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Robot Control. By Chun-Lung Lim Jay Hatcher Clay Harris . Definition of a Robot.

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By chun lung lim jay hatcher clay harris l.jpg

Robot Control

By

Chun-Lung Lim

Jay Hatcher

Clay Harris


Definition of a robot l.jpg
Definition of a Robot

  • Definition of a Robot According to The Robot Institute of America (1979) : "A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks."

  • According to the Webster dictionary: "An automatic device that performs functions normally ascribed to humans or a machine in the form of a human (Webster, 1993)."


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A Brief History of Robotics

  • Robotics' history is tied to so many other technological advances that today seem so trivial, we don't even think of them as robots.

  • How did a remote-controlled boat lead to autonomous metal puppies?


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Nikola Tesla

  • Croatian-American scientist Nikola Tesla.

  • Invented many things, including the alternating current system.

  • Remote-controlled, submersible boat was acting on radio signals.


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Slaves of steel

  • The first person to use the word robot was a playwright, Czechoslovakian writer Karel Capek first used the word robot in his satirical play, R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots).

Cover page of the first edition


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Wartime inventions

  • World War II was a big catalyst in the development of two important robot components: artificial sensing and autonomous control.

  • The U.S. military created auto-control systems for mine detectors that would sit in front of a tank as it crossed enemy lines

  • The Germans developed guided robotic bombs that were capable of correcting their trajectory.

German robot bomb found in France


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Calculators and computers

  • John Atanassoff built the world's first digital computer.

  • In 1946 the University of Pennsylvania completed the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator), a massive machine made up of thousands of vacuum tubes. But these devices could only handle numbers.

  • The UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer) would be the first device to deal with letters.

ENIAC computer


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A robot in every pot

  • The invention of the transistor in 1948 increased the rate of electronic growth and the possibilities seemed endless.

  • The creation of silicon microchips reinforced that growth.

  • The seven-foot robot could smoke and play the piano.

Elecktro the smoking robot


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Industrial-strength arms

  • 1961 General Motors installed the applied telecherics system on their assembly line. The one-armed robot unloaded die casts, cooled components and delivered them to a trim press.

  • In 1978 the PUMA (Programmable Universal Machine for Assembly) was introduced and quickly became the standard for commercial telecherics.

PUMA industrial robot



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Arms in space

From breadboard to on-board: small components were assembled and tested innumerable times before the final product was mated to the shuttle in 1981 (NASA)

The Canadarm -- Canada's Hand in the Sky (NASA)


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Surgical tools

  • In 1985 Dr. Yik San Kwoh invented the robot-software interface used in the first robot-aided surgery, a stereo tactic procedure.

  • The surgery involves a small probe that travels into the skull.

  • A CT scanner is used to give a 3D picture of the brain, so that the robot can plot the best path to the tumor.

Dr. Yik San Kwoh with surgical robot



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Hazardous duties

  • Dante II aids in the dangerous recovery of volcanic gases and samples.

  • These robotic arms with wheels saved countless lives defusing bombs and investigating nuclear accident sites.

Telecheric robot inspects suspicious package


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Solar-powered insects

  • Mark Tilden's BEAM robots look and act like big bugs.

  • Tilden builds simple robots out of discrete components and shies away from the integrated circuits most other robots use for intelligence.

  • Started in the early 1990s, the idea was to create inexpensive, solar-powered robots ideal for dangerous missions such as landmine detection.


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A range of rovers

  • Sojourner, semi-autonomous robot platforms to be launched into Mars in 1996.

  • The problem was, it could only travel short distances.

  • In 2004, twin robot rovers caught the public's imagination again, sending back amazing images in journeys of kilometers, not meters.

Mars rover


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Entertaining pets

  • In the late '90s there was a return to consumer-oriented robots.

  • One of the real robotic wonders of the late '90s was AIBO the robotic dog, made by Sony Corp.

  • By using sensor array, AIBO can autonomously navigate a room and play ball.

AIBO takes a spill


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Siggraph 2005 – Los Angeles

  • Quasi can make responses based on guest input and can recognize speech patterns, track faces, detect proximity, dispense candy and even perform a karaoke duet.

  • Softwares includes Alias Maya, BAT and so on.

Quasi - Carnegie Mellon University


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Android

My beloved….

