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How To Provide Meaningful Feedback to ESL Students. University of Alberta: EDPY 413 By Naomi, Katie and Angela. Overview. Meaningful assessments and feedback: Are valid Are individualized Are understandable Communicate high expectations Lower emotional barriers

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How to provide meaningful feedback to esl students

How To Provide Meaningful Feedback to ESL Students

University of Alberta: EDPY 413

By Naomi, Katie and Angela


Overview
Overview

  • Meaningful assessments and feedback:

    • Are valid

    • Are individualized

    • Are understandable

    • Communicate high expectations

    • Lower emotional barriers

  • Assessment of content-area knowledge:

    • Formative Assessment

    • Summative Assessment


Overview1
Overview

  • Strategies that will be useful in the four major elements of Language Arts and other content area classes:

    • Speaking

    • Listening

    • Reading

    • Writing

  • How to communicate feedback to students

    • Direct or Indirect feedback

    • Parental Involvement

    • Peer Feedback


Principles for fair student assessment practices for education in canada
Principles for Fair Student AssessmentPractices for Education in Canada

I.1) Assessment methods should allow us to make valid inferences about the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviours possessed by each student1

-A valid assessment will assess what we intend it to assess.

1Principles for Fair Student Assessment Practices for Education in Canada, 1993 (as reproduced in Gronlund, 2004, Appendix B 1-5)


Principles for fair student assessment
Principles for Fair Student Assessment

I.5) Assessment methods should suit the background and prior experiences of the student1

-Assessment should be free from biases such as culture, ethnicity, or language

1Principles for Fair Student Assessment Practices for Education in Canada, 1993 (as reproduced in Gronlund, 2004, Appendix B 1-7)


Principles for fair student assessment1
Principles for Fair Student Assessment

III.4) Comments on student work should be presented in a way that allows students to understand and use them1

-Comments should encourage learning and help students to understand how they can improve

1Principles for Fair Student Assessment Practices for Education in Canada, 1993 (as reproduced in Gronlund, 2004, Appendix B 1-7)


Teacher expectations a self fulfilling prophecy
Teacher Expectations: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

  • Students perceive differences in teacher expectations by watching how the teacher behaves towards them1

  • With time, students' achievement and behaviour conform more and more closely to the expectations of the teacher

1(Alderman, 2004, p. 171)


Communicating high expectations
Communicating High Expectations

  • Guidelines for communicating high expectations when assessing ESL students1:

    • Give sincere praise regarding a specific area of development

    • Provide frequent and understandable feedback

    • Focus on what the students can do rather than what they cannot

    • Provide ample response time

    • Provide tasks to challenge the students

1(Gottfredson, 1991, p. 9)


Anxiety
Anxiety

  • “Sometimes when I speak English in class, I am so afraid I feel like hiding behind my chair.” 1

  • “I feel like my French teacher is some kind of Martian death ray: I never know when he’ll point at me!” 1

  • “When I’m in my Spanish class I just freeze! I can’t think of a thing when my teacher calls on me. My mind goes blank.” 2

1 (Gardner, 1991, p. 27)

2 (Gardner, 1991, p. xiii)


Anxiety1
Anxiety

  • Steinberg and Horwitz (1986) found that anxiety affects communication strategies1

  • Certain grammar points may also be “forgotten”2

  • Krashen’s Affective Filter3

  • This affects the validity of the assessment

1 (Gardner, 1991, p. 28) 3 (Herrell & Jordan, 2008, p. 4)

2 (Gardner, 1991, p. 29)


Meaningful feedback
Meaningful Feedback?

