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Chapter 9 Serial Communication Interface  SCI. Why Serial Communication?. Parallel data transfer requires many I/O pins. This requirement prevents the microcontroller from interfacing with as many devices as desired in the application.

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why serial communication
Why Serial Communication?
  • Parallel data transfer requires many I/O pins. This requirement prevents the microcontroller from interfacing with as many devices as desired in the application.
  • Many I/O devices do not have high data rate to justify the use of parallel data transfer.
  • Data synchronization for parallel transfer is difficult to achieve over a long distance. This requirement is one of the reasons that data communications are always using serial transfer.
  • Consider cost.
what is sci
What is SCI?
  • An interface designed to transfer data only in asynchronous mode that utilizes the EIA-232 standard.
asynchronous serial data communication
Asynchronous Serial Data Communication
  • It is often used for data communication between a DTE and a DCE with or without a modem.
  • DTE stands for data terminal equipment and can be either a computer or a terminal.
  • DCE stands for data communication equipment. A modem is a DCE.
  • A basic data communication link is shown.
  • There are three kinds of data communication links:
    • Simplex link
    • Half-duplex link
    • Full-duplex link
the rs232 standard
The RS232 Standard
  • Was the most widely used physical level interface for data communication
  • Specifies 25 interchange circuits for DTE/DCE use
  • Was established in 1960 by Electronics Industry Association (EIA)
  • Was revised into RS232C in 1969
  • Was revised into RS232D in 1987
  • Was revised to RS232E in 1992 and renamed as EIA-232-E
  • Four aspects: electrical, functional, procedural, and mechanical
the eia 232e electrical specifications 1 of 2
The EIA-232E Electrical Specifications (1 of 2)
  • The interface is rated at a signal rate of < 20 kbps.
  • The signal can transfer correctly within 15 meters.
  • The maximum driver output voltage (with circuit open) is -25 V to +25 V.
  • The minimum driver output voltage (loaded output) is -25 V to -5 V and +5 V to +25 V.
  • The minimum driver output resistance when power is off is 300 W.
  • The receiver input voltage range is -25 V to +25 V.
  • The receiver output is high when input is open circuit.
  • A voltage more negative than -3 V at the receiver input is interpreted as a logic 1.
  • A voltage more positive than +3 V at the receiver input is interpreted as a logic 0.
eia 232 e mechanical specification 1 of 2
EIA-232-E Mechanical Specification (1 of 2)
  • Specifies a 25-pin connector
  • Specifies exact dimensions of each pin
eia 232 e mechanical specification 2 of 2
EIA-232-E Mechanical Specification (2 of 2)
  • Only a small subset of the 25 pins are actually used in most data communications.
  • Nine-pin is introduced to reduce the size and cost of the connector.
eia 232 e procedural specification 1 of 2
EIA-232-E Procedural Specification (1 of 2)
  • Define the sequence of events that occurs during data transmission.
  • The procedure is easier to understand by examples.
    • Case 1. Two DTEs connected via a point-to-point link using a modem
    • EIA-232 signals involved:
      • Signal ground (GND)
      • Transmitted data (Tx)
      • Received data (Rx)
      • Request to send (RTS)
      • Clear to send (CTS)
      • Data set ready (DSR)
      • Carrier detect (CD)
sequence of events occurred during data transmission over dedicated link

Time

Local

Remote

1. DCE asserts DSR

2. DTE asserts RTS

3. DCE asserts CTS

4. DTE starts to send

data (to local DCE)

5. DCE sends out a

carrier and then the

modulated data

6. DCE asserts CD

7. DTE waits for

arrival of data

8. DCE sends out

demodulated

received data

9. DTE receives

demodulated data

Sequence of Events Occurred During Data Transmission Over Dedicated Link
slide14
Case 2. Two DTEs exchange data through a public phone line
  • EIA-232-E signals involved:
    • Signal ground (GND)
    • Transmitted data (Tx)
    • Received data (Rx)
    • Request to send (RTS)
    • Clear to send (CTS)
    • Data set ready (DSR)
    • Carrier detect (CD)
    • Data terminal ready (DTR)
    • Ring indicator (RI)
  • The signal DTR is used by the DTE to indicate its intention to make a call or accept a call.
  • The signal RI is used by the DCE to indicate that there is an incoming call.
sequence of events during data transmission over public phone line 1 of 2
Sequence of Events During Data Transmission Over Public Phone Line (1 of 2)

time

Local

Remote (receiving side)

