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Sustainable Building Design & Planning

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  1. Sustainable Building Design & Planning Brahmanand MOHANTY, Ph.D.

  2. Buildings are highly resource intensive Raw materials, energy, water 30-40% of world’s primary energy is used in buildings Construction Operation & maintenance High rise in demand for new construction Greenfield projects Demolition of low-rise zones to create high-rise buildings Adverse impacts of buildings on the environment Contributing to greenhouse gas emissions Depletion of resources & increase in waste generation Buildings, resources & the environment Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  3. Buildings, resources & the environment Source: Sustainable Building and Construction Initiatives, 2006 Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  4. Design & development of energy efficient buildings Reduced embodied energy of the building Designing concepts & advanced materials to lower the operating energy Aiming for carbon neutral buildings High performance buildings (low energy or zero-energy) Energy-positive buildings Green buildings Less resource intensive Least impact on the environment Improved quality, comfort & health of the inhabitants Recent efforts to meet the challenge Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  5. “A green building should create delight when entered, serenity and health when occupied and regret when departed” - Natural Capitalism - Definition of a green building Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  6. Concept of sustainable architecture Source: Sustainable Architecture and Building Design, 2002 Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  7. Market is ripe with cost effective concepts, technologies & products To reduce the need for energy services Optimized design Site planning, shape, orientation, fenestration & shading, natural ventilation, passive cooling, etc. Better implementation Choice of material & technology, optimized insulation of walls & roofs, high performance glazing, artificial lighting & cooling solutions To satisfy the needs with more efficient solutions Improved end-use energy efficiency Better artificial lighting & control Better artificial cooling & control Provision of energy services through alternative means & strategies Cost effective concepts/tech./products Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  8. Overcoming the general perception of sustainable building being more expensive More emphasis on adopting the right building science and less dependence on high-cost building technologies A better scientific understanding of the way buildings work and avoiding high technological sophistication The main challenge: To do more with less Designing sustainable building Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  9. Overall objective: Lower energy consumption and life-cycle costs Start with building fabrics to lower energy demand (life span: 50-100 years) Then look for devices to generate energy from renewables (life span: 10-20 years) More capital needed for oversized renewable energy systems for a poorly designed building Designing sustainable building Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  10. Example of application in cold climates Very little energy demand for an airtight and super-insulated building; money required on energy supply technologies used to cover the additional cost of improving building fabric quality Money saved by using hygroscopic materials to handle the indoor air humidity than mechanical ventilation (fans, ducts, grilles, and filters) Designing sustainable building Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  11. Heating of building Radiative (heating by direct radiation) and convective (warming and circulating air) Central (indirect) versus decentralized (direct) heating system Electric heater vs. gas heater and efficient reverse-cycle heat pumps Combustion-based heating systems Boiler efficiency, system efficiency and efficient control system Addition features such as larger heat exchangers, extra insulation, automatic operation of flue dampers, etc. Combined heat and power Provision of electricity and heat with high overall efficiency Energy efficient technologies in buildings Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  12. Cooling of building Passive cooling (ventilation and thermal mass) or use of low energy mechanical systems (fans, evaporating cooling Mechanical cooling in extreme climatic conditions Mechanical/electrical vapour compression chiller Vapour absorption chiller requiring heat as energy source (e.g. exhaust heat from power generator of cogeneration plant) Simultaneous heating and cooling system Heat recovered from cooled space for the space to be heated Energy efficient technologies in buildings Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  13. Lighting of building Optimizing daylight through fenestration (light shelves, louvers, prismatic glazing) Daylight through roof (light well, atria, or light pipe) Energy efficient lighting devices Depending on the type of illumination required Accent lighting versus task lighting Proper lighting control Zoning of lighting system, timer based switching, occupancy detectors, daylight sensing, etc. Energy efficient technologies in buildings Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  14. Electrical appliances in building Choice of right type and size of white goods (refrigerator, freezer, clothes washer, etc.) Purchase of energy efficient home and office appliances Reduction of standby power by switching off appliances Building energy management system Better monitoring and control of energy use in the entire building Energy efficient technologies in buildings Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  15. Embodied energy of construction materials Building materials classified into 5 groups Renewable materials from photosynthesis/biology (natural timber, wool, etc.) Materials extracted with minimal processing (earth, sand and gravel) Extracted and processed materials (lime, plaster, stone, slate and brick) Extracted and highly processed materials (steel, cement, glass and plastics) Recycled materials (reused timber, brick, aggregate, steel, glass and insulation) Appropriate building materials Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  