  • We will show assessment methods and ways to communicate results to students that:

    1) Are valid

    2) Fit students’ backgrounds

    3) Are understandable

    4) Communicate high expectations

    5) Lower emotional barriers


Assessing academic content knowledge
Assessing Academic Content Knowledge

  • ELLs often understand more than they can express1

  • Use assessments that are less dependent on language proficiency1

  • Assess in the same way students are taught1

    • Demonstrations

    • Creation of a product

    • Speech-based

    • Written products

1(Herrell & Jordan, 2008, p. 6)


Assessing the task formative assessment assessment for learning
Assessing the Task: Formative Assessment (Assessment for learning)

  • These types of assessments occur on a daily basis and help teachers decide what they can do to help students progress1:

    • Student Reflections (learning journals, concept maps)

    • Anecdotal Note-taking

    • Conversations with students

    • Peer Assessments

1 (Government of Manitoba, 2008, p. 29)


Learning journals
Learning Journals

  • Allow students to:

    • Record personal responses to content

    • Record questions about confusing terms

    • Record observations

    • Illustrate or describe concepts

      Emphasis is on content rather than grammar and mechanics1

1(Hurley, & Tinajero, 2001, p. 94)


How to provide meaningful feedback to esl students

(Sweetland, 2005)


Concept maps
Concept Maps

  • Visual representations of the student’s mental structure1

  • Kidspiration or Inspiration2

1(Birbili, 2006)

2(Inspiration Software, 2008)


How to provide meaningful feedback to esl students

Grade 6 Social Studies: Greece

(Inspiration Software, 2008)


Why use learning journals and concept maps
Why Use Learning Journals and Concept Maps?

  • Knowledge demonstrated pictures and/or words1

  • Student-centred and promote reflection 2

  • Teacher can assess preconceptions and misconceptions3

1 (Hurley & Tinajero, 2001, p. 92)

2 (Genesee & Upshur, 1996, p. 123)

3 (Birbili, 2006)


Concept maps learning journals associated issues
Concept Maps & Learning Journals: Associated Issues

  • Too much guidance or too little guidance? 1

  • Must be addressed immediately1

  • Judgements will discourage students, making the formative assessment less useful to the teacher2

1 (Shanahan, 2007)

2 (Nunan, 2004, p. 159)


Anecdotal records
Anecdotal Records

  • Small number of students observed each day1

1 (Genesee Upshur, 1996, p. 94)


Why use anecdotal records
Why Use Anecdotal Records?

  • Good indicators of student progress1

  • Do not increase language demands, or anxiety

  • Allow you to assess without interrupting the natural classroom activities2

1 (Herrell & Jordan, 2008, p. 7)

2 (Austin & Haley, 2004, p. 129)


Anecdotal records associated issues
Anecdotal Records: Associated Issues

  • If not organized, they become pieces of paper with random notes on them1

  • May overlook vital issues2

1 (Genesee & Upshur, 1996, p. 86)

2 (Genesee & Upshur, 1996, p. 94)


Formal and informal conversations
Formal and Informal Conversations

  • Conferencing1

  • Having impromptu conversations

  • Making notes afterwards2

1 (Austin & Haley, 2004, p. 132)

2 (Genesee & Upshur, 1996, p. 114)


Why have conversations
Why Have Conversations?

  • Conveys high expectations1

  • Informal conversation is a natural way to get a feel for level of understanding

  • Gives students the opportunity to seek clarification

1 (Gottfredson, 1991, p. 9)


Conversation associated issues
Conversation: Associated Issues

  • Learners may be uncomfortable discussing areas in which they are struggling1

  • Open conversation may be hindered by low levels of English language proficiency

1 (Austin & Haley, 2004, p. 131)


Assessing the task summative assessment assessment of learning
Assessing the Task: Summative Assessment (Assessment of learning)

  • Assessment used for reporting purposes to ensure that students have achieved the curricular outcomes1:

    • Portfolios

    • Student Self-Assessments

    • Rubrics

    • Checklists and Rating Scales

1 (Government of Manitoba., 2008, p. 55)


Portfolios
Portfolios

Two types:

  • Developmental Portfolio1

  • Showcase Portfolio2

  • Students actively participate by purposefully selecting entries2

  • Teachers assist with entry selection and provide feedback during conferences3

  • 1 (Gronlund, 2004, p. 157)

    2 (Gronlund, 2004, p. 158)

    3 (Gronlund, 2004, p. 159)


    Portfolio reflection
    Portfolio Reflection

    • A reflection is attached to each entry1

    • Other possibilities include:

      • Reflections written in first language

      • Reflections recorded by the teacher

      • Reflections recorded by a peer/parent who speaks the same L1

    1 (Gronlund, 2004, p. 158)


    Why use portfolios
    Why Use Portfolios?

