English Cognates in Various Indo-European Languages. By Don L. F. Nilsen And Alleen Pace Nilsen. Why English Speakers Don’t Learn Other Languages. The English Channel separates England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland from mainland Europe.
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English Cognates in Various Indo-European Languages By Don L. F. Nilsen And Alleen Pace Nilsen 58
Why English Speakers Don’t Learn Other Languages • The English Channel separates England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland from mainland Europe. • The Atlantic Ocean separates the United States and Canada from Europe. • The Pacific Ocean separates Australia and New Zealand from Europe. 58
English as a Global Language • As a result, English speakers tend not to learn other languages, but… • The English Language borrows extensively from other languages, and that’s why there are so many English cognates in the other Indo-European languages. 58
English’s Linguistic Relatives:A Study in Family Resemblance • Old English is the “mother” of English. • The Germanic languages are closely related—let’s say “cousins.” • The Romance languages are less-closely related—let’s say “second cousins.” • The Celtic languages are more distantly related—let’s say second cousins once removed.” • The Indo-Iranian and Balto-Slavic languages are more distantly related—let’s say “third cousins.” 58
Languages in Contact: Borrowings and Migrations • English has been influenced by French • During the Middle Ages • During the 100-year Norman Occupation • From the Parisian French of “haut couture.” • From the Canadian French of exploration. • From New Orleans French 58
American English has been influenced by Mexican Spanish in the Southwest and by Puerto Rican, Canadian, and Caribbean Spanish in the Southeast. • American English has been influenced by Dutch in Holland, Michigan and in New Amsterdam and Harlem, New York. • American English has been influenced by German (Pennsylvania Dutch) in Pennsylvania. 58