16. Typical materials and systems used as walls Double brick wall Reverse masonry veneer Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC blocks) Concrete block Insulated concrete Lightweight timber Panel systems Appropriate building materials Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  17. Alternative materials used as walls Mud brick (adobe) Rammed earth (pisé) Earth bermed Straw bale Appropriate building materials Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  18. Typical materials for roofing and flooring Tiles Metal sheeting Green roofs Concrete slab floors Earth covered Appropriate building materials Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  19. Composite materials Lightweight walls with heavyweight floor Lightweight floor with heavyweight walls Lightweight walls and floors with water mass Thermal performance of windows Increasing the number of glazing layers Increasing the size of the cavity between the sheets of glass Replacing the air in the cavity with argon or krypton gas Applying a low emissivity layer to one or more panes of glass Appropriate building materials Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  20. Solar thermal system Flat-plate versus evacuated-tube collector Open versus closed circuit Passive versus active system Solar boosted heat pump Solar photovoltaic system Crystalline or amorphous silicon Unframed laminate or framed Building integrated photovoltaic system (BIPV) Application of renewable energy Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  21. Wind generators/turbines Installed on rooftops on high towers to capture wind Turbine axis in horizontal or vertical plane Small wind generators classification Low or high voltage turbines (provide heat, pump water or drive suitable motor, without battery) Low voltage (12, 24, 36 or 48V) turbines (charge battery and power low voltage lights, appliances and pump water, mainly in off-grid mode Low voltage turbines (charge batteries and use inverter to power high voltage appliances High voltage turbines (115 or 230V) using special inverter (feed into electric grid) Application of renewable energy Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  22. Triple bottom line Money saving, better comfort and quality of life and low environmental pollution Studies conducted to assess the benefits of LEED certified buildings in USA Lower operating costs Efficient asset management, increased occupant productivity and well being and less staff turnover Average construction cost premium very low (0-10%) and high savings over building lifetime Benefits of sustainable building design Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  23. Study conducted by CII-India Green buildings consumed 30-50% less energy Incremental costs in the range of 5-8% with payback period of 3 to 5 years Better human visual and thermal comfort and higher productivity Comparison of three LEED platinum rated buildings Benefits of sustainable building design Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  24. Conclusion of study by CII-India With rapid market transformation, further lowering of incremental costs ITC’s Platinum rated office building WIPRO’s platinum rated development centre CII’s platinum rated Green Building Centre Benefits of sustainable building design Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  25. ING office building in Amsterdam One of the pioneer sustainable building Features of the building Absence of air conditioning system Use of massive 18” interior walls to act as insulator and building flushed with night air Building energy consumption one-tenth of its predecessors and one-fifth of new office building Annual energy cost savings of US$2.9 million compared to costs of additional features of US$700,000 (payback time of only 3 months) Productivity gains through lower absenteeism Examples of sustainable building design Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  26. Office building in Melbourne, Australia Refurbished with 87% of the building structure recycled and awarded 6 green star- office design rating Project achievements 70% reduction in energy use compared to conventional office buildings 82% reduction in piped water use 72% reduction in sewer discharge Examples of sustainable building design Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  27. Governments have major influence in promoting green buildings Own and occupy vast amount of space Can lead the way and set good example for citizens and private developers Example of government initiatives Low-energy and zero-energy office buildings initiated by the Government of Malaysia Govt. role in promoting green building Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  28. Low energy office building Key data Gross floor area: 20 000 m2 Energy performance index: 114 kWh/m2/year Addition cost to construct: 5% Annual energy savings: RM 600 000 Payback period: 5 years Govt. role in promoting green building • Energy efficiency features • Orientation & building envelope insulation • Energy efficient lighting, ventilation & office appliances • Energy management system Ministry of Energy, Water & Telecommunications, Malaysia Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  29. Zero energy office building Key data Gross floor area: 4 000 m2 Energy performance index: 35 kWh/m2/year (excluding solar PV) Energy performance index: 0 kWh/m2/year (including solar PV) Addition cost to construct: 21% (excluding solar PV) Addition cost to construct: 45% (including solar PV) Govt. role in promoting green building • Energy efficiency features • Building envelope insulation & double glazing • Almost 100% daylighting & task lighting • Energy efficient ventilation & floor slab cooling • Energy efficient appliances • Energy management system Recently completed Malaysia Energy Centre Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  30. Thailand government support for existing residential homes Study the house design Provide advice through expert team for improving energy efficiency Extend financial support up to 30% of the actual improvement costs Govt. role in promoting green building • Support from national energy agency (DEDE) for the construction of energy efficient new residential homes • Detailed design of 3 types of individual houses of different sizes and costs based on detailed study carried out by experts • Construction permit given by