life in new france l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Life in New France PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Life in New France

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 135

Life in New France - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 648 Views
  • Uploaded on

Life in New France. by grade 6T students. next. French – Native Relationships By Erik By Goran By Alison By Bray By James Samuel de Champlain By Edwin By Jon H By Jon W By Liane By Nathanael Jean Talon By Gabrielle By Goran By Nic Madeleine de Vercheres By Erik

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Life in New France


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
life in new france
Life in New France

by grade 6T students

next

life in new france table of contents
French – Native

Relationships

By Erik

By Goran

By Alison

By Bray

By James

Samuel de Champlain

By Edwin

By Jon H

By Jon W

By Liane

By Nathanael

Jean Talon

By Gabrielle

By Goran

By Nic

Madeleine de Vercheres

By Erik

By Ruth

Bishop Laval

By Lynn

By Stephanie N

By Hailey

By Alex

Seigneurial System

By Jon W

By Alyssa

By James

By Stephanie N

By Venico

By Olga

By Steven

Fur Trade

By Alex

By Adam

By Bray

By Jon H

By Liane

By Nathanael

By Justin

By Nic

Etienne Brule

By Dietrich

Jacques Cartier

By Matthew

The Fall of New France

By Dietrich

Lifestyles in New France

By Stephanie C

By Adam

By Alyssa

By Gabrielle

By Hailey

By Matthew

By Ruth

By Alison

By Edwin

By Justin

By Stephanie C

By Venico

By Daniel

By Lynn

By Steven

click on a name to read an article

right arrow > to advance

left arrow < to go back one

Life in New France Table of Contents
slide3

Etienne Brule

Etienne Brule was born in the year of 1592 in Chamingy near Paris. He arrived in Quebec in the year of 1608 with one of his closest European friends Nicolas Marsolet.

He began living with the Huron because Champlain told him so. Brule was a man that wanted to discover, and that led him to be the first European to see lake Superior, lake Huron, and lake Erie. He also went to discover areas along the Susquehanna river. He also went to search the copper mines the Indians told him about.

When Quebec fell to English hands in !629 Brule fled to his Huron friends. After Henrietta de France was married to the English king Charles I England gave back Quebec but no new settlers where allowed to go to new France except the Jesuit Priests, while Etienne was in the Huron Country being good Friends with them.

next

slide4

When the Huron found out that Etienne left Champlain they killed him in a dispute. Brule was the fist man to discover present day Pennsylvania.

EtienneBrule was no good Man that you can rely on because when he went to Huronia he worked half for the English and Half for the French.After Quebec was took in by the English in 1629 Champlain suspects that Etienne led the English to the mouth of the St. Lawrence. After his betrayal the Huron Indians killed him. This is what Champlain said “I will not seek justice for a death of a Traitor”. Brule was not a responsible guy because he only thought of adventure.

By: Dietrich Neufeld

back to Contents

slide5

The Story of Cartier

by Matthew

The king of France sent Jacques Cartier to find a route to the east in 1534.

Twenty days after Cartier left St.Malo he sighted Newfoundland. He entered what is now called the Gulf of St.Lawrence. He then turned south exploring all the bays that might lead west. Cartier found nothing so he went north again. On the Gaspe peninsula, he and his crew built a 10m high cross with a shield saying “Vive le Roi de France” and three fleurs-de-lis.

Cartier did not bring any gold or silver home with him. Nor did he discover the way through America to China and Japan. But he did bring the two young Indians and stories of the fish and the forest. That was enough to make the king of France happy and send Cartier again.

On his second voyage, Cartier took three ships and 110 men. Later on Cartier reached the village of Stadacona and returned the two Indians to their father.

next

slide6

The Indians told Cartier about a village further up the river called Hochelaga. They also told him the river he was following “goes so far no man has never been to the end”

Later on Cartier climbed a hill ha named Mount Real (Royal Mountain) so he could see along the river.He realized he could not follow this river sense it was so skinny and returned to Stadacona to prepare for winter.

During winter, illness came over all of them. Men suffered with bleeding gums, swelling in their legs, arms, and high fever.. The natives showed Cartier the cure for the strange disease called scurvy. But many died. The next spring he left for home.

back to Contents

slide7

Samuel de Champlain

Champlain was a important person in New France. He played a big roll in building the colony in 1608. The colony it self wasn’t big, and the population wasn’t big either. That meant that the defense of the settlement wasn’t very strong. In 1608 there were only twenty-eight men at the colony. By 1609, fourteen of the men died of scurvy and other strange diseases. However, more French arrived at Quebec that spring.

Both the French and the English wanted to get as much furs as possible. The French set up a trading partnership with the Huron and Algonquin.

Champlain married Helene Bouelle, a twelve year old girl when he was forty-three. He married in 1610 in France. In 1620 Helene came to Quebec. Taught the Indians, who loved her for her beauty and kindness. But she found life too lonely in Quebec. In 1624 she returned to France because of homesickness and stayed there forever.

Some of Champlain’s wishes came true. People came from France and started farms along the river banks.

by Edwin

next

slide8

The first person interested in farming the land rather than trading for furs,Louis Hebert was New France’s first real settler. An apothecary, or druggist, by trade, was hired by the fur-trading company which controlled the St. Lawrence region in 1617. For the next ten years he cared for the sick of the colony, both French and Indian, And tilled his soil by hand in his spare time.

Some of Champlain’s wishes didn’t come true. The first French colony and the first English colony in North America were built at about the same time.But, hundred fifty years later, more than 2 000 000 people lived in the English colonies. Only 60 000 people lived in the French colonies. The French colonies would always need help and support from France. The English colonies could survive on their own.

And when the time came for war between France and Britain, it would be the British who would win. Champlain’s hope of French colonies would be over.

By:Edwin Prochorow

next

slide10

Samuel de Champlain

by Jonathon H

The first year Samuel de Champlain came to Canada was in 1603 when he went to the settlement of Taddoussac.

The next year he came back and attempted to start a settlement at St. Croix. Over winter many of his men died of scurvy. By spring 35 of his 79 men had died.

In spring they sailed across the Bay of Fundy and started a settlement called Port Royal later called Acadia. Again during the winter many of his men died of scurvy and they were forced to return to France.

But Champlain was determined to start a settlement. In 1608 he returned to Canada. On the St. Lawrence River where the river narrowed Champlain found the perfect spot. But this place brought bad memories to the French.This was the place where Cartier had tried to build Staddacona but during the winter his crew suffered badly from scurvy. Champlain named this place Quebec which means where the river narrowed. It was made as a fur trading post. This was France’s first settlement in Canada.

next

slide11

By 1609 14 of his 28 men had died of scurvy and other diseases. Champlain that year helped the Huron fight the Iroquois and he shot three natives with his gun. From then on the Iroquois were at war with the French for almost one hundred years.

In 1610 Champlain married a 12 year old girl named Helen Boulle. At this time Champlain was 40 years old. They didn’t know each other very well when they married. In 1620 Helen went to live with Champlain in Quebec. She was 22 and he was 50. 4 years later she left and went back to France.

Champlain died 11 years later in 1635 on Christmas day. Hundreds of Indians attended his funeral.

Jonathon Harder

back to Contents

slide12

Samuel de Champlain

by Jonathon W

The Huron and Montagnais gave him fur and in return he helped them fight in all of their wars. When Champlain sailed the St.Lawrence River about fifty years later to trade furs no one at all lived in Stadicona.

Champlain found only meadows when he went up the St.Lawrence River to Stadicona. Donaconna is a man that had died there after not seeing his home land again. In 1608. Champlain came to Quebec to build a habitation. On the good will of Champlain's native allies Quebec survived. Twenty-eight of Chaplains men lived and four-teen died because of scurvy Champlain is known as the father of Quebec. Champlain went west to trade fur as well as help the Indians in the war.Samuel de Champlain set up a fur trade partner ship so the Indians wouldn’t trade with the English. The people he set up a fur trade partner ship were the Huron and Algonquians.

next

slide13

Samuel de Champlain

back to Contents

When Champlain agreed to help the Huron fight the Iroquois the war almost destroyed all of New France

next

slide14

Samuel de Champlain

by Liane

For 60 years, memories of bitter winter and deaths kept France from trying to settle in America. Some traders came to test, Lawrence to speack furs. Some fisherman made they early trip to load their ships with cod. But no France come to live in Canada.

