chapter 9 acids bases and salts n.
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Chapter 9: ACIds , bases, and SALTS. Bell Ringer. Name 1 acid and 1 base you have in your home. Use your book if you need help!. sECTION 1: acids, bases, and pH. Acids. Acid – any compound that increases the number of hydronium ions when dissolved in water

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bell ringer
Bell Ringer
  • Name 1 acid and 1 base you have in your home. Use your book if you need help!
  • Acid – any compound that increases the number of hydronium ions when dissolved in water
    • Hydronium ions – H3O+ form when H+ ions attach to water
  • Indicator – a compound that can reversibly change color depending on conditions, such as pH
  • Properties
    • Taste sour
    • Cause indicators to change color
    • Conduct electric current
    • Corrosive
    • Damage materials
  • Strong acids ionize completely
    • Charged ions then free to move around the solution and conduct electricity
  • Electrolyte – a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts an electric current
  • Weak acids do not ionize completely
    • Some of the molecule dissociates to form ions, and then some ions form the molecule
    • Weak electrolytes
  • Base – any compound that increases the number of hydroxide ions when dissolved in water
  • Properties
    • Bitter taste
    • Feel slippery
    • Conduct electric current
    • Cause indicators to change color
    • Can damage skin
  • Strong bases are ionic compounds that contain a metal ion and a hydroxide ion
    • NaOH Na+ + OH–
  • Weak bases do not completely dissociate to form ions
    • Weak electrolytes
  • Indicates the concentration of H3O+ ions
  • pH – a value that is used to express the acidity or basicity of a system; each whole value on the scale indicates a ten fold change in acidity
  • Neutral = 7
  • Acidic < 7
  • Basic > 7
acid base reactions
Acid-Base Reactions
  • Neutralization reaction is the reaction between an acid and a base
    • Forms water and a salt
    • Is a reaction between ions
acid base reactions1
Acid-Base Reactions
  • A strong acid ionizes completely in solution.

HCl + H2O Cl– + H3O+

  • A strong base ionizes completely in solution.

NaOH Na+ + OH–

  • The total neutralization reaction is the following:

Cl– + H3O+ + Na+ + OH– Na+ + Cl– + 2H2O

**In this reaction, Na and Cl are spectator ions, because they are like spectators watching the reaction that forms water.

**If equal concentrations and volumes of a strong acid and a strong base are mixed, all hydronium and hydroxide ions react to form water, so solution is neutral

acid base reactions2
Acid-Base Reactions
  • Form salt and water
  • Salt: an ionic compound that forms when a metal atom or a positive radical replaces the hydrogen of an acid
  • Neutral solutions are not always formed!!
    • Final pH depends on:
      • Amounts of acids and bases combined and how strong they are
acid base reactions3
Acid-Base Reactions
  • Titration: the process of adding carefully measured amounts of one solution to another solution
  • equivalence point: the point when the original amount of acid equals the original amount of base added
    • strong acid with a strong base, equivalence point = pH 7
    • strong acid with a weak base, equivalence point < pH 7
    • strong base with a weak acid, equivalence point > pH 7
graphing skills
Graphing Skills

Interpreting Titration Curves

Hydrochloric acid, HCl, was titrated with potassium hydroxide, KOH. How many moles of KOH were added to reach the equivalence point?

  • Can be any combination of cations and anions, except hydroxides and oxides
  • Many uses
    • Table salt, baking soda
    • Used to clean, de-ice, chalk
    • Important in the body
cleaning products
Cleaning Products
  • Cleaning products improve water’s ability to clean because they help water mix with oily substances
  • Soap – a substance that is used as a cleaner and dissolves in water
    • Can dissolve both oil and water
    • Allows water and oil to form an emulsion that can be washed away by rinsing
cleaning products1
Cleaning Products
  • Soap does not work well in hard water (water that contains dissolved cations)
  • These cations combine with soap to form soap scum
  • Detergents- water soluble cleaner that can emulsify dirt and oil
    • Salts of sodium, potassium, etc..
cleaning products2
Cleaning Products
  • Ammonia used often to clean
    • Weak base because it ionizes only slightly
    • Good for cleaning away light grease smears (fingerprints)
  • Bleach – chemical compound used to whiten or make lighter (basic)
  • Disinfectant – chemical substance that kills harmful bacteria or viruses
personal care and food
Personal-Care and Food
  • Many healthcare products are acids or bases
    • Vitamin C is acid
    • Antacids – weak bases that neutralize stomach acid
  • Shampoos have a pH between 5 and 8
  • Acids used as antioxidants
    • Antioxidants prevent oxygen from reacting with molecules
  • Used in the kitchen