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Consistent and Inconsistent Meals: Effects on Performance

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  1. Consistent and Inconsistent Meals:Effects on Performance Jackie Berning, PhD, RD, CSSD Associate Professor/Chair University of Colorado Sport Dietitian: Denver Broncos, Colorado Rockies, Cleveland Indians jberning@uccs.edu

  2. Challenges to aSwimmers Diet • Hectic schedules • Little knowledge about: • Basic nutrition • Grocery shopping • Food preparation • What to choose when eating out • Good nutrition isn’t always a priority

  3. Nutrition Knowledge • Survey of Adolescent Swimmers • Most nutritious carbohydrate • 63% chose an apple while 37% chose French fries • Good source of protein • 63% chose chicken, while 37% chose oatmeal • Food Groups • 95% identified the food groups, but only 45% could identify foods from the group Berning et.al, IJSN, 1991

  4. Nutrition Practices • 30% of adolescent athletes skip breakfast • 25% skip lunch • 86% eat at fast food restaurants each week • 82% of male track, basketball, and football teams could not identify the fuel sources in the muscles

  5. Food is Fuel • Strategies to help players maintain their “fuel tanks” • Must eat breakfast even if it is small • Liquid meal supplements may be useful when in a hurry • Focus on “grab & go” foods • Focus on foods with protein and carbohydrate • Hydrate before during and after workouts or games • Never go more than 3-4 hours without food

  6. Effects of skipping meals Higher body fat Fatigue, lethargic + 0 Lowerbody fat More energy Throughout the day - 24 hours Athletes who skip meals and only eat one meal per day have higher body fat Deutz et al, 2000 Med Sci Sports Exerc 32(3) 659-68

  7. Recovery Nutrition • Normally takes 24 to 36 hours to replace muscle energy (glycogen) • By consuming carbohydrates immediately post exercise (w/n 30 minutes) can reload the muscles in 12 to 16 hours • Snack should be mostly carbohydrates and some protein (4 parts CHO’s and 1 part Pro) • Chocolate milk, nutrition shake, smoothie, peanut butter sandwich, energy bar, yogurt, turkey sandwich, string cheese and crackers

  8. Example of Post Game/Recovery Nutrition • Local High School Soccer coach wanted to cut the time it takes to come home after an away game • He asked the parents to provide snacks on the bus for the trip home • Found: • the team recovered faster the next day • Were not as hungry coming home • Were not as grouchy coming home • Felt he could push them harder the next day • Took the team to the State High School playoffs—lost in second round double overtime…sudden death

  9. Sample Recovery Foods • Granola, energy or breakfast bars • Bagels with peanut butter • Sports drinks • Recovery shakes • Sub sandwiches • Crackers and cheese • Burritos • Fresh fruit like apples, bananas, oranges, grapes • Vegetables such as carrots and celery • Fruit smoothies (prepackaged) • Trail mix/animal crackers

  10. High School Football Team • Local HS football coach felt that students needed to know about nutrition/hydration • Set up several educational opportunities • Met with booster club • Parents, students and coaches all hearing the same information

  11. Local High School Football Team • Meet with players in the summer at speed camp • Breakfast • Hydration for camp and two a days • Healthy snacks throughout the day • Weight gain and weight loss

  12. Weight gain (muscle) involves eating more calories not just more protein Weight gain is a combination of strength training, proper nutrition and rest Increase calorie intake 500-1,000 calories per day Maintain hydration It takes a plan to gain Eat smaller meals more frequently Need a 200-300 calorie deficit per day Don’t skip meals or only eat one meal a day Eat slowly Fast eaters tend to overeat Increase aerobic exercise slowly each day Maintain hydration Weight Gain/Weight loss WEIGHT GAIN WEIGHT LOSS

  13. Breakfast Skipping Bad for Bones and Weight • Journal of the American Dietetic Association. (June 2005) • Study found that skipping what some call the most important meal of the day "may predispose" girls to diets low in calcium and fiber. • Those who eat breakfast on a regular basis have a reduced body mass index compared to "infrequent breakfast eaters.“ • Girls who consistently ate breakfast had a lower body mass index and higher fiber and calcium intakes, which may suggest that eating breakfast during the critical pre-teen and teen years could help prevent osteoporosis.