Other countries continued to explore. To the north, English explorers sought a north west passage to China.The English claimed New found land as an English colony. They wanted abase from which they also wanted a share of the riches, whether furs sor gold, to be found in the New land.

In 1604, a new French expedition, headed by the sieur de monts, witch Samuel de Champlain as one of the ships! Captains and mapmaker for the trip, set out , from France. They dropped an chor in what is now called the Bay of Fundy. They decided to winter on an Island near the mouth of the St. Croix River.

back to Contents

slide15

Samuel de Champlain

by Nathanael

He was born at Brouage, France 1570. He diet at Quebec on Christmas day.

Samuel de Champlain built the first colony at St. Lawrence River. It was the first successful settlement in Canada. That’s way he was often called “ Father of New France.”

Samuel de Champlain wanted land to farm and so he get settlers from France to farm the land. The land was very good,there are growing nun trees, vines, and other fruits.

The French Where friends with the natives, and Micmacs and they helped each other.

Samuels wife was 12 when she married Samuel and Samuel was 40 when they married Her name was Helene Boulee. When she was was 22 she comes with Champlain to Quebec. In 1624 Helene Boulee went back to France and stay there till her death.

Samuel was an excellent Map maker.

next

slide16

Samuel wants to do trade posts in Canada. But for that he needed settlers to trade and slowly the posts grow. In 1606 French fur traders made several attempts.

Samuel and his mans helped the natives and Huron to fight against the Iroquois.

back to Contents

slide17

The Fall of New France

by Dietrich

During the Years of 1758-1763 there was war between England and France . The wars where fought in Europe and in North America.when the English came to Louisburg they attacked the mighty fortress and destroyed it. Then they went along the shores of the St. Lawrence and stopped supplies from being shopped in. Then in 1759 they went over to Quebec and fired cannons at the walls and burned some of the house inside of the walls.

next

slide18

Then one night General James Wolfe led them to the bay named L’anse au Foulon and started to climb the cliffs. Montcalm’s army noticed the English where on the Plains of Abraham so Montcalm sent out his army and they attacked. They attacked the as usual forming two lines being one side the English and the other side French. They got ready and attacked with their guns. After 15 minutes the war ended and the French fled the English won and it lasted only 15 minutes! The sad part is that both Generals died in the Battle. After the battle on the Plains of Abraham the treaty of Paris was signed . Now Canada has two Official languages French and English.

By: Dietrich Neufeld

back to Contents

slide19

Fur trade

by Alex

When New France was just beginning they depended on the fur trade. They had people that would go trade(mostly soldiers )for furs . Some people that traded without a licence are called courier de bois. They would get away with trading without a licence because people never enforced the law enough.

The people that went to New France were mostly trying to get furs . Furs were the best riches of New France. New France used beaver furs to make beaver hats, coats and robes. The fur traders of New France made fur forts where they could trade furs with the Indians. The fur traders made fur trading posts along lake Winnipeg and along the Mississippi river. Each year the fur brigade left to these fur trading posts to trade for furs with the Indians .

slide20

The things that the fur traders traded were liquor . Bishop Laval tried to stop liquor in the fur trade . Governor Frontenac was in charge of the fur trade and stopped Bishop Laval from stopping the liquor use in the fur trade. The people in the fur trade also traded kettles and knives and guns and other weapons. The natives really liked these thing that the the fur traders were giving them. The natives were glad to be able to trade with them.

back to Contents

slide21

The Fur Trade

by Adam

Most of the explorers who went to the west were seeking furs. The best riches of New France were the furs, furs for beaver hats, furs for robes and coats, furs to clothe the people of Europe. These could only come from North America. The French built fur forts where they could stay and trade for furs with the Indians They establishes a chain of trading posts to Lake Winnipeg and along the south to the Missippi. Each year the fur brigade would leave the St. Lawrence for these forts carrying trade goods. The french desire furs made alliances with the Indians nssesary. Without such alliances the fur rich areas beyond such wealth.

back to Contents

next

slide22

The Fur Trade By: Bray

Marten, Muskrat, Otter, and other furs.

At certain fur trading forts the fur trading is done only once a year. The French had also traded clothes. Food, water, and other small goods to the Indians. The trading values are different at different times and at different areas.

next

slide23

The most important animal of the fur trade is the beaver. Lots of the French have build fur forts to stay and trade with the Indians. Once a year the Indians come and trade their furs and other goods to the French.

There are a chain of fur forts that reached from the St.Lawrence river to the lake Winnipeg. The beavers fur that the French had got from the Indians and pressed it down into felt for very nice hats for their heads. The Europeans also traded for Here are examples of fur trading in the 1784:

next

slide24

Number of beaver skins Trade goods 1 34 kg beads 1 12 needles 1 1 unruffled shirt 1 2 hatchets 1 2 pairs of scissors 1 1 pair of shoes 1 1 blanket 2 1 plain hat 6 1coulerd striped blanket 10 to 12 1 gun

type text here

back to Contents

slide25

Fur Trade

by Jonathon H

The first couriers des bois was Etienne Brule. After a few winters with nothing happening in Quebec, he begged Champlain to let him live with the Indians. Champlain let him go and after a few years with the Indians Brule learned their ways and went out on his own. This was the start of the fur trade.

In 1678 the population of the colony was 9000 and 600 of these people were courier des bois. All of these people were breaking the law because only in 1681 did the government start giving out trading licenses. They didn’t give out licenses before that because the of King of France said that if all the people were out trading there would be nobody to defend the colony.

There are two types of hair on a beaver pelt, long skinny hairs and short thick hairs. The French found out that the short hairs were better for making things such as hats, robes and coats. To use the short hairs they had to first rub out the long hairs and then pour a special liquid over the pelt so that they could pull the short hairs off the pelts.

next

slide26

There are also two types of beaver pelts, Castor gras (greasy) and Castor sec (dry).Castor gras had already been worn by the Indians the long hairs had been worn out and from their sweat combined with the smoke of their lodges the French didn’t have to pour the liquid on the pelts. Castor sec had been freshly trapped and the French had to rub out the hair etc. So the Castor gras pelts were more valuable to the French.

Every year 400-600 Indians come to trade with the French. It was a noisy, festive occasion with lots of drinking. The Indians came with huge canoe loads of furs and after the trade they had little to show for what they had brought.The French got many times what they gave the Indians when they sold the furs in France.

The fur trade played an important role in New France an was the main source of wealth.

Jonathon H.

next

back to Contents

slide27

New France

by Liane

Food: The people of New France had to produce as much of their own food as possible. The farmers were called habitants. They ate a lot of meat from farm animals such as cattle and pigs, and from wild animals such as birds, fish, moose, rabbits, and porcupines. Else are long fish that look a little like snakes. In their gardens, habitants grew such vegetables as corn, beans, peas, asparagus, cabbage, and cucumbers.

They also grew fruit trees, berries, and nuts. Most meals in duded milk and cheese. To prevent it from going bad, meat and fish had to be eaten as soon as the animal was killed, or else smoked, salted, or dried. In the winter meat could be left out in the cold until frozen, then kept in a small shed attached to the house. Berries could be cooked with sugar to make jam.

Clothing: In the early years of New France, there were few sheep to provide wool for clothing.

next

slide28

Cloth was made from of woven line or hemp, both of with are made from plants that could be grown in New France. This clothing was lined wit leather or fur for warmth. When the habitants began to raise sheep, the women spun the wool and woven cloth. Woolen under clothes kept them warm in Winter. Women wore long dresses. They might wear several skirts for warmth. Over the dresses they sometimes wore aprons and shawls.They wore small with caps or bonnets on there head. Men wore leather breaches, woven shirt, and leather jackets. Thy often wore wool caps called toques.

In Quebec, some wealthy people wore the fine silk and long wigs that were fashionable in France.

Homes: Most houses in New France had stone foundations. Walls of house build in the 1600s were of square -cut timbers space between the limbers, were filled with mortar house build the 1700s often had walls of stone were covered with pine boards, witch were with washed. The roofs, made of thatch or overlapping boards, were with washed. The roofs boards, were sleepy sloped so snow would slide off.

next

slide29

Until the 1740s, when glass became available, windows were made of greased paper or skin. These windows let in a little light ,but no one could see out them. The house of the habitants often had only one room with an attic above for sleeping.

The seigneur usually had a large house. The most Important part of the house, was the large stone fireplace, witch gave heat and light. Wealthy people might have an iron stove as well.

