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Contactless Fare Media System Standard Part 2: Contactless Fare Media Data Format and Interface Standard. Tomas Oliva. Using Standards to Make “Smart” Choices Talking Technology and Transportation (T3) May 17, 2006. UTFS Elements of Standardization.

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Contactless Fare Media System Standard Part 2: Contactless Fare Media Data Format and Interface Standard

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Contactless Fare Media System StandardPart 2: Contactless Fare Media Data Format and Interface Standard

Tomas Oliva

Using Standards to Make

“Smart” Choices

Talking Technology and Transportation (T3)

May 17, 2006

utfs elements of standardization
UTFS Elements of Standardization

PART 3 – Regional Central System Interface Specification

PART 4 – System Security Planning and Implementation Guideline

PART 2 – Contactless Fare Media Data Format and InterfaceStandard

general scope of the part 2 standard
General Scope of the Part 2 Standard
  • Applies to contactless card-based fare collection systems
  • Requires a Proximity Integrated Circuit Card (PICC) with a Card Operating System, compliant with ISO/IEC14443:2-4, with a minimum of 2KB of useable memory
  • Provides a specification for components of the data architecture to be used on the card
  • Uses existing standards and common practices where possible
general purpose of the part 2 standard
General Purpose of the Part 2 Standard
  • Define a common set of data objects that enable compliant PICCs and Card Interface Devices (CID) to be used interchangeably with each other within a system
  • Enable multiple transit agencies within a region to accept each others fare media
  • Provide a set of data objects and associated software logic that, once developed, can be applied to other projects/systems
objectives of the part 2 standard
Objectives of the Part 2 Standard
  • Accommodate most known fare products and related services currently used in the US
  • Base card data components on open standards to enable open sourcing from multiple vendors
  • Ensure that new interface device technologies can be adopted within the core application infrastructure
advantages of adoption
Advantages of Adoption
  • Interoperability
    • Transit agencies can accept other agencies smart cards.
    • Agency systems can be procured at different times.
  • Reduced Cost
    • Reduced need for customization and


    • Transit agencies can purchase equipment from multiple vendors (competitive procurement).
    • Potential to share costs through common operations.
use of the part 2 standard
Use of the Part 2 Standard
  • The Standard is not sufficient to build a functioning system or to achieve interoperability; for example, agencies must also define:
    • PICC file structure (Standard provides an example only)
    • PICC data definition mapping (need to make choices)
    • List of fare products that will be accepted and processed by the system
  • Security is outside the scope of the Standard, although the data architecture does provide for the implementation of security schemes.
mechanism for adoption use
Mechanism for Adoption & Use
  • Achieve consensus for UTFS adoption among participating agencies.
  • Define business rules for regional program participation (including ownership, governance, regional fare products, fee and revenue sharing).
  • Identify distinct messages and implementation approach to be used within the region.
key terms in the standards
Key Terms in the Standards
  • Following from ISO standards:
    • PICC: Proximity Integrated Circuit Card
    • PCD: Proximity Coupling Device
    • CID: Card Interface Device
general description
General Description
  • The basic data architecture is built on a set ofobjects made up ofa defined set of elements.
  • Each core object is 16 bytes in length.
  • Standard makes provisions for additional data through extensions to the core objects, which are also no longer that 16 bytes.
object definition format
Object Definition Format
  • Objects are defined in a consistent format to assist in interpretation.
  • Each object is specified in its own section of the standard.
  • Object specification:
    • Includes a summary explanation of the object’s function, and a table listing the elements that are part of the object, along with heir size, potential values, position, and a description.
    • Concludes with a user’s information subsection that provides additional details about the elements that are part of the object.
directory index object dio
Directory Index Object (DIO)
  • Contains pointers that identify the location (file) in which most other data objects are stored
  • For each file, provides:
    • ID of the file
    • Size of the file
    • Type of file
    • Ownership (if applicable) of the file
  • A card normally contains only one DIO
  • Enables AFC system to quickly locate other data objects, while enabling the contents of data files to be flexible and dynamic
transit application profile object tapo
Transit Application Profile Object (TAPO)
  • The TAPO is a required core object that identifies the PICC’s origin, issuer,and general capabilities/limitations required by the transit application.
  • The TAPO is encoded or configured at the PICC pre-issuance stage or the PICC initialization stage.
  • The PICC contains only one TAPO.

Sample elements: Country ID, Region ID, Issuer ID, Transit application expiry date, PICC Manufacturer ID, Issuing CID ID

picc holder profile objects phpo
PICC Holder Profile Objects (PHPO)
  • The PHPO identifies the transit patron’s profile relative to their personal preferences for transit fare products and services

The PICC contains only one PHPO.

  • An optional PHPO extension must be utilized for secret or private profile protection.