Repliee Q2




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Network robotics, RT middleware (9 projects)

  • Robot with advanced auditory capabilities for human interaction

  • Companion robot that follows individuals by multimodal interaction

  • Multitask robot system that utilizes intelligent information infrastructure

  • Hyperrobot that serves people by integrating single-task domestic robots

  • Errand robot

  • Seven-degree-of-freedom double-arm unit and double-arm mobile robot

  • Superdistribution and combination robot system utilizing wireless links

  • Content-oriented robot that uses robot content

  • Environmental robot


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Experiential robots (7 projects)

  • Robot that decorates ceramic tableware and drinkware

  • Portrait-drawing robot

  • Partner robot with artificial tongue

  • Future science encyclopedia and multifingered haptic interface robot

  • Mutual telexistence robot that utilizes retroreflective projection

  • Robot for encountering the microscopic world

  • Cyberassist meister robot


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Outdoor skilled-work robots (7 projects)

  • Boarding robot for roaming natural landscapes

  • Ubiquitous robot

  • Caddy robot

  • Search and contaminant recovery robot for response to nuclear, biological, and chemical terrorism

  • Manually controlled heavy-duty robot to assist rescue operations

  • Robot that searches through rubble


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Special-environment robots(9 projects)

  • Robot that evaluates duct interiors by impact-elastic waves

  • Pacemaker robot for marathons

  • Golden Shachihoko robot

  • Autonomous snow-plowing robot to support life in snowy regions

  • Super-high-speed batting robot that can hit fastballs of up to 160 kph

  • Amphibious snake-type robot

  • Acrobatic airship robot

  • Data gathering double-kite-type robot, humanoid robot for a comfortable lifestyle

  • High-performance flying robot


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Medical and welfare robots(10 projects)

  • Emergency rescue robot

  • Superdetail human body robot for medical skills training

  • Three-dimensional visual perception and display apparatus for office, home, and medical robots, and microhand for medical and surgical use

  • Remote microsurgery robot

  • Six-degrees-of-freedom robot for rehabilitation of upper limbs including wrists

  • Handicap-assistive barrier-free robot interface system with high learning ability

  • Semiautonomous robot system for self-care by disabled people

  • Wearable robot for musclular support: Muscle suit for upper limbs

  • Power augmentation robot

  • Robot suit to assist human movement


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Partner robots (8 projects)

  • Canine robot as a mobile platform that exhibits high physical capabilities outdoors in urgent situations

  • Android that interacts with people and nature

  • Cooperative framework for heterogeneous robots

  • Physical communication robot to cheer up children

  • Robot for scenario research that is capable of authoring

  • Next-generation communication robot

  • Communicating heterogeneous robots

  • Dance partner robot


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Performance robots (6 projects)

  • Six-legged walking robot that uses reinforcement learning (autonomous development of motion control)

  • Self-configurable modular robot

  • Artistic robot

  • Limb mechanism robot

  • Three-leg wheeled type robot

  • Crawling and jumping soft robot


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Humanoid robots (7 projects)

  • Humanoid probe robot

  • Interaction middleware for humanoid robots

  • Software that generates impact motions for the HRP-2 robot

  • Animatronic humanoid robot

  • Musculoskeletal humanoid robot with a large-degree-of-freedom flexible spine

  • Humanoid robot for research on dynamic motion

  • Bipedal humanoid robot as a simulator of human motion


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References:

  • http://www.robotics.utexas.edu/rrg/learn_more/history/

  • http://www.msnbc.com/modules/robot_history/

  • http://www.thelightningguy.com/tesla.htm

  • http://capek.misto.cz/obrazky/divadlo/theater.html

  • http://www.mlc-engineering.com/rb5x01.htm

  • http://www.honda.co.jp/robot/movie/

  • http://www.cooltoolawards.com/hardware/Humanoid.htm

  • http://www.tomshardware.com/site/videos/index.html

  • http://www.ed.ams.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp/development/Humanoid/ReplieeQ2/ReplieeQ2_eng.htm

  • http://www.motionanalysis.com/applications/movement/sports/hawksystem.html

  • http://www.expo2005.or.jp/en/robot/robot_project_02.html

  • Paper : Generating Natural Motion in an Android by Mapping Human Motion


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