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behavior consequence relations

Behavior-Consequence Relations

The first few slides review the 4 behavior-consequence relations that exist in Instrumental conditioning. You will then read 10 example scenarios describing a behavior change. For each example identify which of the four relations is represented. For each example you are reminded to consider four critical pieces of information before making a decision.

the consequence of responding in instrumental conditioning
The Consequence of Responding in Instrumental Conditioning

(The term consequence is used when there is a contingent relationship between a behavior and an event- a consequence is an event that is CAUSED by a behavior . )

  • the presentation of a stimulus
  • the removal of a stimulus that is already present

Consequences include events that may involve:

Therefore, there are …..

two types of contingent relationships between a response and a consequence
…. Two Types of Contingent Relationships Between a Response and a Consequence
  • Positive contingency - when a response causes the presentation of a stimulus.
  • Negative contingency - when a response causes the removal of a stimulus that is already present.

But remember that there are . . .

different types of stimulus events
. . .Different Types of Stimulus Events
  • Pleasant (desired; appetitive)
  • Unpleasant (undesired, aversive)
  • neutral

NOTE: Some writers use the term “positive” to refer to pleasant events and “negative” to refer to unpleasant events. This leads to logical inconsistencies and confusion. We will use the terms “positive” and “negative” to describe the contingent relationships, NOT the type of stimulus.

two types of effects of behavior consequence relationships on behavior
Two Types of Effects of Behavior- Consequence Relationships on Behavior
  • Reinforcement - any contingent relationship between a consequence and response that causes the response to increase in frequency.
  • Punishment - any contingent relationship between a consequence and response that causes the response to decrease in frequency.
four types of behavior consequence relationships in instrumental operant conditioning
Four Types of Behavior-Consequence Relationships in Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning

Type of Stimulus

Appetitive

Aversive

Positive (Stimulus Added)

PR

PP

Contingency

Negative (Stimulus Removed)

NP

NR

= behavior increases

in frequency

1st Letter: P = positive N = negative

2nd Letter: R = reinforcement P = punishment

= behavior decreases

in frequency

behavior consequence relationships
Behavior - Consequence Relationships

Introduction

All of the following situations are examples of either positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, or negative punishment. Read each example and identify the type of behavior-event relationship. The answer is on the next page.

behavior event relationships
Behavior - Event Relationships

Example 1

Zelda always rode her bicycle “no-handed” to show off in front of her boyfriend. One day she was speeding down a hill - no-handed of course - and skidded face-first into a mud puddle. Now Zelda rides her bike with both hands. The behavior of interest (BOI) is riding no-handed.

behavior event relationships9
Behavior - Event Relationships

Example 1

Zelda always rode her bicycle “no-handed” to show off in front of her boyfriend. One day she was speeding down a hill - no-handed of course - and skidded face-fist into a mud puddle. New Zelda rides her bike with both hands. The behavior of interest (BOI) is riding no-handed.

behavior event relationships10
Behavior - Event Relationships

Example 2

Denise was always embarrassed when she got the hiccups during a class, so she developed a fast, sure-fire, cure. She holds her breath, counts to fifteen, then releases her breath as she says her name backwards. Now, whenever she has the hiccups, Denise emits this series of behaviors (BOI).

behavior event relationships11
Behavior - Event Relationships

Example 2

Denise was always embarrassed when she got the hiccups during a class, so she developed a fast, sure-fire, cure. She holds her breath, counts to fifteen, then releases her breath as she says her name backwards. Now, whenever she has the hiccups, Denise emits this series of behaviors (BOI).

behavior event relationships12
Behavior-Event Relationships

Example 3

One day, while in a traffic jam, Tympannia could not hear her car radio. She rolled up her car window, thus shutting out the traffic noises. Now, whenever she gets caught in a traffic jam, she rolls up the window (BOI).

behavior event relationships13
Behavior-Event Relationships

Example 3

One day, while in a traffic jam, Tympannia could not hear her car radio. She rolled up her car window, thus shutting out the traffic noises. Now, whenever she gets caught in a traffic jam, she rolls up the window (BOI).

