human figures are more true-to-life than those of Palekh, yet not without a lingering sense of fantasy • Mstera artists also went a separate direction and experimented with decorative designs. This movement was pioneered by Yevgeney Yurin, who used elements of still nature to create brilliant compositions. Bouquets of flowers, fruits or berries set against a brown, black, green, or blue background and encircled about on all sides by interlaced scrolls, starlets, spots and foliage designs became his trademark. This style was eventually called the "Yurin Ornament," and was further accentuated by a style called "blikovka zolotom" or "adding highlights of gold." Also developed by Yurin, this refers to the technique of painting thin matrix-like patterns of gold paint layered over the colors in a composition of fruit or flowers. • Mstera artists have been able to combine elements of their icon painting tradition with new styles and themes to create wondrously magnificent art. As in the earlier days, Mstera productions and artists receive awards both domestically and abroad, and Mstera miniatures are prized by collectors everywhere.