    • Completed without pressure or time constraints1

    • Clearly demonstrate progress over time1

    • Develop active learners1

    • Conversations about entries demonstrate comprehension and the ability to use academic language2

    1 (Nunan, 2004, p. 160)

    2 (Austin & Haley, 2004, p. 130)


    Self assessment
    Self-Assessment

    • Teachers need to provide students with words, definitions or concepts they will need to understand the task1

    • Common formats include1:

      • yes or no questions

        • I can name the regions of Canada

          Yes  No 

      • Sentence completion

        • I am still confused about...

      • Rating scales

        • I cooperated with my group

           (never) 1 2 3 4 (always) 

    • Picture cues or by discussion beforehand.

    1 (Austin & Haley, 2004, p. 135)


    Why self assessment
    Why Self-Assessment?

    • Builds metacognitive competence1

    • Students can tell us a lot

    • Creates independent learners1

    • Assesses both the learning process as well as outcomes2

    1 (Austin & Haley, 2004, p. 135)

    2 (Nunan, 2004, p. 149)


    Portfolios and self assessment associated issues
    Portfolios and Self-Assessment: Associated Issues

    • Students may not accurately judge own ability1

    • Language barrier

    • The notion that students have a role in assessment may be difficult to accept2

    • Learners may be uncomfortable sharing work that is in need of improvement3

    • Learners may be hesitant to take pride in their achievements3

    1 (Nunan, 2004, p. 149)

    2 (Austin & Haley, 2004, p. 130)

    3 (Austin & Haley, 2004, p. 131)


    Rubrics
    Rubrics

    • Holistic 1

    • Analytic 2

    • Use between 4 and 8 points to avoid a “middle dumping ground”1

    • Assess the content rather than language proficiency3

    1 (Gronlund, 2004, p. 134)

    2 (Austin and Haley, 2004, p. 131)

    2 (Austin and Haley, p. 132)


    Rating scales and checklists
    Rating Scales and Checklists

    Checklists: check off the items that correspond to what you have observed or inferred1

    Ex. Student cooperates in a group setting ___

    Rating scales: Allow you to specify the degree to which the item was achieved2

    (1= never, 2= rarely, 3= frequently, 4= always)

    Ex. Student completes homework every night 1 2 3 4

    1(Genesee & Upshur, 1996, p. 88)

    2 (Genesee & Upshur, 1996, p. 90)


    Try assessing
    Try Assessing!

    • Read the ESL writing sample and use the checklist to assess it.

    • Then talk to a partner:

      • What did you like about it?

      • What problems did you encounter?


    Why use checklists rating scales and rubrics
    Why Use Checklists, Rating Scales and rubrics?

    • Assigns justifiable grades to authentic classroom activities1

    • Used in self-assessment and clarify teacher’s expectations1

    • After construction, they require little time or effort to complete2

    • Show specific areas of strength and need3

    1 (Gronlund, 2004, p. 136)

    2 (Genesee & Upshur, 1996, p. 90)

    3 (Genesee & Upshur, 1996, p. 91)


    Checklists and rating scales associated issues
    Checklists and Rating Scales: Associated Issues

    • Require precise and well-articulated categories and criteria1

    • Take a considerable amount of time to construct2

    • Are highly specific and will likely need to be modified each time3

    • Language to can be complex and difficult for an ESL student to understand

    1 (Genesee & Upshur, 1996, p. 87)