(transmission side)

Connection

establishment

phase

1. DTE asserts DTR

2. DCE dials the

phone number

3. DCE detects the ring

and asserts RI

4. DTE asserts DTR

to accept the call

5. DCE sends out a

carrier and asserts

DSR

6. DCE asserts DSR

and CD and also

sends out a carrier

for full duplex

operation

7. DCE asserts CD

(full duplex operation)

slide17

time

Local

Remote (receiving side)

(transmission side)

Data

transmission

phase

1. DTE asserts RTS

2. DCE asserts CTS

3. DTE sends out

data to DCE

4. DCE modulates data

and sends it out

5. DCE demodulates

data and forwards

the data to DTE

6. DTE receives data

Disconnection

phase

1. DTE drops RTS

2. DCE drops CTS

and drops the carrier

3. DCE deasserts

CD & DSR

4. DTE deasserts DTR

Sequence of Events During Data Transmission Over Public Phone Line (2 of 2)

data format for asynchronous data communication
Data Format for Asynchronous Data Communication
  • Data is transmitted character by character bit-serially.
  • A character consists of
    • one start bit (0)
    • 7 to 8 data bits
    • an optional parity bit
    • one, or one and a half, or two stop bits (1)
    • least significant bit is transmitted first
    • most significant bit is transmitted last
how to detect the arrival of start bit
How to Detect the Arrival of Start Bit
  • Use a clock signal with frequency at least 16 times that of the data rate to sample the RxD signal.
  • When the RxD pin is idle (high) for at least three sampling times and a falling edge follows, the SCI circuit checks the third, fifth, and seventh samples after the first sample. If the majority of them are low, then the start bit is considered detected.
how to determine the logic value of a data bit
How to Determine the Logic Value of a Data Bit
  • Use a clock signal with frequency at least 16 times that of the data rate to sample the incoming data.
  • Take the majority function of the eighth, ninth, and tenth samples. If the majority of them are 1s, then the logic value is determined to be 1.
slide21
Example 9.1 Sketch the output of the letter g when it is transmitted using the format of one start bit, 8 data bit, and 1 stop bit.
  • Solution:
    • The ASCII code of letter g is $67 or %01100111. This code will be followed by a stop bit. The output from the DTE should be:
data transmission errors
Data Transmission Errors
  • Framing error
    • A character is not properly framed by a stop bit
  • Receiver overrun
    • One or more characters received, but not read by the CPU
  • Parity error
    • Odd number of bits change value
the hcs12 sci subsystem 1 of 2
The HCS12 SCI Subsystem (1 of 2)
  • An HCS12 device may have one or two serial communication interface. These two SCI interfaces are referred to as SCI0 and SCI1.
  • The block diagram is shown in Figure 9.8.
  • Use the data format of one start, eight or nine data bits, and one stop bit. The collection of the start bit, eight or nine data bits, and the stop bit is called a frame.
  • The SCI function supports parity checking. This option requires the use of 9-bit data format.
  • One SCI channel uses two signal pins from Port S. The SCI0 shares the use of PS0 (RxD0) and PS1 (TxD0), whereas SCI1 shares the use of PS2 (RxD1) and PS3 (TxD1).
  • The SCI has the capability to send break to attract the attention of the other party of communications.
    • A break is defined as the transmission or reception of logic 0 for a frame or longer time.
  • The SCI supports hardware parity for transmission and reception.
  • The SCI supports idling line and address mark wakeup, which is useful in multi-drop environment to reduce the software overhead.
baud rate generation 1 of 2
Baud Rate Generation (1 of 2)
  • The HCS12 SCI module uses a 13-bit counter to generate this clock signal. This circuit is called baud rate generator.
  • The baud rate generator divides down the E clock to derive the clock signal for reception and transmission.
  • The user writes an appropriate value into the SCIxBDH and SCIxBDL (x = 0 or 1) register pair to set the baud rate.
baud rate generation 2 of 2
Baud Rate Generation (2 of 2)
  • The value to be written into the baud rate generator register is the rounding of the following expression:

SBR = fE 16  baud rate

character transmission
Character Transmission
  • The block diagram of the SCI transmitter is shown in Figure 9.12.
  • To transmit a character from the SCI module, the user writes the data bits into the SCIxDRH and SCIxDRL registers.
  • The data bits in SCIxDRH and SCIxDRL registers will be transferred to the transmit shift register and shifted out serially from the TxD pin.
  • Each time the SCI transfers data from the buffer SCIxDRH/L to the transmit shift register, it also sets the TDRE flag in the SCIxSR1 register.
  • The setting of the TDRE flag indicates that the MCU can write new data into the SCI data register.
  • When the transmit shift register is not transmitting data, the TxD signal goes to idle state.
  • When both the transmit data registers and shift register are empty, the TC flag in the SCIxSR1 register is set to 1.
  • An interrupt may be requested to the MCU if the TDRE or TC flag is set to 1.
send break characters
Send Break Characters
  • A break character is represented by eight or nine logic 0 data bits depending on the character data length.
  • Whenever one party in the data communications discovers an error, it can send break characters to discontinue the communication and start over again.
  • To send break characters, the user sets the SBK bit in the SCIxCR1 register to 1.
  • As long as the SBK bit is 1, the transmitter logic continuously sending out the break character.
idle characters
Idle Characters
  • An idle character contains all 1s and has no start, stop, or parity bit.
  • Depending on the character data length, an idle character can be eight or nine 1s.
  • If the TE bit in the SCIxCR2 register is cleared during a transmission, the TxD signal becomes idle after the completion of the transmission in progress.
character reception 1 of 2
Character Reception (1 of 2)
  • The block diagram of the SCI receiver is shown in Figure 9.15.
  • The SCI receiver can handle either 8- or 9-bit characters.
  • When receiving 9-bit data, the R8 bit of the SCIxDRH register holds the ninth bit.
  • During an SCI reception, the receive shift register shifts in a frame from the RxD pin.
  • After a complete frame is shifted into the receive shift register, the data portion of the frame is transferred to the SCI data register. The receive data register full flag in the SCIxSR1 register is set to 1.
  • An interrupt may be requested to the MCU is it is enabled.
single wire operation
Single-Wire Operation
  • In this operation, the RxD pin is disconnected from the SCI module.
  • The SCI module uses the TxD pin for both receiving and transmitting as illustrated in Figure 9.16.
  • Single-wire operation is enabled by setting the LOOPS and the RSRC bits in the SCIxCR1 register.
  • Setting the LOOPS bit disables the path from the RxD pin to the receiver. Setting the RSRC bit connects the receiver input to the output of the TxD pin driver.
  • Both transmitter and receiver must be enabled.
  • The TXDIR bit determines whether the TxD pin is going to be used as an input (TXDIR = 0) or output (TXDIR = 1) in this mode of operation.
flow control of uart in asynchronous mode
Flow Control of UART in Asynchronous Mode
  • The SCI module will transmit data as fast as the baud rate allows.
  • In some circumstances, the software may not be able to read data as fast as the data is received.
  • There is a need for the MCU to tell the transmitting device to suspend transmission of data temporarily.
  • Similarly, the HCS12 may need to be told to suspend transmission temporarily. This is done by flow control.
  • There are two common methods of flow control: XON/XOFF and hardware.
  • XON/XOFF is implemented completely in software, but requires a full-duplex communication.
  • When incoming data needs to be suspended, an XOFF byte is transmitted back to the other device that is transmitting.
  • To start the other device transmitting again, an XON character is transmitted.
  • The XON and XOFF characters have the ASCII code of 0x11 and 0x13, respectively.
  • Hardware flow control requires the use of extra signals. Generally, an input pin of the transmitter is controlled by the receiver.
  • Before transmitting any character, the transmitter needs to test the flow control input pin.
slide40
Example 9.2 Write an instruction sequence to configure the SCI0 0 to
  • operate with the following parameters:
    • 9600 baud (E clock is 24 MHz)
    • One start bit, 8 data bits, one stop bit
    • No interrupt
    • Address mark wakeup
    • Disable wakeup initially
    • Long idle line mode
    • Enable transmit and receive
    • No loop back
    • Disable parity checking
  • Solution: The following instruction sequence will configure the SCI0 properly:

