Ethnic Conflict - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. Ethnic Conflict

  2. Ethnic Conflict • Conflict between ethnic groups • Ethnic groups • Share common sense of identity, culture, common history • Exists as a subgroup in a larger society or nation • Sources of ethnic group identification • History, social status, race, religion • Symbols, myths, memories • Nation • Culturally homogeneous groups of people, larger than a single tribe or community, which share a common language, institutions, religion, and historical experience

  3. Why do groups fight over “small differences”?

  4. Structural causes • Disintegration of empires • Quest for self determination • Security dilemma

  5. Case Study: Yugoslavia

  6. Croatia • Declares independence 1991 • Recognized as independent by UN in 1992 • Ethnic war between Croat and Serbs 1991-1995 • Ethnic cleansing • Population: 1996: Croat 78%, Serb 12%, other 10% 2001: Croat 89.6%, Serb 4.5%, other 5.9% % Source: CIA Factbook

  7. Bosnia-Herzegovina • Declared independence in 1992 • Resistance from ethnic Serbs, • War between Serbs, Bosnians, Croats • Dayton Agreement 1995 • International peacekeepers • Office of High Representatives • Entities: Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska

  8. Role of Leadership • Extreme groups • Insecure, autocratic leadership • Manipulation of symbols, ideology, history

  9. Kosovo • Province in Serbia • Ethnic composition: 88% Albanian, 6% Serbs, 3% Muslim Slav, 2% Roma • Kosovo Liberation Army guerrilla war 1998 • Milosevic sends troops to Serbian population • NATO air strikes 1998-1999 • Milosevic looses power 2000, 2001 in Hague • Kosovo: UN protectorate • Albanians dominate parliament • Spring 2004 unrest in Serb territories • 4000 Serbs fled

  10. The Role of Democracy? • Representation of ethnic groups’ interests • Strengthen ethnic groups moderates • Ideological moderation?

  11. Macedonia: qualified success? • Declares independence 1991 • Greece objects • FYR Macedonia • Ethnic groups: Macedonian 64%, Albanian 25%, other 11% • Democratic, multi-ethnic government • 2001 – ethnic conflict broke out lead by Albanian radical group linked to KLA • Governments invites peacekeeping troop: NATO and UN • Conflict minimized