    2 (Genesee & Upshur, p. 90)

    3 (Genesee & Upshur, p. 91)


    Overview2
    Overview

    • Strategies that will be useful in the four major elements of Language Arts and other content area classes:

      • Speaking

      • Listening

      • Reading

      • Writing



    Stages of language production
    Stages of Language Production

    Beginning stage: Silent period, rely on gestures and pictures

    Early production stage: usage of more grammar

    Speech Emergence stage: can handle more academic concepts

    Intermediate Fluency stage: fewer errors in speaking

    Fluency stage: at level of fluency but are still learning

    (Collier, Combs, & Ovando, 2003)


    Vocabulary instruction
    Vocabulary Instruction

    Provide both explicit and implicit vocabulary instruction.

    Teach strategies for how to handle unfamiliar words

    Language Learning Strategies: using clues, asking for clarification, using keywords.

    Exposure to high frequency vocabulary through meaningful activities.

    (Oxford, 1990)


    Pronunciation
    Pronunciation

    Five things to ensure students understand:

    Consonants

    Cluster

    Vowel length

    Word stress

    Prominence or tonic stress

    For example, teach:

    Stress-timed versus syllable-timed language

    (Hewings, 2004)


    Bics and calp
    BICS and CALP

    Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills

    Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency

    (Fisher & Rothenberg, 2007)


    Solom
    SOLOM

    Student Oral Language Observation Matrix

    Allows observation of oral language proficiency; BICS and CALP

    Assesses real day to day classroom purposes and activities.

    (Fisher & Rothenberg, 2007)


    Potential problems
    Potential Problems

    Vocabulary instruction

    Implicit can cause problems for students- they may think they understand but they do not

    Explicit may teach rote memorization and not meaningful understanding.

    Pronunciation Instruction:

    Students’ L1s may interfere if they have a syllable timed language.

    BICS and CALP

    CALP cannot be inferred, it has to be directly taught and modeled.


    Handout speaking
    Handout: Speaking

    Guide to Implementation (Alberta Education, 2007, P. 161)

    SOLOM: Student Oral Language Observation Matrix (Cabral, Herrera, & Murry, 2007)



    Strategy for improving listening and oral communication skills
    Strategy for Improving Listening and Oral communication skills

    Dictoglos

    Focus is on fluent academic language

    Supports recalling information by listening to English language models.

    Process:

    Listen

    Take notes

    Partners, groups

    Re-create text

    (Herrell, & Jordan, 2008)


    Develop listening skills
    Develop listening skills: skills

    Explicitly teach how to listen:

    Selective Attention

    Ask for clarification: teach students how to recognize when they have misunderstood, and teach the questions to ask to get back on track.

    Model strategies aloud.

    Provide graphic organizers or fill in the blanks for videos and lectures, so they can concentrate on listening rather than writing.

    Build background knowledge: “Frontload”

    Use self-assessments of how well they listened.

    (Fisher & Rothenberg, 2007)


    Potential problems1
    Potential Problems skills

    When listening, students:

    may not recognize when they do not understand

    may not know they need clarification or further explanation

    may not know how to formulate questions to get the answers they seek


    Handout listening
    Handout: Listening skills

    Guide to Implementation (Alberta Education, 2007, p. 160)

    BICS and CALP Checklist(Cabral, Herrera, & Murry, 2007)


    Reading
    Reading skills


    Running records miscue analysis
    Running records/Miscue Analysis skills

    Finds oral reading errors

    Helps to see what strategies the reader is using and points to areas of instruction.

    (Herrell &Jordan, 2008)

    (Bright, Pollard, Tompkins, & Winsor, 2008)


    Cloze activities
    Cloze Activities: skills

    Support language acquisition and reading skills

    Are from written text where some words are left out and blanks are inserted instead.

    Are used to assess reading comprehension

    Provide opportunities to teach vocabulary and reading decoding skills.

    Example: I went for a walk to the ______.