concerned authorities in a short time Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  31. Municipal energy plan for Almaty (2005-06) Several energy audits to initiate demonstration projects Small revolving fund created to lend money to carry out retrofits on existing buildings Results of demonstration projects Possible to reduce energy consumption of municipal buildings by 20 to 25% Reduce overall energy bill by 4.4 to 5 million US$ per annum Govt. role in promoting green building Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  32. CESE, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur Govt. role in promoting green building • Energy efficiency features • Building envelope • Cavity wall with insulation • Insulated & shaded roof • Double glazed & shaded windows • Lighting system • Efficient fixtures • Efficient lamps • Daylight integration • HVAC system • Load calculated with optimized envelope & lighting system • Efficient chillers • Efficient condensing system • Use of geothermal cooling EPI = 240 kWh/m2.annum Envelope optimization EPI = 208 kWh/m2.annum Lighting optimization EPI = 168 kWh/m2.annum HVAC optimization EPI = 133 kWh/m2.annum Control systems EPI = 98 kWh/m2.annum Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  33. Barriers to achieving energy efficiency and sustainability Lack of legislation, unavailability of information, high first-costs, market failures, etc. Effectiveness of policy instruments If introduced and enforced effectively Need for other supporting policy instruments to overcome other barriers Two types of regulatory and control instruments Normative (building codes, appliance standards, regulation for procurement and setting of energy efficiency obligations and quota) Informative (mandatory audit, mandatory labelling and certification, utility demand side management) Regulatory and control measures Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  34. Energy conservation building codes Building codes implemented around the world in 2005 (Source: UNEP, 2007) Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  35. Most popular instrument in reducing energy use On-going process in many countries since early 1990’s Mainly for air conditioned commercial buildings, but also for non-air conditioned spaces as well as residential buildings Compliance is mandatory/voluntary in nature & periodical updating Effectiveness of building codes Building codes in many developing countries are less effective due to inadequate resources and efforts for their implementation Difficult to implement if the awareness is low, professionals are not trained, products are not in the market, demonstration projects are not commissioned or incentive measures not announced Most building codes are designed for new construction and are not applicable to existing building stock Energy conservation building codes Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  36. Types of building codes Prescriptive Building envelope (walls, roofs, windows) – OTTV & RTTV Lighting (natural & artificial) – Maximum power density Heating, ventilation & air conditioning – kW/RT Service water heating & pumping Electrical systems & appliances (transformers, household & office appliances) Overall performance-based Prescribe an annual energy consumption or energy cost budget, providing scope for innovation Fresh air intake Air ducts Solar Radiation 20% Cooling load 60% Thermal radiation Air handling unit Convection Supply air Return air Evaporator Water chiller Cooling tower Compressor Condenser Electric power Energy efficiency building codes Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  37. Energy standard & label for building, materials & equipment Labelling of energy efficient appliances Compliance is either voluntary & mandatory Minimum Energy Performance Standard (MEPS) Appliance energy efficiency standards Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  38. Public authorities are single-largest energy consumers in many countries Procurement regulation can be mandatory or voluntary USA’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) one of the most stringent legislative frameworks for procurement China’s energy efficiency procurement law modelled after the US FEMP Procurement regulations more effective in countries facing energy shortages and high energy prices Energy efficiency public procurement Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  39. Three categories of supporting policies and programmes Economic or market-based instruments Initiated by regulatory incentives and involve voluntary action, such as cooperative procurement, energy performance contracting, energy efficiency certificate schemes, and Kyoto flexible mechanism Fiscal instruments and incentives Support to overcome first-cost related barriers or market failures, such as taxation, tax exemption/reduction, capital subsidy, grant, subsidized loan, and public benefit charges Support, information and voluntary action Persuade consumers to change their behaviour through awareness raising, information campaigns, education and training of building professional, and public leadership programs Supporting policies and programmes Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  40. Economic or market-based instruments Energy performance contracting Contractor guarantees the energy savings in building and is paid from the actual cost reductions achieved Cooperative or technical procurement Public or private decision-maker procures large quantities of energy consuming equipment in order to trigger market for more efficient products Energy efficiency certificate (or white certificate) Saving obligations imposed on energy suppliers who fulfil it by claiming for end-use energy efficiency measures, either through their own initiatives or through trading of saving certificates Supporting policies and programmes Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  41. Fiscal instruments and incentives Tax exemptions or reductions Adopted for advanced technologies where first-cost is a major barrier; should pay for results according to performance Energy and carbon tax Reinforce the impact of standards and subsidies or make energy efficiency investment more profitable; effective when tax revenues are ploughed back to support energy efficiency Public benefit charges A specific form of energy tax to raise funds from the operation of the energy