movb #$00,SC0BDH ; set up baud rate

movb #156,SC0BDL ; “

movb #$4C,SC0CR1 ; select 8 data bits, address mark wakeup

movb #$0C,SC0CR2 ; enable transmitter and receiver

interfacing sci with eia 232 e
Interfacing SCI with EIA-232-E
  • The SCI uses 0 V and 5 V to represent 0 and 1.
  • The EIA-232 signal Tx cannot be driven by the SCI TxD signal without translation.
  • The EIA-232 signal Rx cannot drive the SCI RxD signal without translation.
  • Voltage level translation is required for the SCI signals to drive and be driven by the EIA-232 signals.
  • Examples of EIA-232 driver chips include:
    • LT1080/1081 from Linear technology
    • ST232 from SGS Thompson
    • ICL232 from Intersil
    • MAX232 from MAXIM
    • DS14C232 from National Semiconductor
    • These chips are pin-compatible.
  • The DS14C232 from National Semiconductor will be used in the following illustration.
slide43
Interfacing the HCS12 SCI0 to the EIA-232 using the DS14C232 chip and implements the NULL modem connection so that this connection can talk to a PC directly.
slide44
Example 9.3 Write a subroutine to send a break to the communication port controlled by the SCI0 interface. The duration of the break is approximately 24,000 E clock cycles, or 1 ms at 24 MHz.
  • Solution: A break character is represented by ten or eleven consecutive zeros and can be sent out by setting the bit 0 of the SCI0CR2 register.

#include "c:\miniide\hcs12.inc"

sendbrk bset SCI0CR2,SBK ; turn on send break

ldy #1

jsr delayby1ms

bclr SCI0CR2,SBK ; turn off send break

rts

#include “c:\miniide\delay.asm”

slide45
The C language version of the function:

#include “c:\egnu091\include\hcs12.h”

#include “c:\egnu091\include\delay.c”

void send_break (void){ SCI0CR2 |= SBK; /* start to send break / delayby1ms(1);

SCI0CR2 &= ~SBK; /* stop sending break */}

slide46
Example 9.4 Write a subroutine to output the character in accumulator A to the SCI0 channel using the polling method.
  • Solution: The subroutine will wait until the bit 7 of SCI0SR1 register is set before sending out the character in accumulator A.

#include "c:\miniide\hcs12.inc"

putcSCI0 brclr SCI0SR1,TDRE,* ; wait for TDRE to be set

staa SCI0DRL ; output the character

rts

void putcSCI0 (char cx)

{

while (!(SCI0SR1 & TDRE));

SCI0DRL = cx;

}

slide47
Example 9.5 Write a subroutine to read a character from SCI0 using the polling method. Return the character in accumulator A.
  • Solution:

#include "c:\miniide\hcs12.inc"

getcSCI0 brclr SCI0SR1,RDRF,* ; wait until RDRF bit is set

ldaa SCI0DRL ; read the character

rts

char getcSCI0 (void)

{

while(!(SCI0SR1 & RDRF));

return (SCI0DRL);

}

slide48
Example 9.6 Write a subroutine to output a string pointed to by index register X to the SCI0 using the polling method.
  • Solution: This subroutine will call putcSCI0( ) repeatedly until all characters have been sent.

putsSCI0 ldaa 1,x+ ; get a character and move the pointer

beq done ; is this the end of the string

jsr putcSCI0

bra putsSCI0

done rts

void putsSCI0 (char *cx)

{

while (!(*cx)) {

putcSCI0(*cx);

cx++;

}

}

slide49
Example 9.7 Write a subroutine to input a string from SCI0. The string is terminated by the carriage return character and must be stored in a buffer pointed to by index register X.
  • Solution: This subroutine will call getcSCI0( ) repeatedly until the carriage return character is

CR equ $0D

getsSCI0 jsr getcSCI0

cmpa #CR ; is the character a carriage return?

beq exit

staa 1,x+ ; save the character in the buffer pointed to by X

bra getsSCI0 ; continue

exit clr 0,x ; terminate the string with a NULL character

rts

void getsSCI0 (char *buf){ while ((*buf++ = getcSCI0()) != CR);

*buf = 0; /* terminate the string with a NULL character */}