Church: The Church was very important in life of New France.Every day began and ended with prayers. The priest was expected to advise people who were not behaving as they were expected to do.

The priest was asked to bless the crops. The people prayed together a good harvest.

The people in New France were not work on Sunday’s. There were many other religious holidays and saints day during the year.

Prayers and religious studies were an important part of every school day.

back to Contents

slide30

Fur Trade

The mans how go trading where just the riche mans and they where called the coureur de bois “runners of the woods”. The coureur the bois did long distances with there bark canoes. The women's would do pemmican what the fur traders would carry with them on there long trips.

In 1743 explorers first found the foothills on there fur trade trip.

The young mans where exited to go trading but but they had to work on the farm But they doesn't wont to work on a farm they wanted to go trading.

The main reasons from 1600s to 1800s was the fur trade. The most important fur was the beaver and it was used for hats, clothing, robes, and coats. The fur just come from America.The fur was pressed into felt and and out of the felt they make fashionable hats for Europe. They also traded for marten, muskrat, otter, and other furs. The trading is one time a year and it would last one or two weeks. The Indians would set up a camp to trade.

By; Nathanael Bergmann

next

slide32

Fur Trade

by Justin

From the early 16oo’s until the 1800’s the main business in Canada was the fur trade carried on between the Indians and the English or french. The most important fur was the beaver.

Beaver fur was pressed into felt to make hats that were fashionable in Europe. As Europeans traveled inland they also traded for marten,muskrat,otter and other furs.

The fur most wanted by the traders or the pacific coast was that of the sea otters. Indian and metis women made pemmican the food that the fur traders carried with them on their long trips.

Women also made the warm skin and fur clothing that the traders needed to keep them warm in the winter and snow shoes that they needed to travel over snow. Many fur traders married Indian women and learned to speak cree or other Indian languages.

These women learned to speak the European language of their husbands. They became interpreters between the Indian and the traders.

Indian and metis women often knew the travelling routes of western Canada. Some European explorers were guided by their Indian or metis wives and their relatives.

next

slide33

These women learned to speak the European language of their husbands. They became interpreters between the Indian and the traders.

Indian and metis women often knew the travelling routes of western Canada. Some European explorers were guided by their Indian or metis wives and their relatives.

back to Contents

slide34

The Fur Trade

by Nic

The people of New France used the beaver fur for warmth. In the 1500s the beaver fur was a symbol showing if a person was rich or poor. They use the beaver fur because their work is half done. The pelts of a beaver which were brought downriver by craft to the French trading posts were of two types, castor grass, and castor sec. The beaver fur was very important to France.

The competition is so great for the furs that traders from many different nations have settled along the pacific. Other traders followed them hoping to get quick profits. The Nor'easters seemed to be most determined and successful.

slide35

The French desire for Canadian furs is which made the alliances with the Indians happen. Without alliances rich fur areas beyond Quebec and Montreal would be closed to the French. Without on the fur trade.

The demand for Canadian furs was created by fashion in Europe. The fur trade was a very profitable business. Each year ships with supplies from France would bring provisions for the colony and goods to be used in the trading with the Indians. The trade items were of two types, those which are useful, like iron goods, fire arms and blankets, and those which weren’t very useful, like beads, a variety of colored trinkets and brand. The impacts of these products of a more technologically advanced society was profound.

slide36

type text here

back to Contents

slide37

Francois De Laval

by Alex

When Francois De Laval was a small boy he wanted to be a missionary. He also liked to explore different places. He liked to learn about the bible.

When he became older he became a Jesuit priest. He also tried to increase the power of the catholic church, and in 1658 he became a bishop of the catholic church.The next year he went to lead the church in New France. He lived by the strict rules of piety . He slept on a hard bed and ate simple food.He also chose to live in poverty.In 1663 he started a minary for training priests. He also brought missionaries to New France.He didn’t like makeup, fancy clothes ,parties or games. He lived a holy life.

next

slide38

He liked to help people in the hospital. He worked day and night caring for the sick and hungry. He even made their beds for the sick and hungry .In 1674 Francois De Laval became the first bishop of New France. He also started schools in New France.And in 1812 they made Laval university. Their was also many other schools named after him.

He even tried to stop liquor in the fur trade, but governor Frontenac stopped him from taking away liquor in the fur trade. In 1688 Francois De Laval retired as bishop of New France. He lived the rest of his life in Quebec . Before he died he gave away all that he owned. He even shared his last meal with the hungry . Francois De Laval died in 1708 at 81 years old.

back to Contents

slide39

Bishop Laval

by Hailey

Bishop Laval was the first official bishop at New France. His full name was Bishop François de Laval. Bishop Laval first came to New France in in June. 1659.Later he was appointed bishop.

The job Bishop Laval had was not an easy one. First he had to be appointed Bishop. Then he needed to show that he was a good leader of the church. Then he needed to be kind to the people of the colony.

He did a lot for New France, under the government the king had set up. Some of the things he did were he started a school, and a hospital, he also cared for the sick.

next

slide40

He also encouraged many priests to go to New France. Some other things were he started a school to teach the people of New France, the trades so they could help the colony.

Bishop Laval enforced strict morals. He Also was a big opponent of the sale of brandy to the native people.

He was the founder seminary of Quebec. In 1663 Bishop Laval trained the new priests for work among the colony and the people of New France, and natives.He also helped the new priests around the colony.

He over ruled the authority of the king of France. Something else he did was

next

slide41

the not only reported to the king of France, but he reported the Rome as Well.

When he was in New France he never got married. After he started schools, and hospitals he worked in them for a while.

Because he was the best Bishop of New France, and he did so much for New France He is going to be remembered for a long time in Canadian history.

back to Contents

slide42

Bishop Laval

by Stephanie N

In New France, the first bishop was Francois de Laval. Francois de Laval, or known as Bishop Laval, had done a lot for his little town of New France in Quebec, which became big with the help of the governor and intendant.

Bishop Laval had a lot of jobs to make New France a bigger place. Laval represented the church, was in charge of missionaries, of the churches, hospitals, the schools and missions to the Natives. Bishop Laval thought that missionary work was very important.

He started a college in New France so that priests could be trained to work in the churches.

.He helped nuns who nursed and taught people. He also started schools and hospitals. The schools taught people a lot of different trades that could help the colony.

next

slide43

In the Jesuit college taught people courses in: training priests, mathematics for surveyors, map makers, navigators and engineers, hydrography, arts: painting, sculpture, gliding, cabinet making, trades: carpentry, joinery, slating (roofing) shoe repairing, tailoring, building construction, tool-making lock smithing and agriculture.

Francois de Laval was very active in political matters. This caused conflict among the certain officials of the colony. In the 1665, the influence started to decrease.

The bishops of New France were: Francois de Laval,1674-1688, Jean Baptiste de la Croix Cheveriere de Saint-Valler,1688- 1727, Louis Francois Dupless de Mornay1727-1733, Pierre Herman Dosquet, 1733-1739, Francois Louis Pourroy de Lauberiviere, 1739-1740, and Henri-Marie Dubreuil de Pontbriand, 1741-1760.

back to Contents

slide44

by Stephanie C

In the early years of New France, there was barely any sheep to provide wool for clothes. Cloth was made of linen and hemp. Both of these types of cloth is made from a plant that could be grown in New France.

Most of their clothes had fur or leather inside for more warmth. When the habitants began to raise sheep, the women spun the wool and wove the cloth.

Woolen underclothes kept the people warm in winter, and absorbed perspiration in summer.

Women’s Clothing

Women wore long dresses. They sometimes wore several skirts under their dress for warmth.Over the dress they wore an apron and a shawl.On their heads they wore small white caps or bonnets.

next

slide45

Men’s Clothing

The men wore leather breeches,woven shirts and leather jackets. They often wore woolen caps called tuques.

The shoes they wore were made of leather, which were called moccasins, and wooden clogs.

In Quebec, some of the rich people wore fine silks and long wigs that were very fashionable in New France.

By: Stephanie Christiuk

back to Contents

slide46

Life Styles By: Adam B

They produce as much of their food as possible. They eat lots of meat from farm animals such as cattle, pigs, and wild animals such as birds, fish, moose, rabbits, porcupine and eels. The eels were a major part of New France’s food. In New France they eat bacon twice a day. They eat no veal or sheep. When sheep die the pigs eat the remains. The people of New France eat lots of vegetables not including asparagus and artichokes. They grow hard cabbages and turnips. They also grow fruit trees, berries, and nuts. The habitants made whole wheat bread out of the wheat the grow. There breakfast would be pancakes and milk

Early in New France there were few sheep to provide wool for clothing. Clothing was made of woven linen or hemp. They grew plants that they could get it from. The clothing had leather or fur for warmth When a habitant begins to raise sheep women spun the wool and wove cloth. The woolen underclothes kept them warm in the winter and absorbed perspiration in the summer.