    I wanted to _______ a _______.

    (Herrell & Jordan, 2008)


    Potential problems2
    Potential Problems: skills

    Running Records/Miscue Analysis

    May be hard to find a reading passage that is at the student’s reading level.

    Cloze

    Time consuming to make for students’ specific needs


    Handout reading
    Handout: Reading skills

    Guide to Implementation (Alberta Education, 2007, p. 162)


    Writing
    Writing skills


    The writing process
    The writing process skills

    Prewriting: use drawing to gather ideas, talk about the topic, or dramatize the topic. Students choose topics that are familiar. Graphic organizers, webbing.

    Drafting: emphasize expressing ideas, not handwriting skills or conventional spelling.

    Revising: rereading, making few changes or adding to clarify, slowly try and address audience.

    Editing: de-emphasize until the students have learned conventional spelling, rules for capitalization, etc.

    Publishing: putting into a final form, sharing with others.

    (Bright, Pollard, Tompkins, & Winsor, 2008)


    Feedback through comments on student writing
    Feedback through comments on student writing skills

    Three purposes:

    To let students know if their texts have conveyed their intended meaning.

    Help students become aware of the questions and concerns of an audience.

    To give students a motive for revision.

    (Ferris, 2003, p. 3)


    Written comments
    Written Comments: skills

    can take away students’ attention from their own purpose and bring it to the teacher’s purpose.

    are not context specific and can be changed from context to context.

    (Ferris, 2003, p. 3)


    Error correction
    Error Correction skills

    Selective correction: choose several major patterns of error, rather than all types of errors.

    Comprehensive correction: give detailed feedback, so that students are not mislead about correctness if the teachers do not mark all errors.

    Direct Feedback: teachers write the correct form on student’s paper.

    Indirect Feedback: allows the student to engage in guided problem-solving

    (Ferris, 2003, p. 3)


    Conferences
    Conferences skills

    Students are the focus. They are the writers.

    Teachers/Peers help to make choices and define directions for revisions.

    The process

    Students should talk first about their concerns.

    Ask questions, do not give answers.

    Give compliments, then suggestions later.

    Limit the number of revision suggestions.

    (Bright, Pollard, Tompkins, & Winsor, 2008)


    Potential problems3
    Potential Problems skills

    Written comments

    Generic comments

    Changes student’s ideas to teacher’s ideas

    Error correction

    Focus on errors on the first draft

    Lack of hierarchy of important issues for revision

    Miscommunication with the teacher. Mark what you have taught.

    Conferences

    Cultural differences


    Handouts writing
    Handouts: Writing skills

    Guide to Implementation (Alberta Education, 2007, p. 163)


    Differentiating between content and language feedback
    Differentiating between Content and Language Feedback skills

    Keep feedback short and simple to allow the students to understand it.

    Ensure feedback is specific to the assignment, not giving broad or general suggestions

    Make sure to emphasize ideas over grammar and mechanics.

    When correcting written work avoid marking sentences that are technically correct but poorly written or awkward. Focus on errors that the students are familiar with and can understand.

    Postpone grammar corrections until the final stages of the assignment to allow for focus on the meaning and idea construction

    Errors are a normal part of learning. Make sure the students know it!

    Graham (1987)


    Overview3
    Overview skills

    This section will cover ways to communicate feedback to students in a meaningful way. We’ll explore some advantages and disadvantages of each as well as issues and applications.

    1. Direct or Indirect Feedback

    2. Parental Involvement

    3. Peer Feedback


    Direct or indirect feedback
    Direct or Indirect feedback? skills

    Direct feedback

    The teacher identifies an error and corrects it for the student, providing an example of the proper form

    Indirect feedback

    Feedback where the educator points out that an error has been made but does not correct it. The students must identify and correct the error themselves.


    Indirect feedback long term improvement
    Indirect Feedback: Long Term Improvement? skills

    Ferris (2002) found that direct feedback on errors led to more correct revisions than indirect feedback (88% vs 77%).