Sample elements: Fare class code, birth date of patron, language preference, start and end of profile, and associated discount

add deduct value history objects a dvo
Add/Deduct Value History Objects (A&DVO)
  • The A&DVO will record up to eight of the most recent add or Autoload (Unload) value transactions from the T-purse and/or stored value products.
  • The A&DVO is an optional object, although if used, at least 2 are required.

Sample elements: Payment type (cash, credit, recurring load, etc.), transaction date and time, value added or deducted, location where transaction took place.

transaction history objects tho
Transaction History Objects (THO)
  • The THO contains up to 16 of the most recent transactions, after which the oldest transaction is overwritten.
  • Allows for up to 16 transaction types to be defined.
  • The THO is a required core object.

Sample elements: Fare product used, agency where PICC was used, is the transaction linked to the previous transaction (i.e. transfer rules), transaction value.

transaction types
0 = Reserved

1 = Load

2 = Product Blocked

3 = Product Un-Blocked

4 = Validation or Deduction

5 = Validation or Deduction Date and Time Override

6 = Reserved

7 = Configuration Change

8 = Previous Transaction Undone

9 = Reserved

10 = Reserved

11 = Negative List Status Change

12 = Unload

13 = Reserved

14 = Reserved

15 = Out of Region T-Purse Use

Transaction Types
product index object pio
Product Index Object (PIO)
  • A mandatory index of the transit fare products (defined by Product Objects) on a specific PICC application.
  • Provides summary details of the transit fare products currently stored on the PICC.
  • Enables AFC system to quickly identify products that might be applied to the current fare payment.
  • PICC contains only one PIO and one PIO extension but can have two additional extensions, if required.

Sample elements: PICC transaction sequence number (maximum of 127 transactions are tracked), fare product used in last transaction, product type codes.

available product objects
Available Product Objects
  • The Standard accommodates any fare products that are time-, prepaid ride/trip-, value-, or reward-based, and those with linked (e.g. bankcard) accounts.
  • A given fare product is represented by a single Product Object with or without object extensions.
  • There are 256 distinct Product Types available to each Agency (253 pass types, one stored value, one account linked and one AutoValue-based product).
  • Each Agency defines the Fare Product Type Codes, and the rules for use of those products.
pass and transfer product objects p tpo
Pass and Transfer Product Objects (P&TPO)
  • Contains the required information or functionality and data representing either a pass or transfer product.
  • P&TPO is a core object required by the standard.

Sample elements: Whether the user has subscribed to Autoload, pass or transfer expiry date and time, number of remaining trips or rides, where the product is valid (i.e., specific zone)

stored value and t purse product objects sv tppo
Stored Value and T-Purse Product Objects (SV&TPPO)
  • Stored value objects are agency-specific.
  • The T-Purse is the regional stored value fare product, usually stored in local currency ($US).
  • When the PICC is initialized, SV&TPPO are usually set at 0.
  • Autoload feature can be enabled.
  • There can only be one instance of a T-Purse on a PICC.

Sample elements: Frequency of autoload, autoload threshold (trigger), autoload amount

account linked product object alpo
Account Linked Product Object (ALPO)
  • Used to define a fare product that is tied (“linked”) to a host-based account, such as a credit or debit card
  • Acts like a T-Purse product, except does not require pre-funding
  • There can be only one instance of an Account Linked product on a PICC

Sample elements: Accumulated value used in a particular day, definition of time period for which a transaction limit applies, time period start, number of transactions performed during time limit.

account linked reference object alro
Account Linked Reference Object (ALRO)
  • The ALRO is an object containing the Account Linked Product reference information (e.g., bankcard number) that requires secure access.
  • The ALRO object must occupy a dedicated file on the PICC with a separate security write key.

Sample elements: Daily limit of payments that can be performed “on account”, bankcard information from which payment is made, bankcard expiry date.

autovalue product object apo
Autovalue Product Object (APO)
  • Implemented when an agency or regional operator wants to provide incentives (rewards) for frequent use or bulk fare purchases.

Sample elements: Type of autovalue product, accumulation of value units today, accumulation of value units this week, last week, 2 weeks ago, and 3 weeks ago.

evolution of the standard
Evolution of the Standard
  • Add provision for use of PICC products that don’t meet all of the requirements (Limited Use PICCs)
  • Develop an Implementation Guide
  • Develop Certification and Testing requirements
review points
Review Points
  • Comprehensive description of objects and their elements accommodating a broad range of fare collection related transactions.
  • Users have significant flexibility in selecting how to use the objects.
  • While the Standard does provide PICC specifications, the focus is on data formats and a standardized communication protocol with the CID. This opens up future possibilities for the implementation of other electronic form factors such as key fobs, mobile telephones fitted with contactless chips, etc.
more information
More Information

Martin Schroeder, P.E., APTA