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Robot Control. By Chun-Lung Lim Jay Hatcher Clay Harris . Definition of a Robot.

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by chun lung lim jay hatcher clay harris

Robot Control


Chun-Lung Lim

Jay Hatcher

Clay Harris

definition of a robot
Definition of a Robot
  • Definition of a Robot According to The Robot Institute of America (1979) : "A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks."
  • According to the Webster dictionary: "An automatic device that performs functions normally ascribed to humans or a machine in the form of a human (Webster, 1993)."
a brief history of robotics
A Brief History of Robotics
  • Robotics' history is tied to so many other technological advances that today seem so trivial, we don't even think of them as robots.
  • How did a remote-controlled boat lead to autonomous metal puppies?
nikola tesla
Nikola Tesla
  • Croatian-American scientist Nikola Tesla.
  • Invented many things, including the alternating current system.
  • Remote-controlled, submersible boat was acting on radio signals.
slaves of steel
Slaves of steel
  • The first person to use the word robot was a playwright, Czechoslovakian writer Karel Capek first used the word robot in his satirical play, R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots).

Cover page of the first edition

wartime inventions
Wartime inventions
  • World War II was a big catalyst in the development of two important robot components: artificial sensing and autonomous control.
  • The U.S. military created auto-control systems for mine detectors that would sit in front of a tank as it crossed enemy lines
  • The Germans developed guided robotic bombs that were capable of correcting their trajectory.

German robot bomb found in France

calculators and computers
Calculators and computers
  • John Atanassoff built the world's first digital computer.
  • In 1946 the University of Pennsylvania completed the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator), a massive machine made up of thousands of vacuum tubes. But these devices could only handle numbers.
  • The UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer) would be the first device to deal with letters.

ENIAC computer

a robot in every pot
A robot in every pot
  • The invention of the transistor in 1948 increased the rate of electronic growth and the possibilities seemed endless.
  • The creation of silicon microchips reinforced that growth.
  • The seven-foot robot could smoke and play the piano.

Elecktro the smoking robot

industrial strength arms
Industrial-strength arms
  • 1961 General Motors installed the applied telecherics system on their assembly line. The one-armed robot unloaded die casts, cooled components and delivered them to a trim press.
  • In 1978 the PUMA (Programmable Universal Machine for Assembly) was introduced and quickly became the standard for commercial telecherics.

PUMA industrial robot

arms in space
Arms in space

From breadboard to on-board: small components were assembled and tested innumerable times before the final product was mated to the shuttle in 1981 (NASA)

The Canadarm -- Canada's Hand in the Sky (NASA)

surgical tools
Surgical tools
  • In 1985 Dr. Yik San Kwoh invented the robot-software interface used in the first robot-aided surgery, a stereo tactic procedure.
  • The surgery involves a small probe that travels into the skull.
  • A CT scanner is used to give a 3D picture of the brain, so that the robot can plot the best path to the tumor.

Dr. Yik San Kwoh with surgical robot

hazardous duties
Hazardous duties
  • Dante II aids in the dangerous recovery of volcanic gases and samples.
  • These robotic arms with wheels saved countless lives defusing bombs and investigating nuclear accident sites.

Telecheric robot inspects suspicious package

solar powered insects
Solar-powered insects
  • Mark Tilden's BEAM robots look and act like big bugs.
  • Tilden builds simple robots out of discrete components and shies away from the integrated circuits most other robots use for intelligence.
  • Started in the early 1990s, the idea was to create inexpensive, solar-powered robots ideal for dangerous missions such as landmine detection.
a range of rovers
A range of rovers
  • Sojourner, semi-autonomous robot platforms to be launched into Mars in 1996.
  • The problem was, it could only travel short distances.
  • In 2004, twin robot rovers caught the public's imagination again, sending back amazing images in journeys of kilometers, not meters.

Mars rover

entertaining pets
Entertaining pets
  • In the late '90s there was a return to consumer-oriented robots.
  • One of the real robotic wonders of the late '90s was AIBO the robotic dog, made by Sony Corp.
  • By using sensor array, AIBO can autonomously navigate a room and play ball.