    He also noted that over the course of the school year those who received indirect feedback reduced their error frequency substantially more than those receiving direct feedback.

    Fathman and Walley obtained similar results in their 1990 study.


    Direct feedback misdirecting focus
    Direct Feedback: Misdirecting Focus? skills

    Fregeau (1999) found that direct feedback was often inconsistent, unclear, and seemed to overemphasize the negative.

    Not understanding the errors made, students often guessed at corrections.

    Students also tended to focus more on correcting these errors than improving or extending their ideas.


    Indirect feedback
    Indirect Feedback skills

    Uncoded feedback

    The teacher indicated an error has been made, but does not correct the error. The student must diagnose the type of error and correct it.

    Coded feedback

    Gives the exact location of an error and indicates the type of error involved using a code.


    Applications coded feedback
    Applications: skillsCoded Feedback

    Coded feedback is a combination of direct and indirect feedback.

    Using a predetermined legend, the teacher indicates the presence and type of an error with a symbol.

    The students must locate and correct the error themselves.


    An example of coded feedback
    An example of Coded Feedback skills

    Legend

    On the weekend I went the zoo >

    with amy. There was a big tiger. Cap

    He has stripes There also a p

    stiped horse. We fed him. We Sp

    got to eat pizza and icet cream. Sp

    I want to go again back soon. w/o

    (Etc)


    Coded feedback remember
    Coded Feedback: Remember… skills

    Make sure your students are familiar with and understand the symbols used

    Make sure the students understand the underlying grammatical rule

    Be consistent!


    Peer feedback
    Peer Feedback skills

    Peer Feedback is a controversial form of feedback because of its disadvantages. When implemented properly, these disadvantages are minimized, allowing the teacher and student to take full benefit.

    Image: Working Together. From: http://pwebs.net/branding/2007/05/developing-business-brand-online.php


    What students want
    What Students Want skills

    Zhang (1995, p. 1) found that students “overwhelmingly” prefer to receive feedback from their teachers rather than peers.

    Carnells 2000 interviews indicated that students like to receive feedback from their peers. They felt more freedom interacting with peers than with a teacher.

    Ur (1996) found that students enjoy being consulted for peer feedback, and usually put a lot of effort into trying to give helpful feedback.


    Cultural differences
    Cultural Differences skills

    Alavi and Kaivanpanah (2007, p. 191-193) found that Iranian students prefer to work alone because they feel they can get better results this way. He also found that the students recognize that there is some value in peer evaluation, but feel that teacher feedback is more accurate and helpful.

    Carson and Nelson (1996, p. 1-18) found that Chinese students tend to avoid giving critical commentary for two reasons: students withheld criticism in order to maintain group harmony and they were reluctant to be in a position of authority over their peers.


    Peer feedback advantages
    Peer Feedback: Advantages skills

    Allows for more immediate feedback

    Can provide a different kind of feedback than traditional teacher feedback (less authoritarian)

    Provides students experience with critical evaluation that can transfer to their own work

    Encourages life skills such as collaboration and communication


    Concerns
    Concerns skills

    Peer feedback may be inconsistent with teacher feedback.

    ELLs may not feel comfortable giving feedback in their L2.

    Native language speakers may resent receiving feedback from ELLs.

    Shy or reserved students may be uncomfortable with the exercise.


    What works
    What Works skills

    Coaching students in providing effective feedback

    -Reduces inappropriate feedback

    -Promotes acceptance and understanding

    -Allows for discussion to address concerns


    Coaching students in providing effective feedback
    Coaching Students in Providing Effective Feedback skills

    Explain benefits of peer feedback

    Class discussion of the role of students (collaborators, not correctors), purpose of activity

    Practice and application

    Discussion of benefits, weak points, overall success

    (Rollinson, 2005, p. 3-7)


    Considerations peer feedback
    Considerations- Peer Feedback skills

    Size of group.

    Number of drafts to be written.