Women wore long dresses they might wear several skirts for warmth. Over the dresses they might wear aprons or shawls. They wore small white caps or bonnets. Men wore leather breeches woven shirts and leather jackets they often wore woolen caps called tuques. Shoes were leather moccasins or wooden clogs

next

slide47

Women wore long dresses they might wear several skirts for warmth. Over the dresses they might wear aprons or shawls. They wore small white caps or bonnets. Men wore leather breeches woven shirts and leather jackets they often wore woolen caps called tuques. Shoes were leather moccasins or wooden clogs.

Most homes in New France had stone foundations. Walls of houses built in the 1600’s were square cut timbers. Houses built in the 1700’s often had walls of stone sometimes the stones were covered with pine boards which were whitewashed. The roofs made of thatch or overlapping boards. The roofs were steeply sloped so snow would fall off the roofs. Until the 1740’s when glass became available windows where made of greased paper skin, these windows let in A little light but no one could see out of them.

next

slide48

When the first french colonists arrived in New France various Ameridin communities already occupied the territories and practiced there own religion. Based on the unit, and coherence. The catholic clergy organized itself early on. In 1763 at the time of conquest, French Canadians maintained the free exercised of the religion of the church.

back to Contents

slide49

Lifestyles in New France

by Alyssa

Food- The habitants ate four meals a day. They rose early and worked for several hours, then came to the house for a breakfast consisting of wheat pancakes, whole wheat bread and creamy milk. They also ate three other meals, lunch at noon, a light dinner a four and a large dinner at eight. For the meals other than breakfast the habitants enjoyed food such as cheese, milk, whole wheat bread, tourtiere or meat pie and sipaille or wild game pie. If you were invited to someone else’s house for supper, you had to bring your own knife.

next

slide50

Clothing-In summer, the women wore long dresses and shawls. In the house, women wore aprons for housework like cleaning and baking. A bonnet was worn at all times when a woman was outdoors.

Men wore deerskin pants and moose skin jackets. In winter, they wore a fur or woolen hat called a tuque.

Deerskin and moose skin was made into leather for warm mittens and boots in winter.

Men wore moccasins in summer and boots in winter. Women wore wooden clogs in summer and boots in winter.

next

slide51

Shelter-A habitant’s home was usually one room. The fire provided all the heat and light, as well as being the only source of heat for cooking.

The homes were made of stones from the ploughed field. To hold the stones together they used mortar. Boards then covered the house to protect the mortar from the rain. If the habitants were lucky to have a separate bedroom, they would probably have a canopy style bed.

A habitant made all of his own furniture. He made chairs, benches, tables and beds.

The floors of the home were wood, and in winter they could be very cold. Hooked or woven rugs helped to keep the habitants feet warm.

next

slide52

Religion- Most of the habitants of New France were Catholic. They went to church at least once a week. The Catholic church was very important to the people of New France. There were many priests and missionaries that came from France to New France to live among the natives to try and convert them. Sainte Marie among the Hurons was the first Native-French settlement.

back to Contents

slide53

Lifestyles in New France

by Gabrielle

In New France, the clothing was made from woven or hemp, both of which are made from plants that could be grown in New France. The habitants life started to change when they began to raise sheep’s, the women spun wool and wove clothes. The woolen under clothes kept them warm in the winter and absorbed perspiration in the summer.

Women wore long dresses. They might wear several skirts for warmth. Over their dresses they sometimes wore aprons or shawls. They also wore small white caps or bonnets on their heads. Men wore leather breeches, woven shirts, and leather jackets. They often wore woolen caps called toques. The women and men shoes wore leather moccasins or wooden clogs. Some wealthy people wore fine silks and long wigs that were fashionable in New France.

next

slide54

Homes and Furniture in New France

In New France habitants built their houses using logs, excellent insulations against the wind and the cold. Most houses had stone foundations. Sometimes the stones were covered with pine boards, which were white washed. The walls of the houses built in the 1660s were of square- cut timbers. Some houses that are built in the 1770s of ten hard walls of stones. The roofs made of thatch or overlapping boards, were steeply sloped so snow would slide off easily. When the glass isn’t available yet, the habitant used greased paper or skin for their windows. This windows let in a little light, but no one could see out of their houses.

.

next

slide55

The houses of the habitants often had only one room with an attic above for sleeping. The most important part of the house was the large stone fireplace which gave heat, light, and used for cooking

The habitants also made their own furniture, usually of birch or pine. It would include a table, chairs, benches with backs, cupboards, cradles, bench-bed and cots made by their hands, during the long winters. Some habitants often painted their furniture with homemade paint and most of them painted their furniture red.

In the 1660s, some people make their beds with walls and with a door, making them like tiny rooms. In the 1700s, bed sometimes had curtains.

next

slide56

The floors of the habitants were usually made from wood and have homemade rugs woven, braided, or hook from rags. Hand hooked rugs made the room cozy and comfortable.

back to Contents

slide57

New France’s Religion

by Hailey

The religion of New France was very important. Most of the settlers were roman catholic. In New France there were three main religions Roman Catholic, Muslim, and there were protestants.

There were many protestants also. Protestants were prohibited from settling in New France. Protestants from France did want to settle in New France, but the Roman Catholics did not want to have protestants churches.

next

slide58

They wanted to keep Roman Catholic the main religion. Many protestants did settle in the end.

Protestants were permitted with there families in New France. They got jobs at New France and work along side with the other settlers.

Roman Catholic was very important to the people of New France, because they brought with them when they left France.

Muslim was also brought from France, when some of the Muslims settled in New France.

The church was very powerful Priests taught stern moral teachings.

next

slide59

Missionaries were brought to New France first, then priests, and then nuns. Religious orders owned much of the land. They helped and ran schools ,and hospitals.

Catholic organizers were in charge of spreading catholic faith.

In 1653 Marguerite Bourgeois came to New France. She taught both French and Indian girls. Before that the girls were taught by the Ursuline sisters,Before Marguerite came to New France. New France and she taught at Notre- Dame. They also helped Marguerite at Notre- Dame.

The End

back to Contents

slide60

Life Style

by Matthew

New France ate cheese and milk for their yummy dairy products that they got from the farmers cows. Cabbage was grown in the summer time by the farmers (habitants). Eels came from the fishermen who battled the seas in their ships and fought the weather. Meat pie must have been on of their healthiest meals and tastiest meals but you cant call it dessert. Pancakes for breakfast would have been a hardy meal and Canadian maple syrup (the best syrup in the world) for an extra kick of energy.

For the clothes in New France they wore moccasins made of fur and leather from animals caught by the natives and traded to their Courier de bois and given to the French. When Jean Talon became intendent he introduced sheep so they used wool for clothes like sweaters. They have jackets made of leather, fur and at the sides of the hood they hade wool from the sheep. They had gloves made of leather on the outside and fur in the inside. Their gloves had wool too.

next

slide61

They had furniture like beds with a roof and curtains so they wouldn’t get dirty while sleeping. They had pine wooden floors. They had it rough because they needed to make their own furniture. They had stone fire places (must have been cozy). Their houses had really steep roofs so rain could drip off easily. They had stone foundations. They used birch or pine wood for their furniture. Life in New France was tough.

back to Contents

slide62

Lifestyle’s of New France

by Ruth

The Food

The people of New France had a regular schedule for meals.At dawn they got and after a few hours of work sat down to a breakfast of wheat pancakes, bread (baked at the bake oven) and a bowl of creamy milk. At noon a light lunch was eaten. A small meal was eaten at four’o clock and the main meal, supper, was at eight’ o clock.

next

slide63

They ate meat from moose, caribou, porcupine, hare, wild fowl, fresh and salt water fish, eels, domestic animals and more. They also ate vegetables they grew in their gardens which consisted of cabbages, cucumbers, melons, peas, beans, asparagus, Indian corn and more. Most meals included milk, cheese, and bread. Two favourite’s were tourtiere (meat pie) and sipaille (a wild game pie). Dessert was nuts, fresh currants, cranberries and jams made with strawberries, raspberries or blackberries.

next

slide64

Religion

The first bishop of New France was Francois de Laval. When the company of One Hundred Associates was started by Cardinal Richelieu, he decided that only members of the Roman Catholic Church could live in the colony.

next

slide65

In 1635, Jesuits were sent to Quebec to teach a school for boys. The Ursuline Congregation of nuns was sent to do the same for the girls. In New France all hospitals were staffed by nuns and started by a bishop. There was a church with priests and nuns in every town. In New France, being a priest or nun was not easy or comfy.

back to Contents

slide66

Lifestyles in New France

by Alison

HOUSES IN NEW FRANCE: Houses were built of wood but towards the end of the XVII century more stone houses were being built.

