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16.0 Geothermal Energy. Frank R. Leslie, B. S. E. E., M. S. Space Technology, LS IEEE 3/18/2010, Rev. 2.0.2 fleslie; (321) 674-7377 Oil ~$80 on 3/18/2010. In Other News . . . .

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16.0 Geothermal Energy

Frank R. Leslie,

B. S. E. E., M. S. Space Technology, LS IEEE

3/18/2010, Rev. 2.0.2

fleslie; (321) 674-7377

Oil ~$80 on 3/18/2010

in other news
In Other News . . .
  • Engineering firm Strategic Energy Solutions Inc. has moved into a new headquarters in Berkley MI that the owner hopes to use as a showcase for clients for state-of-the-art geothermal heating and cooling technology.
    • A 4,000 square-foot adjacent warehouse will house a new geothermal installation business unit.
    • Six geothermal pumps buried underneath a rear parking lot serve the two buildings with about 20 tons of heating and cooling capacity – the equivalent of eight to 10 homes.


16 overview geothermal
16 Overview: Geothermal
  • Geothermal energy is present within the land and the sea
    • Internal heat is from initial world accretion from gathering dust and compression of the earth and from radioactive decay
  • This energy can be useful in heating and cooling of air and water, but is somewhat costly to use
  • Active geyser areas are limited in area, but provide much hotter water or steam
  • The energy is inexhaustible in principle, yet local extraction will cool the immediate area in a few years
  • Extraction of energy from deep (~20,000 ft) hot rock is not economic yet


16 0 definitions geothermal energy
16.0 Definitions: Geothermal Energy
  • HDR – Hot, dry rock: has no natural steam but may receive injected water to emit steam
  • Head – the height of water – the hydraulic height of the water (1 psi = 2.31 ft H2O)
    • For artesian wells, the height that the water will stand above ground level in a pipe
  • Heat Quality – the temperature of the heat
  • Ground Source Heat Pump – extracts from ground or rejects heat to ground to/from and air conditioning heat pump


16 0 geothermal energy
16.0 Geothermal Energy
  • Active geysers supply steam or hot water for heating in The Geysers, California (824 MWe)
  • “Hot, dry rock” (HDR) offers potential for injecting water and using the resultant steam to spin a turbine
  • At a lower thermal level, an air conditioner can extract heat from the ground for winter heating or insert energy into the ground to gain a more efficient cooling sink geysers20.html

Nearby Calistoga (started 1862) has tourist spas with hot water from springs;also palm reading, water treatments, psychics, mud baths, etc.


16 0 about this presentation
16.0 About This Presentation
  • 16.1 History
  • 16.2 Sources
  • 16.3 High Temperature Systems (Steam)
  • 16.4 Low Temperature Systems (Heat Pumps)
  • 16.5 Issues and Trends
  • 16.0 Conclusion


16 1 history
16.1 History
  • Paleo-American Indians used hot springs in this area
  • Hot Springs, Arkansas had $1 hot baths in 1830
  • First electricity (20kW) from geothermal produced from natural steam in Larderello, Italy in 1904 [Kruger, 1973]
  • New Zealand’s north island gets 6% of its electricity from geothermal energy
  • 1920: test boring in Niland CA
  • 1922: electricity generation in The Geysers
  • 1950: 95°F, 220kW generating plant in Katanga
  • The Geysers CA expanded to 600MW in 1975


16 2 source of geothermal energy
16.2 Source of Geothermal Energy
  • Heat stems from radioactive disintegrations of atomic nuclei [Sorensen, 2000], initial cooling from agglomeration in planet formation, and other various processes
  • Hot spots occur where strong convective magma circulation is occurring, usually near continental plate boundaries and mountainous regions
  • Hot dry rock, the most common type, retains convective heat
  • Storage in a developed area may be depleted in 50 years


16 2 1 sources of geothermal energy
16.2.1 Sources of Geothermal Energy

The western states have most of the higher temperature energy


16 2 1 sources of geothermal energy10
16.2.1 Sources of Geothermal Energy


16 2 1 sources of geothermal energy11
16.2.1 Sources of Geothermal Energy
  • U.S. Geothermal power plant locations: 1. The Geysers; 2, Salton Sea; 3. Heber; 4, East Mesa; 5. Coso; 6. Casa Diablo; 7, Amedee; 8, Wendel; 9. Dixie Valley; 10. Steamboat Hot Springs; 11. Beowawe Hot Springs; 12. Desert Peak; 13, Wabuska Hot Springs; 14. Soda Lake; 15, Stillwater; 16. Empire and San Emidio; 17, Roosevelt Hot Springs; 18, Cove Fort.


