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Forest Carbon Partnership Facility R-PP Preparation DRIVERS OF DEFORESTATION AND DEGRADATION August, 13 – 14, 2009 ADDRESSING DRIVERS OF DEFORESTATION AND DEGRADATION

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forest carbon partnership facility

Forest Carbon Partnership Facility

R-PP Preparation

DRIVERS OF DEFORESTATION AND DEGRADATION

August, 13 – 14, 2009

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ADDRESSING DRIVERS OF DEFORESTATION AND DEGRADATION

  • Rapid land use changes are due to both Direct and Underlying/Root causes with significant impact on forest ecosystems loss & degradation
  • Importance of identifying, understanding & prioritizing Direct and Underlying causes:
    • Direct and their Underlying causes are the key elements for shaping a National REDD Strategy
    • Indentifying and assessing them is the cornerstone for designing interventions to reduce pressure on forests
    • Crucial for selecting REDD options, planning interventions and deploying resources to reduce deforestation & degradation
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UNDERLYING CAUSES

Unsound Policy & Institutional Factors

Unsound Economic & Market Factors

Landlessness & Unclear Allocation Rights

Demographic Factors

Other Socio Economic & Cultural Factors

Expansion of Agricultural and Pasture Frontier

Unsound Infrastructure Development

Forest Fires

Forest Products Extraction

Extractive Industry Activities

DIRECT or PROXIMATE CAUSES

UNDERLYING AND DIRECT CAUSES

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REDD Strategy should address systematically the Drivers of deforestation and degradation (e.g. case: R-PPs needed more focus, at least in the preliminary identification & assessment of D&U causes that would allow improving R-PP design & preparation of ToRs)

  • Important to link Direct causes with the respective Underlying causes to ensure effective REDD options to reduce emissions(e.g. case: Unsound past experiences in selecting interventions and priority areas to prevent forest loss, ICDP cases)

ADDRESSING DIRECT & UNDERLYING CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION AND DEGRADATION

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Result from structural socio-economic political and Institutional conditions that generate impact on forest cover and land use at local, national and also at international level (important for crafting REDD options)

  • Expressed in direct causes that demand comprehensive interventions using approaches including among others, policy & legal reforms, and enforcement
  • Demand political will & good governance

UNDERSTANDING UNDERLYING CAUSES

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Underlying or root causes are diverse:

    • Unsound policy and institutional factors (e.g. perverse economic/resource use incentives; forest fees & permits payments vs. agriculture; bio-fuel in Amazonian countries)
    • Unsound Economic & market factors (case: Mahogany illegal trade case resulting in degradation)
    • Landlessness & Unclear allocation rights (e.g. case subsistence farming, sifting agriculture)
    • Demographic factors (e.g. case: unplanned immigration into forestland areas in Andean countries)
    • Other socio economic & cultural factors (unsound agricultural production practices & resource use e.g. case: man made forest fires & some tillage practices)

UNDERSTANDING UNDERLYING CAUSES

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Involve immediate human land use activities that change forest cover in local areas

  • Are direct cause of forest loss or disturbance usually linked to an underlying cause, thus critical for REDD strategy
  • Are the result of different complex relationship that differ from place to place & will demand different REDD options.

IDENTIFYING DIRECT CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION & DEGRADATION

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Expansion of agricultural and pasture frontier(e.g. case: clearing land for cash crops (Soybean, palm oil etc.), cattle ranching, sugar cane, subsistence farming; each of them may need different options for REDD Strategy)

  • Unsound infrastructure development(Hydroelectric or irrigation dams, road construction e.g. case in the Amazonian region, challenges for REDD)
  • Forest fires(e.g. Challenges for tropical forest countries)
  • Forest products extraction(e.g. unsustainable firewood extraction linked to poverty, illegal logging, etc.)
  • Extractive industry activities(e.g. case oil , gas & mining, river bank mining in Amazonian countries)

IDENTIFYING DIRECT CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION & DEGRADATION

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GOVERNANCE A KEY BUILDING BLOCK FOR REDD
  • FOREST & LAND INSTITUTIONS, AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
  • TRANSPARENCY, ACCOUNTABILITY & PUBLIC PARTICIPATION
  • QUALITY OF FOREST & LAND ADMINISTRATION
  • LEGISLATION AND RULE OF LAW
  • ECONOMIC EQUITY, INCENTIVES & SUSTAINABILITY
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GOVERNANCE A KEY BUILDING BLOCK FOR REDD
  • FOREST & LAND INSTITUTIONS AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
    • Stability of forest & land administration agencies; presence on the ground: capacity for timely response; based on public administration professionalism; decision making based on legislation and customary rules (e.g. case: recent land legislation changes in Latin America)
    • Capacity for conflict resolution on forests & land issues
  • TRANSPARENCY, ACCOUNTABILITY AND PUBLIC PARTICIPATION
    • Public information, stakeholder participation and consultation on forest and land policy and legislation development; and on law enforcement; (case: REDD working group participation)
    • Accountability to stakeholders (Stakeholder policy dialogue round tables)
    • Decentralization & devolution of responsibility to local communities
  • QUALITY OF FOREST & LAND ADMINISTRATION
    • Willingness to address forest and land issues
    • Capacity & effectiveness of forest & land agencies to implement and enforce laws
    • Control of corruption
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GOVERNANCE A KEY BUILDING BLOCK FOR REDD
  • LEGISLATION AND RULE OF LAW
    • Quality of forest & land legislation
    • Quality of forest and land allocations
    • Property and tenure rights recognized/honored and enforced
    • Quality of law enforcement
  • ECONOMIC EQUITY, INCENTIVES AND SUSTAINABILITY
    • Right incentives for law compliance & sustainable forest and land use, and penalties for violations
    • Socially sound & fair terms of trade for forest & agricultural products
    • Strong market institutions
    • Appropriate user fees and taxes