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My recent topics & projects www.metla.fi/pp/625/index-en.htm The effects of reindeer grazing and conservation in Malla nature reserve www.metla.fi/hanke/3312/index-en.htm Criteria for social sustainability at northern tourist destinations www.arcticcentre.org/landscapelab

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my recent topics projects www metla fi pp 625 index en htm
My recent topics & projects www.metla.fi/pp/625/index-en.htm
  • The effects of reindeer grazing and conservation in Malla nature reserve www.metla.fi/hanke/3312/index-en.htm
  • Criteria for social sustainability at northern tourist destinations www.arcticcentre.org/landscapelab
  • Sustainable multiple use of forests in northern Laplandwww.metla.fi/hanke/3400/index-en.htm
  • PhD study, today's topic:

Cultural Factors of Nature-use in Lapland

study objectives
Study objectives
  • trace cultural meanings that nature and nature-use are loaded among local people in Finnish Lapland
  • trace general needs and interests concerning local nature-use
  • trace tools and practises for culturally sound and successful nature conservation
  • study conditions for integration of different livelihoods and land-use patterns
motives
Motives
  • many environmental conflicts in recent decades have shown that there is a remarkable demand for land-use management that recognizes especially social and cultural sustainability
  • due to rapid economical and cultural change there is also a social demand for integration of new and traditional livelihoods
material methods
Material & methods
  • personal interviews; target group local people, 88 persons were picked up using purposive & snowball sampling
    • qualitative text analyses
  • survey; 1000 persons from stratified random sampling; population: local people aged 18-70, 500 Saami and 500 non-Saami; response rate 38.1%
    • statistical analyses and qualitative text analyses
  • appealed writings from open writing contest targeted to local adults and youngsters; 60 writings
    • qualitative text analyses
theoretical background
Theoretical background
  • is anchored on cognitive anthropology that studies relation between human society and human thought
  • cognitive anthropology studies how people in social groups conceive and understand reality of physical (like forests) and abstract (like sustainable forestry) entities
  • the study tracks shared cultural meanings that these entities are loaded
theoretical background continued
Theoretical background continued
  • shared meanings are organised and represented as cultural models that steer human behaviour together with biological base (genes) and physical environment
  • cultural models are building bricks for understanding the reality and cosmos, and how to operate there
  • concept meme comes fairly close to cultural model
  • by studying cultural models of nature-use we can track needs, hopes, beliefs and values concerning sustainable use of nature

Dawkins 1996; D´Andrade 1995; Shore 1996; Strauss & Quinn 1997; Blackmore 1999

study area facts and figures
Study area – Facts and figures
  • Study area consists of three municipalities: Enontekiö, Inari and Utsjoki
facts and figures
Facts and figures
  • Study area consists of three municipalities: Enontekiö, Inari and Utsjoki
facts and figures12
Facts and figures
  • 91.0 % of land is state owned
  • 65.5 % of land and waters are under some level nature conservation
facts and figures14
Facts and figures
  • 91.0 % of land is state-owned
  • 65.5 % of land and waters are under some level nature conservation
  • 2/3 of timber wood (115 00 m3) comes from state forests of Inari
  • hunting is free for local people in their home municipality
  • tourism is major business nowadays, reindeer herding, public services and forestry (in Inari) are important employers too
slide16
Who should have power of decision on nature-use issues? – given increase and decrease counts at scale 0 to 100; means, N=321-356
slide17

Who should have power of decision on nature-use issues?

Survey in Inari 2005

Hallikainen et al. 2006.

Hallikainen et al. 2006. Inarilaisten käsityksiä metsätaloudesta ja muusta luonnonkäytöstä

important goals for state owned forests divide count 100 between different goals means n 331 348
Important goals for state-owned forests– divide count 100 between different goals; means, N=331-348
nature conservation rate is high and conservationists disliked
Nature conservation rate is high and conservationists disliked…
  • conservation rate 66 % in study area is high while Finland’s total protection rate is 10 % (mainly bogs and non-woodlands)
  • differences between municipalities are strong; woodlands in Inari are less protected and there has been ongoing forestry conflicts since 1980s
  • nature conservation and especially conservationists carry a negative label in local people’s minds at study area
slide22
But:
  • people are happy with existing land-use decisions, they don’t want to reverse them
  • paradox: when asked, people dislike conservation but are satisfied with status quo
  • reason: present land-use decisions support traditional activities and livelihoods like subsistence use and reindeer herding, and they restrict non-local use
we want to rule
We want to rule!
  • there is large demand for increment of local decision-making
  • at the background lies generations old antagonism between north and south, periphery and centre
  • polarisation between north/south or local/non-local is a very strong cultural model that steers the opinions what is acceptable, right or reliable
  • it also produces rhetoric and jargon that is sometimes a barrier against fruitful discussion and collaborative management
but who are we locals
But who are we, locals?
  • it is not clear who is considered as “local”
  • Saami as indigenous people are locals (if living in the area) but also non-Saami families with centuries old occupation history feel like local and are afraid to be marginalised and considered as general Finns
  • locals with one generation occupation history feels also themselves as local
  • government considers local as anybody who is registered in the municipality and therefore he/she has equal extended local rights to natural resources
timescapes of change
Timescapes of change
  • structural and cultural changes after 1950s have been remarkable rapid in the arctic
  • the time shift that took hundreds of centuries in mid-Europe occurred within one generation in the arctic
  • in my study area, northern Lapland, traditional livelihoods and subsistence use are not major source of living anymore
timescapes of change continued
Timescapes of change continued…
  • although, the mental change is always slower than technical and economical change of culture
  • thus people appreciate traditional nature-use patterns even though modern ones like tourism are a much better business and source of living; modern activities are not considered ”real use” in that sense
  • people seem to live some kind of double life somewhere between a forever lost past and the present day
timescapes of change continued27
Timescapes of change continued…
  • that tends to cause minor or major troubles for socio-cultural adaptation
  • it is no wonder if elderly people have problems with synchronising their lifestyle and worldview to present modernity
  • the hybrid timescape local people live by in northern Lapland sets also a challenge for sustainable land-use management that has to operate with needs of past and future
tips for management people conservationists and authority
Tips for management people, conservationists and authority
  • Be moderate when you import. People in northern Lapland are very sensitive - rational or not - to ideas or ideologies that have a mental label “imported from south” (but modern technology goes anytime).
  • Do not stress the importance of culturally distant biological entities (like insects and microbes), the message is easily misunderstood like: “we don’t care for local peoples’ needs”. Stress the support (if it exists) that operation gives to local culture.
tips for management people conservationists and authority continued
Tips for management people, conservationists and authority continued…
  • seek and use common “language” for mutual understanding
  • avoid behaviour that could be interpreted – right or wrong – arrogant
  • be honest
  • good sense of humour helps!