Most houses were one or two-story, and there was at least one chimney to heat the house and cook the food.

It wasn’t possible to ship big windows yet so ships imported from France small panes of glass that could be assembled into light windows. People who did not have them, put up waxed or oiled paper in the panes. It wasn’t transparent but it let in a little light. Candles or lanterns burning whale, seal, or porpoise oil provided light.

The houses were cold in winter so they had to increase the burning of wood, but that increased fire hazards which happened often.

next

slide67

Some of the first cast iron stoves were imported from France at the end of the XVII century, but still only rich families could afford them.

And when it was really cold, they would gather around the hearth.

Pioneers built their own furniture like beds, cupboards, tables, chests, benches, and chairs.

FOOD: Early settlers had to produce almost all their food, farm families had to grow enough food for them and their animals, to last them for the winter. In their gardens they planted peas, beans, asparagus, onions, and carrots. Cucumbers were sliced and eaten with salt, they also ate fresh melon with sugar. Cows were important for meat and milk. Milk was sometimes made into butter or cheese. Meals mostly consisted of milk and cheese. They ate four times a day. (More pictures are on the next page)

next

slide68

More Pictures:

back to Contents

slide69

Life In New France

by Edwin

Living in New France wasn't easy. If you were a girl, you would learn how to cook, bake and spin. If you were a boy you would learn how to run a farm, or if you would become a coureur de bois. You would need to learn how to hunt, trap and survive.

Clothing: Flax stems can be made into linen, which farm families used along with wool from their sheep. The women spun the wool from and wove cloth. Woolen underclothes kept them warm in winter and absorbed perspiration in summer. Women wore long dresses. They might wear several skirts for warmth. Over the dresses they sometimes wore aprons and shawls. They wore small white caps called bonnets on their heads. Men wore leather breeches, woven shirts and leather jackets made from moose or deer skin. They often wore caps called toques. Shoes were leather moccasins or wooden clogs. In the city of Quebec, some rich people wore the fine silks and long wigs that were modern in France.

next

slide70

Homes: Most houses in New France had stones foundations. Walls of houses built in 1600’s were of square-cut timber. Spaces between the timber were filled with mortar. Houses built in the 1700’s often had walls of stone. Sometimes the stones were covered with pine board. The roofs, made of thatch or overlapping boards, were steeply sloped so snow would slide off. Until the 1740’s, when glass became available, windows were made of skin. These windows let in a little light, but no one could see out of them. The houses of the habitants often had only one room with an attic above for sleeping. The seigneur usually had a larger house. The most important part of the house was the large stone fire place, which gave heat and light.

By:Edwin Prochorow

back to Contents

next

slide71

Food

by Justin

The people of New France had to produce as much of their own food as possible. The farmers were called habitants. They ate a lot of meat from farm animals such as cattle and pigs and from wild animals such as birds fish moose rabbits and porcupines .

Two favorites dishes were tourtiere (meat pie) and sipaille (wild game pie).

. The people of New France were also very fond of eels. . Eels are long fish that look a little like snakes

They were caught in baskets in the river. They were often salted smoked or dried In their gardens habitants grew such vegetables as corn , beans, peas, asparagus, cabbage and cucumbers.

They also grew fruit trees,berries and nuts. Habitants made whole wheat bread from the wheat that they grew on their farm and ground at the mill.

next

slide72

Most families had large out door ovens built of stones held together with clay. Once or twice a week these large ovens were heated with wood fires.

The habitants got up early and put in about two hours of work before breakfast.At about eight o’clock they would have a breakfast that might be bread pancakes and milk.

they ate again at noon and around four o’clock but the biggest meal was after they finished the day’s work at about eight o’clock in the evening. Most meals included milk and cheese. The people of New France had to learn how to preserve food so they would have something to eat during the winter mouths.

back to Contents

slide73

Food in New France

by Stephanie C

In New France, most meals included milk and cheese.

The habitants( those were the farmers), and everyone else woke up at around 6 o’clock in the morning, and ate at around 8 o’clock in the morning. For breakfast they had milk ,bread and wheat pancakes.

The next meal was at around noon, and also at 4 o’clock.The biggest meal was at around 8 o’clock. To keep their food fresh, the meat and fish that they caught were eaten once the animals were killed. Most of the food that they ate was from the farm animals. Some of the animals they ate were, cow, and pig. Wild animals they ate were, bird, fish, moose, rabbits and porcupines.

Two of their favorite foods were, tourtiere (meat pie), and sipaille (wild game pie). They also liked eels. They caught the eels by using baskets and putting the baskets in the rivers. After they were caught, they often salted, smoked, or dried the eels.

In a habitants garden, you can find vegetables growing. You can find corn, beans, peas, asparagus, cabbage, and cucumbers.

jam was made by mixing berries and sugar together.

next

slide74

People made whole-wheat bread by using the wheat that grew on farms. Then they grounded the wheat in the mill. Most people,(families) had an outdoor oven, that was made of stone and patched with clay.

New France learned how to preserve food, so they would have food for the winter. Also. In winter they leave their food outside until the food was frozen. Then they moved their food to a shed that is attached to their house.

By: Stephanie Christiuk

back to Contents

slide75

Lifestyle in New France

by Venico

Clothing

In New France, there were a few sheep to provide wool for clothing. Cloth was made of linen or hemp, both of which are made from plants that could be grown in France. The women spun the wool and wove cloth. The Habitants began to raise sheep to provide wool for clothing.

Women wore long dresses. They might wear several skirts for warmth. Over the dresses they sometimes wore aprons and shawls. They wore small white caps or bonnets on their heads.

Men wore leather breeches, woven shirts, and leather jackets. They often wore woollen caps called toques.

next

slide76

Food Shoes were leather moccasins or wooden clogs. Men wore clothing made of moose and deer skins. In Quebec some wealthy people wore the fine silks and long wigs that were fashionable in France.

Food

The people in New France had to produce most of their own food for the family. The people in New France ate a lot of meat such as cattle and pigs, and wild animals such as birds, fish, moose, rabbits, and porcupine. Eels were caught in baskets in the river. They were often salted, smocked, or dried. Habitants grew foods such as vegetables as corn, beans, peas, cabbage, and cucumbers. They also grew fruit trees, berries, and nuts. Most families had large outdoor ovens built of stones held together with clay. At about eight o’clock they had breakfast that might be bread, pancakes, and milk. They ate again at noon and around four o’clock, but the biggest meal was after they finished all the days work at about eight o’clock in the evening.

next

slide77

The most meals they ate included milk and cheese. The people of New France had to learn how to preserve food so they would have something to eat during the long winter months. To prevent food from going bad, meat and fish had to be eaten as soon as the animal was killed, or else it would be smoked, salted, or dried. In the winter meat was stored outside until it was frozen, then kept in a small shed attached to the house. Berries could be cooked to make jam.

back to Contents

slide78

French-Native Relationship

By Erik Wiebe

The Huron and the Iroquois were enemies. So when the French befriended the Huron they too became enemies with the Iroquois nation (Iroquois means rattle snake). The French and Huron friendship grew but with the Iroquois they had many conflicts, here is one of them…

In July 1609 Samuel de Champlain agreed to help his Huron friends fight the Iroquois. He and two men wearing steel breastplates and helmets and carrying arquebuses (a type of musket) were led by Huron braves to what is now Vermont and New York States. There they found an Iroquois village. A party of two hundred Iroquois who had never seen guns attacked the Huron. Champlain took aim with his musket and shot one of the chiefs and wounded another , who later died. Seeing their chiefs dead the Iroquois lost hope and abandoned the field and their fort, fleeing deep into the forest.

Another conflict was the Battle at Long Sault.

