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English Cognates in Various Indo-European Languages. By Don L. F. Nilsen And Alleen Pace Nilsen. Why English Speakers Don’t Learn Other Languages. The English Channel separates England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland from mainland Europe.

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English Cognates in Various Indo-European Languages


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    1. English Cognates in Various Indo-European Languages By Don L. F. Nilsen And Alleen Pace Nilsen 58

    2. Why English Speakers Don’t Learn Other Languages • The English Channel separates England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland from mainland Europe. • The Atlantic Ocean separates the United States and Canada from Europe. • The Pacific Ocean separates Australia and New Zealand from Europe. 58

    3. English as a Global Language • As a result, English speakers tend not to learn other languages, but… • The English Language borrows extensively from other languages, and that’s why there are so many English cognates in the other Indo-European languages. 58

    4. English’s Linguistic Relatives:A Study in Family Resemblance • Old English is the “mother” of English. • The Germanic languages are closely related—let’s say “cousins.” • The Romance languages are less-closely related—let’s say “second cousins.” • The Celtic languages are more distantly related—let’s say second cousins once removed.” • The Indo-Iranian and Balto-Slavic languages are more distantly related—let’s say “third cousins.” 58

    5. Languages in Contact: Borrowings and Migrations • English has been influenced by French • During the Middle Ages • During the 100-year Norman Occupation • From the Parisian French of “haut couture.” • From the Canadian French of exploration. • From New Orleans French 58

    6. American English has been influenced by Mexican Spanish in the Southwest and by Puerto Rican, Canadian, and Caribbean Spanish in the Southeast. • American English has been influenced by Dutch in Holland, Michigan and in New Amsterdam and Harlem, New York. • American English has been influenced by German (Pennsylvania Dutch) in Pennsylvania. 58

    7. English vs. Celtic Names 58

    8. English vs. French Names 58

    9. French Place Names in U.S. 58

    10. English vs. German 58

    11. English vs. German Names 58

    12. English vs. German Verbs 58

    13. English vs. Italian 58

    14. English vs. Italian Names 58

    15. English vs. Spanish & French 58

    16. English vs. Spanish Names 58

    17. Spanish Place Names in U.S. 58

    18. English vs. German 58

    19. Grimm’s Law:Romance /b/  Germanic /p/ 58

    20. Grimm’s Law:Romance /d/  Germanic /t/ 58

    21. Grimm’s Law:Romance /g/  Germanic /k/ 58

    22. Grimm’s Law:Romance /p/  Germanic /f/ 58

    23. Grimm’s Law:Romance /p/  Germanic /f/ 58

    24. Grimm’s Law:Romance /p/  Germanic /f/ 58

    25. Grimm’s Law:Romance /t/  Germanic /θ/ 58

    26. Grimm’s Law:Romance /k/  Germanic /x/ or /h/ 58

    27. Celtic Cardinal Numbers 58

    28. Celtic Ordinal Numbers 58

    29. Celtic Days of the Week 58

    30. Celtic Months of the Year 58

    31. Celtic Relatives 58

    32. Celtic Subject Pronouns 58

    33. Germanic Cardinal Numbers 58

    34. Germanic Ordinal Numbers 58

    35. Germanic Days of the Week 58

    36. Germanic Months of the Year 58

    37. Germanic Relatives 58

    38. Germanic Signs of the Zodiac 58

    39. Germanic Subject Pronouns 58

    40. Germanic Object Pronouns 58

    41. Indo-Iranian Cardinal Numbers 58

    42. Indo-Iranian Ordinal Numbers 58

    43. Indo-Iranian Days of the Week 58

    44. Indo-Iranian Months of the Year 58

    45. Indo-Iranian Relatives 58

    46. Indo-Iranian Subject Pronouns 58

    47. Romance Cardinal Numbers 58

    48. Romance & Helenic Ordinal Numbers 58

    49. Romance Days of the Week 58

    50. Romance Months of the Year 58