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Diversity in the World of Math, Science and Engineering Chancellor’s Conference University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign American Institutions in a Demographically Changing World James H. Johnson, Jr. Howard University April 10-11, 2001

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Diversity in the World of Math, Science and Engineering

Chancellor’s Conference

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

American Institutions in a Demographically Changing World

James H. Johnson, Jr.

Howard University

April 10-11, 2001


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Diversity in the World of Math, Science and Engineering

Howard University

  • Founded in 1867

  • Named for General Oliver Otis Howard

  • First Students

    • Freed slaves

    • White women

    • Native Americans


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Diversity in the World of Math, Science and Engineering

Dimensions of Diversity

Age

Ethnicity, gender

Physical abilities/qualities, race

Sexual orientation, educational background

Geographic location, income, marital status

Military experience, parental status, religion

Work experience and job classification


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Diversity in the World of Math, Science and Engineering

Three Postulates to Embracing Diversity

  • Education shapes the minds of young people

  • An ideal workforce is inclusive and diverse

  • Diversity increases productivity


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Diversity in the World of Math, Science and Engineering

Unequals

  • Affirmative Action – eliminates present effects of past discrimination

  • Equal Opportunity – ensures equal access to jobs, housing, etc.

  • Diversity – maximizes the potential of all, therefore exploits our self interest



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Diversity in the World of Math, Science and Engineering

  • Percent in population

  • All S&E degrees

  • Science degrees minus biological and social sciences and psychology

  • Engineering degrees only

----------------------------------------

  • Science and Engineering Indicators-1996, National Science Board, NSF 1996

  • Women and Minorities and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering:1998, NSF 99-87


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Diversity in the World of Math, Science and Engineering

Strategies to Increase Minority Engineering Graduates

  • Pre-college summer and evening programs

  • Rising freshmen bridge programs

  • Teacher training programs


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Diversity in the World of Math, Science and Engineering

Lessons Learned from the Past

  • Importance of K-12 math and science education

  • Need for role models

  • Money is important for minorities to go to college


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Diversity in the World of Math, Science and Engineering

K-12 Outreach Organizations

ACE

METCON MESA FUTURE Cities

SECME JETS

NACME FIRST



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Diversity in the World of Math, Science and Engineering

Science and Engineering Degrees to Minorities

Degree typePercent of Degrees Awarded

1989 1997

Bachelor 10 15

Doctorate 5 7

Scientist and Engineers for the New Millennium: Renewing the Human Resources, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, March 2001


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Diversity in the World of Math, Science and Engineering

If necessity is the mother of invention, then

collaboration may well be the mother

of diversity


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Diversity in the World of Math, Science and Engineering

Elements of the UMBC Meyerhoff Scholarship Program

  • Using the smartest science and humanities faculty to work with the students

  • Keeping the program at the core of the university

  • Thinking about how they teach first-year students

  • Working in groups

  • Mentoring

  • Improving by analyzing successes and failures


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Diversity in the World of Math, Science and Engineering

National Assessment of Educational Programs Math

Percent at or above proficiency level at Given Grade Level

4th 8th 12th

White 28 31 20

African American 5 4 4

Hispanic 8 9 6

American Indian 8 13 3

Upping the Numbers: Using Research-Based Decision-Making to Increase the Diversity in the Quantitative Disciplines by P. Campbell, E. Jollard and L. Hoey. A Report Commissioned by the GE Fund, July 2001.


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Diversity in the World of Math, Science and Engineering

The Georgia Tech Model to Increase # of Engineering Graduates

  • K-12 EMERGE: schools + faith- based institutions + technology

  • B.S. Dual Degree Programs

  • M.S./PhD. FOCUS: importance of graduate education



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Diversity in the World of Math, Science and Engineering

Math, Science and Engineering – New Workers via Parity

Current Level % of Workforce % of Pop New jobs

White Woman 340,300 13.3 37.2 611,516

African Americans 85,200 3.3 12.1 227,200

Hispanic 78,100 3.0 11.0 208,266

American Indian 5,900 0.2 0.7 14,750

>1,000,000

NSF,2000, Appendix Table 5-3


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Diversity in the World of Math, Science and Engineering

Women are less likely than men to select MSE majors, while African Americans and Hispanics are less likely to have the prerequisites to enroll in MSE major.


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Diversity in the World of Math, Science and Engineering

Diversity Planning Principles

  • Accountability

  • Inclusiveness

  • Shared responsibility

  • Evaluation

  • Institutionalization

    Diversity Blueprint: A Planning Model for Colleges and Universities, Association of American Colleges and Universities, 1998


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Diversity in the World of Math, Science and Engineering

Steven B. Sample, President of the University of Southern California writes,

“…the advantages of real diversity are usually worth the pain and costs involved.…organizations that contain a wide variety of people working together toward a common goal are much tougher and resilient.”



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Diversity in the World of Math, Science and Engineering

Diversity Gordian’s Knot

  • Immigration quotas

  • Legal challenges to affirmative action to increase diversity

  • Best methods for attracting and educating the minority and women pools to enter MSE programs

  • Forecasts for demand and supply in MSE disciplines


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Diversity in the World of Math, Science and Engineering

Future Questions for Us to Resolve

  • How do we encourage the belief in all that MSE are important endeavors?

  • What pedagogical changes are required?

  • What barriers outside of the K-12 classroom do we need to remove?

  • How can institutions of higher education foster open, truly caring environments?

  • How can we get and keep role models in higher education in the MSE disciplines?


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Diversity in the World of Math, Science and Engineering

CLOSING REMARKS

  • Higher Education must support the educational requirements of all students

  • Higher Education must teach all students about MSE

  • Higher Education must prepare K-12 teachers to teach MSE

  • Higher Education must embrace all students pursuing MSE degrees



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