When Dollard des Ormeaux heard that the Iroquois were gathering to attack Ville Marie, he volunteered to take a small amount of men up the Ottawa river and attack the Iroquois before they could organize an attack. This would give the colony time to prepare it’s defences. When the government of Ville Marie agreed to his plan, Dollard chose sixteen unmarried men and went up the river to meet the gathering enemy.

next

slide79

On May 1 1660 they reach an abandoned fort at the Long Sault rapids, located 500km north of Montreal, and prepared to defend it.

When an Iroquois scouting came down the river, Dollard and his men killed all but one brave who managed to warn the main war party of 300 men. Dollard’s men beat them off during the first attack. The Iroquois retreated back to the forest and waited for five days. On the fifth day reinforcements of 800 Iroquois arrived. They waited three more days then with the new numbers they launched a full scale attack, coming from all sides they lit the walls on fire. Dollard’s men were forced to use their guns as clubs in hand to hand combat. Dollard quickly made a bomb of gunpowder, lit it and tried to throw it over the wall. It bounced off the barricade and blew up in their faces. Several men were killed, others were burned or blinded. In the confusion the Indians swarmed over the walls and killed everyone. The Iroquois gave up attacking Ville Marie because they already had lost one third of their force.

The French and Iroquois remained enemies and never really stopped fighting.

next

slide80

The Battle at Long Sault

back to Contents

slide81

The French And Native Relations

The French depended on the Hurons and Algonquins to help them over winter from a disease called scurvy. When Jacques Cartier landed in landed in Canada, the Hurons taught him how to make a drink by boiling the bark of a Cedar tree to cure scurvy. The Hurons and Algonquins gave them seeds to grow vegetables like corn and squash. They showed the French how to make toboggans, snowshoes, and canoes. The French began wearing some parts of Indian clothing,and especially Moccasins.

When Samuel de Champlain started up New France, he made an alliance with the Hurons and Algonquians. He started a war between the Hurons and the Iroquis and this meant that the Iroquis became their enemies. Since the Iroquis joined the British they had even more reason to be enemies with the French. The Iroquis and French have fought many battles. These battle were fought close to people’s homes. Several Iroquis villages have been burnt down to the ground during the fighting. The settlers were unable to wander

by Goran

back to Contents

slide82

French and Native Relationships.

by Alison

When the French came, what better friends to make, they thought, then with the aboriginal people, the Huron.

See, the French needed Indians in fur trade and defense against the British and the Iroquois, so they made alliances with the Huron people. Also making friends with the aboriginal people made the French hope that they would follow the religious ways of the French and the French society.

French men were married to aboriginal woman, and soon it became very common. The French traders had advantages if they married aboriginal woman because it was a strange land to the French and the aboriginal woman knew this land well.

next

slide83

Also the woman could help make beaver pelts for the market. “And we shall be be one people,” Champlain said about the French men and the native woman getting married.

The French needed goodwill from the aboriginal people very badly, and they thought it would be a good idea to help the fur trade. The aboriginal people thought it would help make military alliances.

This relationship was not to be taken lightly because the French really needed them as friends and allies in fighting with the Iroquois and British, and fur trade. So they weren’t sure if they should treat the aboriginal people as allies or subjects with the colonists of New France.

next

slide84

But obviously it was a good trade off, because when they were fighting with the British, the British had the Iroquois Indians working alongside them, and the French had the Huron to thank for working alongside them.

back to Contents

slide85

The French and the Iroquois By: Bray

When Champlain agreed to help the Huron's fight the Iroquois in war, that war almost destroyed all of new France. After the war the Iroquois decided that they needed allies and guns from the allies to fight. Soon the Iroquois became allies of the Dutch, the English and they both supplied the Iroquois with guns and help for in war. Mean while the Huron's where getting guns and help for in war from the French.

next

slide86

After that the wars became more serious then before. Both the Herons and the Iroquois both had guns. The Iroquois never had attacked Quebec and never will. Many of the Herons farmers got killed when the Herons got defeated by the Iroquois. The Indians often paint symbols on trees when they had defeat a another Indian tribe. The most important groups in the area are the Algonquians, the Huron, the Ottawa's, and the Iroquois.

next

slide87

There are five Indian nations in the Iroquois group the Mohawks, the Seneca , the Cayuga's, the Oneidas , and the Onondagas. The wars between the French and the Iroquois lasted off and on for at least one hundred years. The Iroquois attacked houses and barns, they burned all the French's crops, and killed all the animals. They killed many women, men, and children. The French did the same back to the Iroquois when they had the chance to. The French had build many forts to protect them self's from the Indians mad raids and other attacks by them.

back to Contents

slide88

French Native Relationships

by James

The last wars in New France between the years 1689 and 1763 were fought with many Native and Colonial allies. The British Eventual victory striped New France or its North American empire which set off a series of conflicts known as the French Indian wars. The Iroquois played off the French against the British interest and matained there own freedom of action. July third and also July forth seventeen-fifty-four the French defeated Washington's troops at the battle of fort Necessity this is when the French Indian war started. Indians weren't only bad. They where actually where quite helpful. They showed Jacques Carter and his crew a cure for scurvy. When the governor of Ville Marie, Sieur de Maisonneure heard gathering on the Ottawa river where the Iroquois warriors ready to attack the governors colony so he called out his troops to protect his colony.

next

slide89

The colony of new France where afraid because the governor knew the Iroquois could attack at any time because of the bad location near the St. Lawrence River.

back to Contents

slide90

Seigniorial System

by Jonathon W

A Seigniorial System is a part of land that an important person owns lots of land and rents it out to farmers that need land.So he rents it to them if they give him some of their crops and some of their other goods that they grow on their farm. Seigniorial Systems are usually by a river or lake so that the farmers can grow better crops to give to the Seigneur because if they don’t then they could lose their land and have no where to go. Also the Seigneur gives out land so that they can have churches and graveyards and even school grounds. Seigniorial Systems are usually very big and very full.A Seigniorial System always has the most land. A Seignior usually gives land to people that don’t have a home or land to live on A Seigniorial System was an easy way of farming in the 1600s to the 1800s. A seignior is usually a really wealthy person with lots of land.

next

slide91

Seigniorial System

A Seigniorial System is an easy way of farming land. A Seigniorial System is usually a really good place to grow crops and other vegetables example: corn,potatoes and other stuff. Seignior are usually very mean people. A Seigniorial System is not really a fun place to stay. You could only be a seignior if you could read and write. He brings habitants to his place to keep records of who lives there. He helps pay for roads and bridges and help clear land. The habitants have to build there own farm if they want to live on that land of his. A habitant has to pay tax to the seignior every November 11TH.

back to Contents

slide92

The seigneurial system

by Alyssa

A seigneury was a piece of land granted to a seigneur (a wealthy or important man chosen by the King of France) by the King of France that was usually 5x15 kilometers or 75 kilometers square. Each seigneury was divided into lots called rotures that faced a body of water.

Each seigneur must build a manor house and live on the seigneury. He must also build a church, a mill and a bake oven as well as get habitants from France to live on his seigneury and farm the land.

next

slide93

The habitants, once they came to live on the seigneury, must build a small house, raise a family, plough and farm the land, divide their roture between their children, and grind grain for flour at the seigneur’s mill which included giving the seigneur one-fourteenth of the flour. The habitants also had to work on the seigneur’s land three or four days a year and pay a small tax consisting of fruits, vegetables, animals and grain or flour.

next

slide94

The seigneurial system was a very good way to get habitants to come live in New France.

Despite the attractions of city life and the fur trade, seventy-five to eighty percent of New France’s population lived on siegneruies until the mid-nineteen hundreds.

There were roughly two-hundred seigneuries in New France. The seigneuries covered inhabited areas from the banks of the St. Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec, to the Chaudiere and Richelieu valleys, all the way to the Gaspe peninsula.

back to Contents

slide95

The Seigneurial System

by James

The Seigneurial System is run by a man called the Seigneur. A Seigneur was a man chosen by the king to run a seigneury a seigneury is narrow strips of land called routeres. The routres were usually found by the water. In New France they were found by the St. Lawrence River. Some of the duties of a Seigneur is to build main buildings like a mill, a church, and his house. He also had to provide a courtyard for the habitants. A habitant is a man or women who lives on a seigneury. They had to farm their land and give fifty percent of what the grew to the seigneur. They also had to pay a small tax to the Seigneur.

next

slide96

.