    Evaluation: will students be evaluated on the level of their feedback?

    Written or oral feedback groups?

    *Written is usually preferable to oral as it allows time for reflection to avoid inconsiderate comments and lets teacher follow more closely.

    (Rollinson, 2005, p. 3-7)

    (Rollinson 2005)


    Parental involvement
    Parental Involvement skills

    When it comes to parental involvement, communication is key, although it can be quite difficult due to language barriers.

    Parents know their child better than anyone else so they are great resources for the teacher.


    Cultural differences1
    Cultural Differences skills

    Korean culture emphasizes trust and respect for authority figures. As a result, questioning a teacher’s methods is frowned upon and considered extremely impolite (Souyoung, 2005).

    As a result, Korean parents may seem less involved than parents who are more vocal.


    Issues
    Issues skills

    Language barriers

    Potential gender role conflicts

    Cultural brokers can assist with this

    Ideological differences in teaching methods or styles

    Time conflicts and access difficulties


    What works1
    What Works skills

    Frequent contact ensures parents and teacher are working together and helps avoid parental alienation.

    Goal setting with the parents allows the teacher to enlist their support, ensuring the home and school environments are working in harmony.

    Conferences or meetings with the parent or guardian allow concerns to be expressed, and also provide an opportunity for the students’ successes to be showcased.


    Applications conferences
    Applications: Conferences skills

    As Angela discussed, student-teacher conferences are an important method for providing formal and informal feedback.

    Parent-teacher-student conferences are good tools for all parties involved to set goals and get to know each other’s expectations.

    The conference can be teacher-led or student-led.

    Student-led conferences allow the students to showcase their achievements, which can foster a greater sense of pride.


    How to provide meaningful feedback to esl students

    Be prepared skills for the conference. If a translator is needed ensure the parents will be comfortable with his/her presence and will understand his/her role.

    Ensure that you discuss the student’s strengths as well as any problems or weaknesses.

    Have examples of the student’s work prepared. Pick a few pieces from the student’s portfolio that show the student’s strengths and weaknesses.

    Use the opportunity to set goals with the help of the parents for all parties involved.

    Plan for a follow-up meeting.


    References
    References skills

    Alberta Education.(2007). English as a Second Language Guide to Implementation: Kindergarten to Grade 9. In: Education: Teachers: Programs of Study: English as a Second Language: Learning and Teaching Resources. Retrieved November 23, 2008, from http://education.alberta.ca/teachers/program/esl/resources.aspx

    Alderman, M. K. (2004). Motivation For Achievement: Possibilities For Teaching and Learning (3rd ed.) [Electronic Version]. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Alavi, S. M. K. (2007). Feedback expectancy and EFL learners’ achievement in English. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education. (5)1, 181-196.

    Austin, T. Y., & Haley, M. H. (2004). Content-Based Second Language Teaching and Learning: An Interactive Approach. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

    Birbili, M. (2006). Mapping Knowledge: Concept Maps in Early Childhood Education. Early Childhood Research & Practice, 8(2). Retrieved November 10, 2008, from http://ecrp.uiuc.edu/v8n2/birbili.html

    Boyle, O. F., & Peregoy, S. F. (2005). Reading, Writing, and Learning in ESL: A Resources Book for K-12 Teachers (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

    Bright, R. M., Pollard, M. J., Tompkins, G. E., & Winsor, P. J.T. (2008). Language Arts: Content and Teaching Strategies. Toronto, ON: Pearson Education.

    Cabral, R. M., Herrera, S. G., & Murry, K. G. (2007). Assessment Accommodation for Classroom Teachers of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

    Carnell, E. (2000). Dialogue, Discussion and Secondary School Students on How Other Help Their Learning: Feedback for learning. London, UK: Routledge.

    Carson, J. & Nelson, G. (1996). Chinese students’ perceptions of ESL peer response group interaction. Journal of Second Language Writing. 5(1),1 -19.

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