REVIEW OF THE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF NATIONAL PARKS AND OTHER PROTECTED AREAS IN SERBIA Snezana M. Prokic Directorate for Environmental Protection of the Republic of Serbia
1. Introduction • The concept of the development of the natural values in Serbia is based upon • the regulated protection regimes, • planned bases of preservation, • promotion and sustainable utilisation of natural resource, • organised management and surveillance.
Protected Areas of the Republic of Serbia National Parks Parks of Nature Area with Exceptional Features Reserves of Nature Monuments of Nature The protected areas include national parks, reserves, parks of nature and monuments of nature, consistent with the international criteria of IUCN Table 1: A Survey of the Surface Areas of Protected Areas of Serbia
The Aim of Protection of Special Natural Values to implement the obligations defined by the Law of environmental protection and the national policy • for protection of special natural values, • biodiversity, and • natural areas of particular values and importance for the Republic of Serbia.
This is done by developing system of protectedareas having national, regional and global importance: • Biosphere reserves - the part of the Park of Nature "Golija" is proclaimed the Biosphere Reserve in September of 2001,MAB Programme • wetland areas of international importance • Reserve of nature of Ludas, • Reserve of nature of Obedska bara - swamp, • Reserve of Nature of Stari Begej – Carska bara - swamp.
2. General Data on National Parks of Serbia • By the Law on National Parks of the Republic of Serbia (proclaimed in 1993, in agreement with previously accepted international obligations), five national parks were established so far: • National Park Djerdap, • National Park Tara, • National Park Kopaonik, • National Park Fruska Gora and • National Park Sar Planina.
Table 2: A Survey of the Surface Areas of National Parks of Serbia Republic of Serbia 88.361 km2 - * In these national parks the I degree of protection is represented by the nature reserves, while in them regions of other degrees of protection are not defined.
Figure 1: Map of the Environmental Protection and Protection of Natural Heritage
The legal principles of protection and development of the national parks: 1. Protection, preservation and promotion: • of biogeographical features of the area, • of ecosystems and diversity of the original flora and fauna, • of the genetic fund and its renewal, • of the representative biological, geomorphological, geological, hydrographic and scenic features, • ethnological heritage and • cultural-historical values;
The legal principles of protection and development of the national parks (continued): 2.Prevention of activities which might deteriorate basic features and other properties of the national park; 3. Development: • of activities in scientific research, • of activities in culture and education, • of activities in presentation and popularisation of the natural and cultural values, • of touristic, recreational and other development functions in utilisation of the natural and cultural values of the national park within the limits and in the manner providing protection, preservation and promotion of these values
The legal principles of protection and development of the national parks (continued): 4.Management and building of objects, for purpose: • of preservation, renewal and promotion of the natural and cultural values and • of presentation, sanation and revitalization of the endangered parts of the national park.
3. Management of the National Parks of Serbia In order to bring these valuable habitats, as the protected natural values of national significance owned by the state, into function of performing total protection and development, by the Law on National Parks public enterprises were formed for managing the regions of the national parks.
The example of high tourism in the National Park Kopaonik
4.Instruments in managing protected natural values in Serbia • Protection regimes • Management, protection and utilization plans of the areas and natural resources • Protection and development programmes of nature and areas of the protected natural values • Environmental influences analyses • Agreements / approvals by the Government of the Republic of Serbia / Ministry of the Environment • Institutions in charge of management and control of the protected natural value • Monitoring • Financial support
The institutions responsible for management of protected areas and control are: • The Government of the Republic of Serbia – defines politics/strategy for protection of nature and natural values and in that context managing those values and action plans in order to conduct established politic/strategy • Ministry of Science and Environmental Protection – suggests politics/strategy and action plans, their implementation and co-ordination with activities of other ministries and other competent institutions, supervision of managing, appropriate system of observation and financial support, to the Government of the Republic of Serbia • Institution for Protection of Nature of Serbia
4.Instruments in managing protected natural values in Serbia(continued) • Public Enterprises (PE) established by the state to manage: national parks: PE "National Park Fruska Gora", PE "National Park Djerdap", PE "National Park Tara", PE "National Park Kopaonik", and PE "National Park Sar-Planina" • and natural resources in the state property – forests and forest land: • PE "Srbijasume" and • PE "Vojvodinasume“ • waters: "Srbijavode
Instruments in managing protected natural values in Serbia(continued) • Competent organsofmunicipality –manage the natural goods protected by the municipality and support and contribute to the co-operation in the field of managing of protected areas of high national importance
5. Conclusive Remarks • However, in the application of this management system so far not all of the expected results were achieved. The most important causes of such situation are listed below: • there is a problem with sharing responsibilities between the proprietor, trustee, managing enterprise, viz. caretaking organisation • criteria and conditions are not defined to be fulfilled by an enterprise or organisation in order to be entrusted by management of other protected natural values • norms are lacking for unified bases of organising the security, planning and staff education services
Conclusive Remarks(continued) • compulsory instructions have not been set up for preparation and carrying out the management plans • norms are also lacking for securing co-ordination and co-operation in the management of protected areas • principle has not yet been developed with all the necessary mechanisms of integrated management of the natural resources , with the resulting problem of maladjustment of sector plans with the management plan • information system has not yet been established • financial support is still inadequate