The priest was usually the only one who could read or write. He had to hold all weddings, funerals, baptisms, and masses (service). They also had to keep records of all comings and goings.

The houses of habitants would face the water. They would be made of stone and wood for the shingles they had a ladder on their roofs and a canopy style bed.

next

back to Contents

slide97

The Seigneurial System

by Stephanie N

During the days of New France, the government of France wanted many French settlers to live in New France. ( The King of New France decided on seigneurail system. He owned all of the land.)

The French lived against the St. Lawrence. They lived against the St. Lawrence so it would be harder for the British to take over New France.

Big pieces of land were given to certain men called Seigneurs. The seigneur’s were wealthy men. The pieces of land given to the Seigneur’s were called seigneuries. The Seigneurs gave pieces of land to the habitants as well. The pieces of land given to the habitant were very narrow, but long.

When a habitant family had a boy that got married,he got a part of the land as well. Then when all the sons were married,the pieces of land were very thin.(This piece of land was also called a seigneurie.)

next

slide98

If the habitants fields were over worked and wouldn’t grow properly, he would clear more land for another field.

The expectations of a habitant family was to build a house and live on the farm, pay a tax to the seigneur each November 11 for the right to use the land,work on the seigneur’s land 3 or 4 days a year, pay a tax to the seigneur if the land was sold, clear land, build roads and build bridges, give the seigneur money or food whenever he uses the mill, wine-press, or bake-oven.and give money to the church each year.

The expectations of the seigneur were: build a manor house and live on the seigneurie, provide a local court for settling disputes, bring habitants to his seigneurie and keep records of who lives there, help pay for roads and bridges and help clear the land and build a mill and bake-oven.

back to Contents

slide99

The Seigneurial system

by Venico

During the days of New France, Britain and France were often at war. Both Britain and France were trying to gain more territory in North America.

The governor of France wanted the French people to settle in New France, and build farms there. If there were French settlers along the st. Lawrence River, It would be harder for the British to move in and take over New France.

Large area’s of land called seigneuries were given to men called seigneur’s. The seigneur’s were supposed to bring Habitant’s ( Farmers) to clear land and build farms and houses. The seigneur’s were expected to be loyal to the king of France.

The villages

Each seigneury had a little village where all the houses were built along the St. Lawrence River. The largest house was where the seigneur lived.

next

slide100

The Habitant farmers

  • Because the River was the best way of traveling every Habitant wanted to have land along the St. Lawrence River. This meant that the farms were long and narrow. When a Habitant died, his land was divided amongst his sons. This made the farms even narrower.
  • The priests
  • The Priest was often the only person who could read and Wright. As well as holding weddings, funerals, Baptisms, and masses. Priests often wrote wills and kept records of events and who lives on the Seigneury.They also carried news as they traveled from one seigneury to another.
  • Duties of the Seigneur
  • Build a manor house and live on the Seigneury.
  • Provide a local court for setting disputes.
  • Bring Habitants to the Seigneuries and keep records of who lives there.
  • Help pay for roads and bridges and help clear the land.

next

slide101

Build a mill and Bake-oven.

  • Pay at least part of the cost of building a church and finding a Priest.
  • Duties of the Habitant
  • Build a house and live on a farm.
  • Pay a tax to each Seigneur each November 11 for the right to use the land.
  • Work on the Seigneur’s land each year, 3 or 4 day’s.
  • Pay tax to the Seigneur if the land was sold.
  • Clear land and help build roads and bridges.
  • Give the Seigneur money or food when ever he uses the mill, wine-press, or bake-oven.
  • Give money to the church each year.

back to Contents

slide103

Map of seigneury

back to Contents

slide104

by Daniel

back to Contents

slide105

Jean Talon

by Gabrielle

Jean Talon, the son of Philippe Talon and Anne de Bury- was born in 1625 and was baptized on January 8, 1626 in Chalons-sure Maine in the Champagne region on France, Talon was schooled in Paris at the Jesuit run college de Clermont.

Talon arrived in North America in 1665 on a mission from King Louis XIV and his finance minister, Jean-Baptist Colbert. France had taken back control from the private Company of One Hundred Associates in 1663 and King Louis now wanted to measure the progress made in his colony.

On his arrival in the colony, Talon faced many challenges. Scurvy, small pox, and other diseases were killing many Europeans settlers. Confrontations were common between European settlers and Aboriginal People. Some of them saw the new comers as intruders, and the harsh climate could make even basic struggle.

next

slide106

Talon’s duties basically were to rule over New France, however he was also the Minister of Justice and Finance. In the 1660s and 1670s he arranged for young women to be sent to New France as wives for the soldiers and unmarried settlers. He also offered free passage to people who wished to settle and gave them cheap land. Talon encouraged families to have many children which helped the population grow. In just seven years, the population of New France doubled. Talon also convinced the people to grow flax and weave their own line cloth. He also established a royal shipyard and discouraged the search for iron, copper and the other materials.

next

slide107

Talon also started a hat factory, shoe factory, sawmill and several other industries but most of these ventures failed. Jean Talon overall, was well liked by the people and under his rule New France prospered. Yet during Talon’s time in the colony, the population of New France climbed from 3,200 to 7,600. Over the next 100 years, New France continued to grow. Farms were established along the the banks of the St. Lawrence River and the other major rivers

Jean Talon’s dreams was to see New France become economically strong and self sufficient. He wanted his colony in such a way that it didn’t have to depend on New France.

However not all of the colonies in New France agreed with his methods. Merchants were angry with Talon for selling their good at“cut rate” prices overseas such as furs and fish. The money Talon earned went to the iron works

next

slide108

and a brewery.The church was also very upset with Talon for selling Brandy to the Indians. The church feared that if he did not give Brandy to the Indians then they would but it from the English and therefore New France would lose the Fur trade.

He returned home to France in 1672, Talon was awarded the title “Le Comte d’ Orsainville” by King Louis XIV. In 1763 New France became a British colony. Talon was a man wit a dream, he saw potentials in New France to become one of the greatest colonies in the world. Little did he know that it would end up part of one of the most economically powerful countries in the world. It became Quebec, Canada.

back to Contents

slide109

Jean Talon

by Goran

Jean Talon was the first intendent of New France. He asked France to send him hundreds of healthy young women to marry the settlers. He passed laws ordering bachelors to marry the women that have arrived from France and giving families with more than ten children grants. When a shipload of young women arrived from France, Talon forbade any bachelors to leave the colony to go fur trading or hunting until the young women were married. Before any of the women arrived from France there was an average one women for every fifteen men. Jean Talon took away hunting and fishing from any bachelor who refused to get married. Talon offered twenty livres, a dowry of money from the king to any women who were married before sixteen and to any men who were married before twenty. Those who were not, were fined. Once the settlers married, Talon wanted them to have children and grandchildren. He gave large grants to fathers with ten or more children. Talon made sure that all the women that arrived from France found husbands. During the next seven years over a thousand King’s Daughters landed in New France.

next

slide110

Talon took grants from absent landlords ,and divided them into pie shaped lots that he gave to young families.

Jean Talon started up a hat factory,shoe factory,coal mine, shipyard, and several other industries, but most of them didn’t work out. He also started trade with the West Indies. Some other things he did were increasing farm production,breeding horses, introducing sheep and starting breweries. Talon also set up round seigneuries. He gave rich seigneurs large pieces of land only if they brought habitants to clear the land and build their homes along the St.Lawrence river.Some things he encouraged were mining and fisheries.

Talon’s plans for making the colony grow,worked. In 1666when their military service ended, over four hundred soldiers, got married and got land grants instead of going back to France.

Jean Talon was the intendent of New France from 1665 to 1668. Jean Talon’s ideas for a growing colony caused the settlement of New France to grow.

back to Contents

next

slide111

Jean Talon

by Nic

In 1665 Talon went to New France as their first intendent. Jean Talon did many important things to help New France grow and prosper. Under his control New France grew in population. He sent people out fur trading. He was also in charge of Day to Day running of the colony. He is in charge of importing and exporting goods to and from France. He took a census and found that there were more men then women. So he set a law that if you have a son over 19 or a daughter over 15 and they were not yet married you would get fined. He also arranged for young women to come to New France from France and marry the unmarried men. He encouraged families to have lots of children.

.

.

slide112

Jean Talon was born in Chalons-sur-Marne, France in 1626. He died in France at the age of 68.

Major Problems

He fought with the Governor and Bishop Laval. He tried doing their jobs for them but failed. Jean Talon did not live long enough to see most of his ideas work.

