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Lancelet, Branchiostoma. Outline. Chordates Non-vertebrate Chordates Vertebrates Fishes Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals. Chordates. Phylum Chordata Four Main Characteristics Notochord Nerve Cord Pharyngeal Pouches Tail. Invertebrate Chordates.

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Lancelet, Branchiostoma


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Presentation Transcript
outline
Outline
  • Chordates
    • Non-vertebrate Chordates
    • Vertebrates
      • Fishes
      • Amphibians
      • Reptiles
      • Birds
      • Mammals
chordates
Chordates
  • Phylum Chordata
    • Four Main Characteristics
      • Notochord
      • Nerve Cord
      • Pharyngeal Pouches
      • Tail
invertebrate chordates
Invertebrate Chordates
  • Notochord persists and is never replaced by a vertebral column
    • Lancets (Subphylum Cephalochordata)
    • Sea Squirts (Subphylum Urochordata)
vertebrates
Vertebrates
  • Subphylum Vertebrata
  • Internal jointed skeleton of vertebrates is living tissue that grows with the animal
    • Main axis of skeleton consists of vertebral columns and a skull that encloses the brain
      • Cephalization is accompanied by sense organs
      • Evolution of jaws and predation
      • Amnion allows reproduction on land
vertebrate features
Vertebrate Features
  • Living endoskeleton with vertebral column
  • Closed circulatory system
  • Paired appendages
  • Efficient respiration and excretion
  • High degree of cephalization
  • Adapted to active lifestyles
fishes
Fishes
  • Fishes:
    • Aquatic, gill-breathing vertebrates
    • Usually have fins and scale-covered skin
  • Jawless fishes (Superclass Agnatha)
    • Ostracoderms - earliest vertebrate fossils
    • Lampreys and hagfishes are modern-day jawless fishes that lack a bony skeleton
fishes with jaws
Fishes With Jaws
  • Gnathostomates have jaws
    • Jaws thought to have evolved from first pair of gill arches of agnathans
    • Placoderms
      • Extinct jawed fishes of Devonian
      • Thought to be ancestral to sharks and bony fish
cartilaginous fishes
Cartilaginous Fishes
  • Class Chondrichthyes have a skeleton of cartilage instead of bone
    • Cartilaginous Fishes
      • Sharks, rays, skates
      • Lack gill cover of bony fish
      • Utilize lateral line system
      • Filter feeders and predators
      • Pectoral fins can be enlarged into large, wing-like fins
bony fishes
Bony Fishes
  • Class Osteichthyes have a skeleton of bone
    • Most are ray-finned fishes
      • Lobe-finned fishes are small subgroup with fleshy fins supported by central bones
    • Swim bladder
      • Gas-filled sac in bony fishes
      • Volume can be altered to change buoyancy
amphibians
Amphibians
  • Tetrapods (four limbs)
  • Hypotheses of tetrapod evolution
    • Lobe-finned fishes had an evolutionary advantage due to movement capability
    • further adaptations promoted by:
      • Supply of food on land, and
      • Absence of predators
diversity of amphibians
Diversity of Amphibians
  • Amphibians today occur in three groups:
    • Salamanders and newts
      • Salamanders practice internal fertilization
    • Frogs and toads
      • Tailless
    • Caecilians
      • Legless, sightless, worm-shaped
  • Most return to water for reproduction
amphibian features
Amphibian Features
  • Usually tetrapods
  • Lungs usually present in adults
  • Metamorphosis
  • Smooth and moist skin
  • Three-chambered heart
  • Ectothermic
reptiles
Reptiles
  • Class Reptilia
    • Thought to have evolved from amphibian ancestors by the Permian period
    • Practice internal fertilization
    • Lay eggs protected by a leathery shell (amniotic egg)
anatomy and physiology of reptiles
Anatomy and Physiology of Reptiles
  • Reptiles have a thick, scaly skin that is keratinized and impermeable to water
    • Usually tetrapods
    • Lungs with expandable rib cage
    • Shelled amniotic egg
    • Dry, scaly skin
    • Ectothermic
birds
Birds
  • Characteristics of Class Aves
    • Feathers
    • Hard-shelled amniotic egg
    • Four-chambered heart
    • Often winged
    • Air sacs
    • Endothermic
mammals
Mammals
  • Class Mammalia
  • Thought to have evolved during the Mesozoic Era from therapsids
    • Mammalian skull accommodates a larger brain relative to body size
    • Chief characteristics and hair and milk-producing mammary glands
    • Infant dependency
    • Internal development
    • Differentiated teeth
mammals34
Mammals
  • Monotremes - Hard-shelled amniotic eggs
  • Marsupials - Females contain pouch
  • Placentals - Females have organ for exchange of maternal and placental blood
major orders of mammals
Perissodactyla

Horses

Artiodactyla

Deer

Carnivora

Cats

Primates

Monkeys

Cetacea

Whales

Chiroptera

Bats

Rodentia

Mice

Proboscidea

Elephants

Lagomorpha

Rabbits

Major Orders of Mammals
review
Review
  • Chordates
    • Non-vertebrate Chordates
    • Vertebrates
      • Fishes
      • Amphibians
      • Retiles
      • Birds
      • Mammals