market to undertake energy efficiency and DSM activities Supporting policies and programmes Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  42. Fiscal instruments and incentives Capital subsidies, grants, subsidized loans and rebates Provided to overcome first-cost barriers (e.g. for house insulation in the UK) Subsidized loans for ESCO activities (e.g. low-interest loan from the EC Revolving Fund in Thailand) Subsidy program for a limited time or for a specific target to create a market for energy efficient equipment and appliances (e.g. limited-period rebate program in Denmark, subsequently adopted by Thailand) Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness depends on the program design as there is high risk of some beneficiaries being “free-riders” Supporting policies and programmes Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  43. Support, information and voluntary action Public information and awareness campaigns Aimed at changing individual behaviour, attitude and values Increase the effectiveness and long-term impact of other policy instruments, mainly by reducing the rebound effects of regulatory and control policy measures Activities include “Energy Information Centres”, consumption feedback surveys, special events for stakeholders, sensitization toolkits for teachers and activities for school children More effective when followed up by linking them with professionals who can provide advisory services and assist in implementation Information campaign more effective when targeted towards residential sector than the commercial sector Supporting policies and programmes Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  44. Support, information and voluntary action Training activities Used as a tool to provide assistance for decision making, some times integrating with investment aid Energy audit forms as a link between energy information provided to establishments and the grant aids available for EE investments More effective when combined with other measures (e.g. financial incentives for architects undergoing training in Switzerland or job opportunity for installers/fitters qualified for EE work in the UK) Public leadership program Public EE programs are very cost-effective as they reduce energy consumption and costs 12 billion Euros per annum of energy saving potential in Europe 25% of energy savings over 15 years in Germany 4.8 GWh and 5.2 billion US$ saving per year in the USA Supporting policies and programmes Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  45. Retrofitting/rehabilitation of government buildings Example of public leadership in India • Energy audits conducted in important government buildings • President’s Office & Residence Complex • Prime Minister’s Office • Government Offices (Power, Railways, Telecommunications, Transport) • Medical Institute & Hospital Building • Airport Terminals • Assessed energy savings potential • Varying between 25 and 46% • Payback period: 1 to 4 years • Implementation of recommendations • Through Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) President’s Office & Residence Complex Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  46. Support of Energy Service Companies (ESCO) Stakeholders often do not have knowledge and expertise and/or lack investment needed to implement cost-effective EE measures Typical questions asked by public authorities Is it possible to reduce energy costs without compromising service quality? Can funds be mobilized for EE investments without the available financial resources? How can the performance of newly invested equipment and facilities be monitored and controlled? How to overcome investment risks while guaranteeing the expected results? ESCOs are an answer to the above questions ESCOs offer triple benefits: arrange financing and cover technical, financial and other risks associated with energy savings Supporting policies and programmes Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  47. Support of Energy Service Companies (ESCO) Tools available to implement EE measures in buildings Energy performance contracting (EPC) Contractual agreement between beneficiary and ESCO to achieve energy saving target and performance: fee for service linked to EE investment and the period of contract Third-party financing (TPF) In addition to beneficiary and ESCO, a third party is involved to provide capital needed and charge a fee linked to energy savings Debt-service for public/private beneficiary considered as operational expense and not a capital obligation Supporting policies and programmes Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  48. Support of Energy Service Companies (ESCO) Tools available to implement EE measures in buildings Leasing Can be a type of TPF or ESCO-based financial offer Should be part of a performance-based contract between beneficiary and ESCO (and where applicable, a third financing party) Profit-sharing (project and/or O&M incentives) ESCO remunerated on the basis of the energy and O&M costs it manages to reduce through better energy management and O&M practices When contracting period is sufficiently long, ESCO invests on EE technologies to further reduce O&M costs and increase revenue Supporting policies and programmes Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  49. Support of Energy Service Companies (ESCO) Five important steps for EE service contracting 1 Project development 2 Feasibility study 3 Purchasing process 5 Contract period 4 Implementation Decision point 1 Decision point 2 Decision point 3 Supporting policies and programmes Source: The PU-Benefs project (European Commission), 2005 Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries

  50. Support of Energy Service Companies (ESCO) Typical barriers to ESCO development No clarity in administrative and budgetary procedures concerning Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) Lack of awareness and information High transaction costs compared to expected profits and split incentives Low energy prices, inadequate service levels Lenders’ poor knowledge about advantages of EPC and lack access to financing due to ESCO’s poor creditworthiness Need for government support for successful ESCO business Supporting policies and programmes Brahmanand Mohanty – Sustainable Building Design and Planning – Workshop on Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Central Asia including SPECA Countries