AIBO takes a spill

siggraph 2005 los angeles
Siggraph 2005 – Los Angeles
  • Quasi can make responses based on guest input and can recognize speech patterns, track faces, detect proximity, dispense candy and even perform a karaoke duet.
  • Softwares includes Alias Maya, BAT and so on.

Quasi - Carnegie Mellon University


My beloved….

Repliee Q2

network robotics rt middleware 9 projects
Network robotics, RT middleware (9 projects)
  • Robot with advanced auditory capabilities for human interaction
  • Companion robot that follows individuals by multimodal interaction
  • Multitask robot system that utilizes intelligent information infrastructure
  • Hyperrobot that serves people by integrating single-task domestic robots
  • Errand robot
  • Seven-degree-of-freedom double-arm unit and double-arm mobile robot
  • Superdistribution and combination robot system utilizing wireless links
  • Content-oriented robot that uses robot content
  • Environmental robot
experiential robots 7 projects
Experiential robots (7 projects)
  • Robot that decorates ceramic tableware and drinkware
  • Portrait-drawing robot
  • Partner robot with artificial tongue
  • Future science encyclopedia and multifingered haptic interface robot
  • Mutual telexistence robot that utilizes retroreflective projection
  • Robot for encountering the microscopic world
  • Cyberassist meister robot
outdoor skilled work robots 7 projects
Outdoor skilled-work robots (7 projects)
  • Boarding robot for roaming natural landscapes
  • Ubiquitous robot
  • Caddy robot
  • Search and contaminant recovery robot for response to nuclear, biological, and chemical terrorism
  • Manually controlled heavy-duty robot to assist rescue operations
  • Robot that searches through rubble
special environment robots 9 projects
Special-environment robots(9 projects)
  • Robot that evaluates duct interiors by impact-elastic waves
  • Pacemaker robot for marathons
  • Golden Shachihoko robot
  • Autonomous snow-plowing robot to support life in snowy regions
  • Super-high-speed batting robot that can hit fastballs of up to 160 kph
  • Amphibious snake-type robot
  • Acrobatic airship robot
  • Data gathering double-kite-type robot, humanoid robot for a comfortable lifestyle
  • High-performance flying robot
medical and welfare robots 10 projects
Medical and welfare robots(10 projects)
  • Emergency rescue robot
  • Superdetail human body robot for medical skills training
  • Three-dimensional visual perception and display apparatus for office, home, and medical robots, and microhand for medical and surgical use
  • Remote microsurgery robot
  • Six-degrees-of-freedom robot for rehabilitation of upper limbs including wrists
  • Handicap-assistive barrier-free robot interface system with high learning ability
  • Semiautonomous robot system for self-care by disabled people
  • Wearable robot for musclular support: Muscle suit for upper limbs
  • Power augmentation robot
  • Robot suit to assist human movement
partner robots 8 projects
Partner robots (8 projects)
  • Canine robot as a mobile platform that exhibits high physical capabilities outdoors in urgent situations
  • Android that interacts with people and nature
  • Cooperative framework for heterogeneous robots
  • Physical communication robot to cheer up children
  • Robot for scenario research that is capable of authoring
  • Next-generation communication robot
  • Communicating heterogeneous robots
  • Dance partner robot
performance robots 6 projects
Performance robots (6 projects)
  • Six-legged walking robot that uses reinforcement learning (autonomous development of motion control)
  • Self-configurable modular robot
  • Artistic robot
  • Limb mechanism robot
  • Three-leg wheeled type robot
  • Crawling and jumping soft robot
humanoid robots 7 projects
Humanoid robots (7 projects)
  • Humanoid probe robot
  • Interaction middleware for humanoid robots
  • Software that generates impact motions for the HRP-2 robot
  • Animatronic humanoid robot
  • Musculoskeletal humanoid robot with a large-degree-of-freedom flexible spine
  • Humanoid robot for research on dynamic motion
  • Bipedal humanoid robot as a simulator of human motion
  • Paper : Generating Natural Motion in an Android by Mapping Human Motion