behavior event relationships14
Behavior-Event Relationships

Example 4

Flossie’s mother held her hand while the dentist drilled away. Whenever, Flossie began to cry, her mother her mother would let go of her hand and leave the room. When she stopped crying, her mother would return again and hold her hand. As a result, Flossie cried less (BOI) at the dentist.

behavior event relationships15
Behavior-Event Relationships

Example 4

Flossie’s mother held her hand while the dentist drilled away. Whenever, Flossie began to cry, her mother her mother would let go of her hand and leave the room. When she stopped crying, her mother would return again and hold her hand. As a result, Flossie cried less (BOI) at the dentist.

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Behavior-Event Relationships

Example 5

Mary constantly came home late after a date. Her father scolded her whenever this happened. After a few of these occasions, Mary managed to make it home before curfew. The BOI is coming home late.

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Behavior-Event Relationships

Example 5

Mary constantly came home late after a date. Her father scolded her whenever this happened. After a few of these occasions, Mary managed to make it home before curfew. The BOI is coming home late.

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Behavior-Event Relationships

Example 6

Clem always left his coat and books outside the cafeteria during lunch. One time after dining he discovered that his coat was missing. Now Clem always locks his books and new coat in the dorm before eating. The BOI is leaving his belongings outside the cafeteria during meals.

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Behavior-Event Relationships

Example 6

Clem always left his coat and books outside the cafeteria during lunch. One time after dining he discovered that his coat was missing. Now Clem always locks his books and new coat in the dorm before eating. The BOI is leaving his belongings outside the cafeteria during meals.

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Behavior-Event Relationships

Example 7

Little Tommy pointed to the donut shop as he and his mother were passing by it. “Mommy, can we get some donuts?” he asked. She slammed on the brakes, wheeled the car into the parking lot, and brought a dozen delicious treats. Several days later they were again passing the donut shop. “Mommy, can we get some donuts?” Tommy asked again. Again his mother complied. Several weeks and twelve dozen donuts later, Tommy was asking for the donuts daily (BOI).

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Behavior-Event Relationships

Example 7

Little Tommy pointed to the donut shop as he and his mother were passing by it. “Mommy, can we get some donuts?” he asked. She slammed on the brakes, wheeled the car into the parking lot, and brought a dozen delicious treats. Several days later they were again passing the donut shop. “Mommy, can we get some donuts?” Tommy asked again. Again his mother complied. Several weeks and twelve dozen donuts later, Tommy was asking for the donuts daily (BOI).

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Behavior-Event Relationships

Example 8

Your dog’s coat was full of burrs he while romping through the field. He cried until you removed them. Since that fateful day, he has cried (BOI) whenever he has burrs in his coat.

slide23

Behavior-Event Relationships

Example 8

Your dog’s coat was full of burrs he while romping through the field. He cried until you removed them. Since that fateful day, he has cried (BOI) whenever he has burrs in his coat.

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Behavior-Event Relationships

Example 9

William wasn’t really much of a writer. One day, for lack of something better to do, he wrote a poem to his girl, Ophelia. When she read it, she cried sweet tears and whispered, “Oh, William! How beautiful!” Consequently, William regularly turns out love poems (BOI) - and even a few plays.

slide25

Behavior-Event Relationships

Example 9

William wasn’t really much of a writer. One day, for lack of something better to do, he wrote a poem to his girl, Ophelia. When she read it, she cried sweet tears and whispered, “Oh, William! How beautiful!” Consequently, William regularly turns out love poems (BOI) - and even a few plays.

slide26

Behavior-Event Relationships

Example 10

Fred was constantly swearing, regardless of what he was doing or was around. One day, Foul Freddie’s wife took his ten-dollar beer allowance from him when she heard him swear. She continued this procedure, and consequently Fred was swearing less and less (BOI) around her.

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Behavior-Event Relationships

Example 10

Fred was constantly swearing, regardless of what he was doing or was around. One day, Foul Freddie’s wife took his ten-dollar beer allowance from him when she heard him swear. She continued this procedure, and consequently Fred was swearing less and less (BOI) around her.