16 2 2 mammoth pacific power plant ca
16.2.2 Mammoth Pacific Power Plant, CA

“Located in the eastern Sierra Nevada mountain range in California, showcases the environmentally friendly nature of geothermal power.” ---- ASES policy, 2005

16 3 high temperature systems
16.3 High Temperature Systems
  • These areas are associated with the “Ring of Fire” volcanic activities around the Pacific Rim Basin
  • Geyser-temperature steam is contaminated with salts that cause corrosion of turbines or engines
  • Removing these salts to protect the machinery is costly
  • Types of geothermal systems
    • Direct from steam underground
    • Flash-steam systems take in deep-well hot water (high enthalpy) that is above the boiling point to heat clean water into steam in a heat exchanger
    • Binary systems that heat a low-boiling-point fluid like butane or propane to drive a closed-loop turbine


16 4 low temperature heat extraction rejection
16.4 Low Temperature Heat Extraction/Rejection
  • The classic use of earth/water is as a heat sink or source for air conditioning or heating
  • Pipes embedded in the earth carry refrigerant or water and conduct heat from the hotter to cooler substance
  • Since the earth (or water) has a high specific heat in comparison with air, there is good thermal transfer
  • In winter, heat is extracted from the earth by the chilled refrigerant, while in the summer, the hot refrigerant conducts heat to the earth
  • Houses have been built partially underground to moderate the winter and summer temperatures
    • Dennis Weaver built an “Earthship” house with used tires, aluminum cans, and stucco


16 4 1 basic refrigeration concept
16.4.1 Basic Refrigeration Concept
  • Specific heats determine the storage of thermal energy
    • Air – 0.018 Btu per cubic foot
    • Water – 62.42 Btu per cubic foot, or 3472 times higher
  • Heat pumping works through phase change of the refrigerant; boiling to gas or condensing to liquid
  • Typical refrigerants have boiling points of -40 degrees F
  • When the refrigerant is compressed, heat is released and it liquefies; when decompressed through an expansion valve, it cools as it changes to a gas
  • Reversing the direction of refrigerant travel through the system changes operation from an air conditioner to a heat pump


16 4 2 basic refrigeration diagram
16.4.2 Basic Refrigeration Diagram

  • Long pipes buried in the ground carry water to and from a heat exchanger
  • The refrigerant absorbs heat from or rejects heat to the water


16 5 issues and trends
16.5 Issues and Trends
  • HDR (hot, dry rock) cools locally as the temperature falls with energy extraction
    • Wells may require redrilling to find new hot regions and to let more heat enter the depleted region
    • Since the locations are limited, this source of energy may not be economically available
    • Extraction often requires fracturing of deep rock layers to allow water in and steam out
  • Since sources are geographically limited, the energy is best used locally; too difficult to pipeline elsewhere


16 c conclusion geothermal
16.C Conclusion: Geothermal
  • Geothermal energy is limited in extent as extracting the heat usually exceeds the replenishment rate
  • Hot, dry rock (HDR) is widespread and offers new resources in areas where geyser activity is unknown
  • Direct low-temperature heat transfer for home systems is practical as long as low maintenance is designed into the system
  • Sources of high temperature water or steam are limited and the cost of extraction, maintenance, and operation will remain high in comparison with other sources of energy
  • Geothermal energy likely to remain at 1% of world energy [Kruger, 1973]


references books
References: Books
  • Boyle, Godfrey. Renewable Energy, Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004, ISBN 0-19-26178-4. (my preferred text)
  • Brower, Michael. Cool Energy. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press, 1992. 0-262-02349-0, TJ807.9.U6B76, 333.79’4’0973.
  • Duffie, John and William A. Beckman. Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 920 pp., 1991
  • Gipe, Paul. Wind Energy for Home & Business. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Pub. Co., 1993. 0-930031-64-4, TJ820.G57, 621.4’5
  • Patel, Mukund R. Wind and Solar Power Systems. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1999, 351 pp. ISBN 0-8493-1605-7, TK1541.P38 1999, 621.31’2136
  • Sørensen, Bent. Renewable Energy, Second Edition. San Diego: Academic Press, 2000, 911 pp. ISBN 0-12-656152-4.
  • Texter, [MIT]
  • Kruger, Paul and Carel Otto, eds. Geothermal Energy. Stanford CA: Stanford University Press, 1973, 333.7 0-8047-0822-3.
  • Bockris, J. O’M. Energy – The Solar-Hydrogen Alternative. NY: John Wiley & Sons1975. ISBN 0-4700-08429-4. 333.7. TJ810.B58


references websites etc
References: Websites, etc. Government Lab Good explanation of practical use

University of Nevada at Reno Desert Research Institute Brookhaven Laboratories INEEL Lawrence Livermore Labs Sandia National Labs National Renewable Energy Labs More Resources

______________________________________________________________________________________________ on geothermal energy Site devoted to the decline of energy and effects upon population Federal Energy Regulatory Commission