He wore many fancy clothes like his frilled shirts and plumed hats. He worked with a passion and fumed with energy and great ideas.

slide113

Talons Achievements

He increased the farming production, encouraged growing of hemp and flax, breeding horses, introduced sheep to farmers, made a model farm, started a brewery, encouraged fisheries, iron smelters, sealing, whaling, forges and shipyards. He told the king that he could now completely dressing in clothes from New France.

back to Contents

slide114

Madeleine de Vercheres

by Erik

Fourteen year old Madeleine de Vercheres was working hard in the fields of the Vercheres seigneury, located 35km north from Montreal. She and the other habitants were quickly trying to bring in the late harvest. While Madeleine worked she thought of her parents and wished she could be with them. Her father was the seigneur and was in Quebec on army business and her mother was in Montreal for several days.

All of a sudden a forty five man Iroquois raiding party that had been hiding in the woods sprang from the trees. Yelling war whoops and firing their guns they chased the workers. Some of the people were immediately killed and others were taken prisoner. Madeleine ran for the fort and was almost there when an Iroquois brave grabbed her shawl and held on tight. She quickly shrugged herself free and dashed into the fort, slamming the doors shut. That’s when she noticed two soldiers about to throw a burning torch into a keg of gunpowder.

“What are you doing?! She yelled.”

“We have to blow up the fort we’re surrounded by Iroquois.”

Madeleine took the torch and stamped it. Even though there was only her two smaller brothers, two soldiers, a man of eighty and some women and children, Madeleine put on a soldiers hat and passed out guns.

next

slide115

While Madeleine and the men patrolled the walls, the older women were put to work loading guns. Whenever a painted warrior was seen a soldier was ordered to fire a cannon. Women and children marched around to sound like soldiers. All day and night she had the men yelling“alls well” and other military orders. The Iroquois believed that the fort was well defended so they hung around shooting occasionally but not wanting to storm the walls. Madeleine slept in only short naps,but never at night. At the end of the week the people were nearly exhausted.

On the eighth day in the middle of the night, Lieutenant La Monnerie arrived with forty men to relieve the fort. The siege was over. Madeleine had not only saved the fort but also the lives of the inhabitants.

She grew up and married Thomas Naudier. She became the mother of many children. Madeleine de Vercheres died in 1747 in Quebec.

By Erik Wiebe

back to Contents

slide116

Madeleine de Vercheres

by Ruth

Madeleine de Vercheres was born in 1678 on her fathers seigneury (a plot of land divided into sections for habitants to farm), 35 km (20 miles) below Montreal. She is also known by the names Madeleine Jarrett Tarieu and Mary Madeleine de Vercheres. She often went hunting with her family and had a keen eye for shooting game. Her 16-year-old brother and brother-in-law were killed by Iroquois in an Iroquois attack.

Seigneury

next

slide117

On October 22, 1692, when Madeleine was four-teen years old, there was an Iroquois attack of 45 Iroquois on the fort. Both her parents were away, her father, François Jarrett de Vercheres, was on military duty in Quebec, her mother, Marie, visiting in Montreal.

next

slide118

She raced into the fort (shutting the gate in an Iroquois’ face) she then discovered the only other people in the fort were her two younger brothers, two cowardly soldiers (that were about to blow themselves up), and old man 80 years old, and some women and children..

next

slide119

Her quick thinking fooled the Iroquois into thinking the fort was full of people and soldiers. She did this by shooting and firing canons and rifles from different points in the fort. The women and children marched to sound like soldiers were there as well and ready for duty. Madeleine and the two soldiers called out military orders. They all kept this up until help arrived, which was about one week to 10 days later. She later on married. She died in Quebec in 1747.

back to Contents

slide120

Bishop Laval

by Lynn

Bishop Laval was in charge of the church. He did lots of mission work, what he was doing he thought it was very important.

Bishop Laval stared a college in Quebec. He also started a hospital and a school.

He dreamed of having a simple life as a mission. He lived by strict rules of piety. He slept on a hard bed, and eat simple food.Bishop gave most of his money to the poor..He did not have to live in poverty but he did.

next

slide121

In 1659 a great sickness cam over. He cared for the sick,.Day and night. He wood help till they are well.

Bishop Laval worked very hared to income the power of the church, in New France. He Brought more priests from France and more over to New France to help the church grow.

In 1663 he started the s of Quebec to train priests.He also stared a school for the wood -covers and craftsmen.

He lived a holy life and expected others to do the same. He would frowned at parties, games, makeup, and pretty clothes.He thought that girls could only dace with other girls and only if there mother ‘s watched.

next

slide122

In 1274 Bishop Laval became the first Bishop of Quebec. He wood use his power to stop the fur trade.

Bishop Laval retired to Quebec in1688. Before he dead he gave all he owned away to the poor, And He give the last meal to the hungry.

back to Contents

slide123

next

by Olga

Seigneurial System

slide124

habitation

back to Contents

slide125

Clothing

by Steven

Work that women did in the house to make clothing

The women spin the wool for clothing. The clothing was made out of woven linen or hemp. Hemp is a plant that can be grow in France. Most clothing was lined with leather or fur for warmth.

next

slide126

Girls clothing

women wore several dresses for warmth. Some times over there dresses they put shells on top for decoration. The women wore bonnets on there heads for warmth. Girls from France have very fancy clothing. The girls made straw hats in the summer to help keep the sun off of them.Girls wore long coats past there knees for lots of warmth.

next

slide127

Things that both boys and girls wore for warmth.

Boys and girls wore leather jackets with leather lining and wool lining.

Men wore breeches for warmth and warm wool shirts, and they wore woolen cap coiled a toque. The word toque comes from the word cuche a Indian word witch means wooden hammock or small hill.

next

slide128

Things that wealthy people wore.

Wealthy people wore fine silks for clothing. They also wore long wigs that were fashionable in France.

The clothing is mainly made out of mouse,deer, bear,rabbits and ether animals that could be hunted in France. The women knit scarves,tuques and mites for the kids,and they wore clogs in the winter to keep the snow out the snow.

back to Contents

slide129

The Seigniorial system

People how are some what rich get land from the king and they are cold seigneurs. The Seingneur has to divide this land between the habitants. The habitants have to farm the land and give a portion of their gatherings from the crop to the seingneur for payment. The habitants had to work a few days a year working the seigneur’s land and pay a small rent payment a year. The habitants have to split their land among their children.

by Steven

next

slide130

All the land is in straight rows attached to the St. Lawrence River so they could travel along the river to get to other places faster.

The habitants had to make their own houses and sheds for animals to stay in. The habitants have to make all materials to construct the buildings to live in.

next

slide131

The seignior had to make a mill and a church for the habitants to use. The habitants had to help make the mill and the church.

The habitant’s land is attached to the river because they can fish and get water from the river. They use the river for a way to travel to other peoples houses. One of the boys of the family have to go fishing for super or lunch.The man of the house is busy cutting wood for a fire.

next

slide132

The older boy has to help his father make things for around the house and other buildings around the houses. The house is very small it is lake a one bedroom house.The Children have to sleep on the flour the parents get the bed.

back to Contents

slide133

Food

by Lynn

In New France the Habitants had to grow as much of their own food. Part of their diet was eating lost of meat, like cattle, and peg, and would eat lots of wild animals like, fish, moose, rabbit, and porcupine.Their favorite is the meat pie, they wood call it (tour tier). They ate lots of vegetables like corn, beans, pies, apricots, cabbage and cumbers.

They wood grow fruit trees, berries and nuts.Most family wood have an out door oven.

next

slide134

When They eat

The Habitants wood get up and have something little to eat then go out for the days of work.It wood be 2 hours of work then. At 8:00am they wood come in to have breakfast. Do some more work or the kids went to school. At 12:00 come home and have lunch.After lunch hade a nap or did more work.At 8:00pm they would a little snack.Do something to end the days work. At sometime of the evening they have a big meal.

next

slide135

Clothing

Women would wear long dresses and have a underclothes keep then worm in the winter. Sometimes the women wood were a shawl over there shoulders it would be made of leather or fur. In the summer the women wear bonnets, And , would have a shall or a apron on.

Men would wear baggy pants and t sirs.For shoes men and women hade wood shoes or black boots.

When the Habitants of New France stared raising sheep.They would make blankets and some clothes out of the sheep’s wool.

back to Contents