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48572 Zero Energy House Lecture 2: Housing Systems The Housing Industry Fragmented, de-centralized The top 100 companies(by volume) build only 1 out of every 16 houses Under-capitalized Minimal research & development Many Players Owners/ Users Designers Constructors Regulators

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48572 zero energy house

48572Zero Energy House

Lecture 2: Housing Systems

the housing industry
The Housing Industry
  • Fragmented, de-centralized
    • The top 100 companies(by volume) build only 1 out of every 16 houses
  • Under-capitalized
  • Minimal research & development

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University

many players
Many Players
  • Owners/ Users
  • Designers
  • Constructors
  • Regulators
  • Financers
  • Manufacturers

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University

national association of homebuilders nahb
National Association of Homebuilders (NAHB)
  • > 200,000 members
  • National, state and local associations
  • Research center in MD
  • Publications

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University

system types
System Types
  • Systems–Built (factory–built)
    • Pre-cut
    • Panelized
    • Modular
    • Mobile (HUD–code)
  • Stick–Built (site built)

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University

buckminster fuller benefits of chassis construction
Buckminster Fuller: Benefits of Chassis Construction

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University

dymaxion house 1927 29
Dymaxion House; 1927-29

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University

dymaxion bathroom
Dymaxion Bathroom

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University

lustron homes
Lustron Homes

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University

lustron homes10
Lustron Homes

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University

lustron homes11
Lustron Homes

Well we're DATED; -that abstractionist next door built his house in space-time!"

"They said something about a perfect example of an integrated, demountable, prefabricated dwelling unit

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University

stick built
Stick–built
  • Assembled piece by piece on site
  • Can make use of components
    • Trusses, prime windows/ doors, plumbing
  • Can be assembled from pre–cut elements
  • Must meet local codes/ ordinances

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University

constructor s pyramid
Constructor’s Pyramid
  • Home builder
    • Sub- contractor (Framing, Elec, HVAC)
      • Sub- sub- contractor (rough/ finish, wiring, ductwork)
        • Sub- sub- sub- contractor………

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University

system built
System–built
  • In 2001
    • 5% of single-family homes completed nationwide
    • 13% of new, single-family homes built outside metropolitan areas
    • 13% of new, single-family contractor-built homes on owner's land.

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University

panelized
Panelized
  • Pre–made wall and/ or floor panels
    • 8’ x 8’ ~ 40’
    • Closed wall:
      • With sheathing both sides + insulation
    • Open wall:
      • With sheathing one side
    • With or w/o windows and doors
  • Must meet local codes/ ordinances

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University

panelized17
Panelized
  • BSC study w/ Wood Truss Council of American, found:
    • a 2,600 sq. ft. home with trusses and panels:
      • used 26% less lumber,
      • generated 76% less waste, and
      • was constructed in just 37% of the man hours of a similar, stick-built home.

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University

modular
Modular
  • Constructed from 3–dimensional volumes, “modules” that are 90 – 95% complete
    • 8’ x 11’6” x 70’ max
    • Interior/ exterior finishes, technologies, stairs, etc.
  • Erected on site–built foundation
  • Must meet local codes/ ordinances

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University

modular facts
Modular Facts
  • In 2001,
    • 3% of the new, single-family homes constructed.
    • 11% outside of metropolitan areas
    • One of every ten homes built in the northeast is a modular home. 
    • The most popular states for modular construction in 2001 were Pennsylvania, North Carolina, Michigan, and New York.

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University

mobile
Mobile
  • Single–, double– or triple–wide factory–built houses
  • Integral chassis for highway transportation
  • Built to a national pre–emptive code
  • Can only be built in designated MHP’s

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University

factory built advantages
Factory–built advantages
  • Reduced completion time
  • Less vandalism
  • Less skilled labor required on–site
  • Reduced danger of cost–overruns
  • Potential for better quality

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University

factory built disadvantages
Factory–built disadvantages
  • Limited design flexibility
  • Site limitations
  • Local inspection problems
  • Consumer bias

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University

focus for improvement
Focus for Improvement

Design

Technology

Construction

Zero Energy House • School of Architecture • Carnegie Mellon University

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