  14. Local High School Football Team • Game Day Nutrition • Developed a meal plan for game day • Developed hydration plan for game day • Developed snack plan for half time • Developed recovery plan

  15. Meet Day Nutrition • Need to stick with the three meals/day and depending on swim time snacks in between events or heats • Even if its an early morning swim still need to eat something • Oatmeal, bowl of cereal with low fat milk, or energy bar • Need to eat after swim • Carton of yogurt, peanut butter sandwich, smoothie • Lunch • Small sub sandwich, fruit and or vegetables, sports drinks • Mid-afternoon Snack • Fruit/vegetables, low fat string cheese, whole grain crackers • Dinner • Standard basic meal that includes entrée, starch, vegetables and low fat milk • Snack before bed • Smoothie, yogurt parfait, bowl of cereal

  16. Pre-Event Eating • 1-4 hours before the event • closer to event less food • Consume mainly CHO as they are digested faster • next comes protein, last comes fat • 1 hour or less-- stick to liquid, sports drinks • 2 hours or less-- sports drinks, toast, muffins, cereal with lowfat milk • 3-4 hours--spaghetti, French toast, turkey sand, yogurt, string cheese and crackers

  17. Pre-Event Meal Ideas • One hour or less before competition • Stick to liquids like water, sports drinks and avoid high glycemic beverages like soda, juice, drinks or “energy” drinks • Two hours before competition • Cereal and low fat milk • Toast, or low fat muffin • 1/ 2 Bagel, yogurt and fruit • Three-four hours before competition • Turkey Sandwich w low fat cheese, yogurt, fruit, granola bar • Pasta with meat sauce, bread sticks, low fat milk • French toast, low fat milk, fruit

  18. Dangers of Dehydration • Fatigue • Loss of coordination • Increased risk of heat illness, heat stroke and even death

  19. Monitor Fluid Loss • Two ways: • Weigh in before practice and after practice • 3 cups of fluid per pound lost • Check the color of urine 1 - 3 = Optimally Hydrated 4 - 6 = Slightly dehydrated should drink more 6 - 8 = Dehydrated, must drink more

  20. Thirst • Thirst is not an adequate indicator of fluid needs • Wait to drink until you thirsty its too late • As little as a 2% weight loss as sweat will affect performance • If you drink to satisfy your thirst it’s not enough

  21. Sport Drink Formulation Important for Optimal Fluid Absorption 18.3 16.5 FAST Fluid Absorption (mL/cm/hr) 6.9* 0% 6% 1.8* 8% 9% SLOW 13% Water Gatorade Powerade AllSport Ryan, AJ. et al J. Appl. Physiol. 84: 1581-1588, 1998 Soda Pop *p<0.05 slower than water and Gatorade. Water and Gatorade were not different from each other.

  22. “Energy” Drinks: What are they • Basically fluid and energy in one bottle • Contain high concentration of carbohydrate (almost same concentration as syrup) • Usually caffeine (sometimes in an herbal form such as Mate or guarana, which is 4-5x more powerful) • May contain other ingredients to potentiate caffeine (ginseng) • May contain Synephrine

  23. Fluid Guidelines say: How much should I drink for Practice and Games? • Before • Drink 12 to 20 oz -- 2-3 hours before • During • Drink 6 to 12 oz every 15-20 minutes • After • Drink 150% of sweat losses • Drink 3 cups (24 oz) for every 1 lb weight lost through sweat • Two gulps are about 3 ounces • Replace 70% of what you have lost before next practice

  24. Carbohydrates(60%) Proteins(15%) Fats(25%) What Should Athletes Eat?

  25. ¹/3 Grains, Bread, Pasta ¹/3 Fruits & Veg ¹/3 Protein Use a Modified Peace Sign Breads, cereal, rice pasta, fruit, vegetables, tortillas, energy bars crackers, potatoes (not fried), pinto beans, black beans, salad Chicken, turkey, beef, pork, milk, cheese, yogurt, eggs, peanut butter, nuts, soy

  26. All players, coaches and parents bought into the program

  27. Resulted in a 5A State High School Championship! Take home message for me is coaches/athletes believed in: • Importance of nutrition in athletic performance • Importance of hydration • Second half team • Believer in fueling and cooling the body will allow a student athlete to maximize their athletic potential