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Bio 9C: Thursday, 3.17.11 Title: Introduction to Genetic Inheritance and Variation. Double Block. Homework: Give me your Notebooks at the end of class (After the Do Now and the Genetics Overview)!!!!

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bio 9c thursday 3 17 11 title introduction to genetic inheritance and variation
Bio 9C: Thursday, 3.17.11Title: Introduction to Genetic Inheritance and Variation

Double Block

  • Homework:
    • Give me your Notebooks at the end of class (After the Do Now and the Genetics Overview)!!!!
    • Finish drawing your baby and answering Analysis questions 1-3 on a separate sheet of paper to be handed in!
  • Do Now:
    • How can an error in meiosis result in abnormal chromosome numbers in people? Nondisjunction Videos
  • Today’s Objectives:
    • Describe the two ways meiosis creates genetic diversity between gametes
    • Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction
mendelian genetics genetic inheritance

Mendelian Genetics &Genetic Inheritance

Biology 9

Moretti and Dickson

genetics overview
Genetics Overview
  • The study of gene inheritance and variation
  • Answers big questions like:
    • How are traits inherited?
    • Why do offspring look similar to their parents but not exactly like their parents?
    • How do we have so many different types of organisms and so much genetic variation?
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction
mendelian genetics and probability
Mendelian Genetics and Probability
  • New Vocabulary:
    • Dominant and Recessive
    • Genotypes and Phenotypes
    • Homozygous and Heterozygous
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction
slide6

Mendelian Genetics and Probability

  • New Vocabulary:
    • Dominant and Recessive
      • Dominant:
        • The allele that is always expressed as a trait if it is present (regardless of other alleles)
      • Recessive:
        • The allele that is only expressed as a trait if the dominant allele is not present

Evidence:

True-breeding yellow x True-breeding green

(YY)(yy)

All yellow offspring

(Yy)

  • Objectives for Class:
    • Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction
mendelian genetics and probability1
Mendelian Genetics and Probability
  • New Vocabulary:
    • Genotypes and Phenotypes
      • Genotypes:
        • The genetic make-up of an organism
        • The combination of alleles
      • Phenotypes:
        • The expressed physical characteristics
        • The “Trait”

“Phenotypes are the sum of Genotypes + Environment”

  • Objectives for Class:
    • Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction
slide8

Mendelian Genetics and Probability

  • New Vocabulary:
    • Homozygous and Heterozygous
      • Homozygous: Two of the same allele for a particular trait are present
        • Ex: RR = Round Face
        • Ex: rr = Square Face
      • Heterozygous: Two different alleles for a particular trait are present
        • Ex: Rr = Round Face
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction
makin babies mendelian genetics probability
“Makin’ Babies”: Mendelian Genetics & Probability
  • Use the “Genotype Data Table” to determine the Traits of your baby by flipping the coin a total of two times for each trait (once for each allele).
    • Heads = Dominant and X
    • Tails = Recessive and Y
  • For example: Face shape = R, so heads=R and tails = r
  • Write the combination of the alleles in the box next to the trait. This is the Genotype for each trait
  • Then, go to the Phenotype chart
    • Determine the Phenotype based on the Genotype from page 1
    • For example: if you flipped two RR for face shape, the phenotype would be Round
  • After all of the Phenotypes are determined, draw your baby by using the traits from the Phenotype chart
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction
bio 9c wednesday 3 24 10 title genetic inheritance and variation
Bio 9C: Wednesday, 3.24.10Title: Genetic Inheritance and Variation
  • Homework:
    • Complete the monohybrid worksheet practice problems
  • Do Now:
    • Learning how to use the “CLICKERS”
    • On the next slide…
  • Today’s Objectives:
    • Differentiate between genotypes and phenotypes
    • Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction
    • Use Mendel’s Principle of Segregation to explain: How can children show traits that their parents don’t have?
    • Use Punnett Squares to solve monohybrid crosses
wednesday 3 24 10 block 1
Wednesday, 3.24.10: Block 1

Objectives:

Differentiate between genotypes and phenotypes

Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction

learning how to use the clickers
Learning how to use the “Clickers”
  • What are they?
    • Audience response tools that allow you to enter your response/ answer by “clicking” the handheld response card (sort of like Jeopardy).
  • Why are they cool?
    • Everyone can participate in class!
    • You can answer questions from class without waiting to be called upon!
    • In seconds, we can determine how many people really understand what we are doing and adjust accordingly to meet the needs of the class!
learning how to use the clickers1
Learning how to use the “Clickers”
  • How do they work?
    • Each of you will get a clicker assigned to you (based on your last name position in the alphabet).
    • Every day you come to class, you will take your Clicker from the Clicker rack and sit down.
    • As I post slides that have questions for you to answer, you will “click” your answer on the handheld Clicker.
    • Your response goes right to the computer where software records the responses, tabulates the numbers of responses, and creates graphs to show how the class responds.
slide15
Now…
  • Get your clicker
  • Once everyone has their clicker…
    • Hold down the Channel button for a few seconds
    • Press ZERO and then TWO
    • Press Channel again

(This will set your clicker to the proper channel)

do now does this picture show genotypes or phenotypes click your answer
DO NOW: Does this picture show GENOTYPES or PHENOTYPES? “Click” your answer…
  • Genotypes
  • Phenotypes

23 of 23

  • Objectives for Class:
    • Differentiate between genotypes and phenotypes

:30

vocabulary review
Vocabulary Review
  • Genotype:
    • genetic make-up/combination of alleles (Ex: AA, Aa, or aa)
  • Phenotype:
    • The traits that an organism has (Ex: purple flowers or white flowers)
  • Trait:
    • a specific characteristic that varies between individuals (Ex: flower color)
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Differentiate between genotypes and phenotypes
vocabulary review1
Vocabulary Review
  • Fill in the blanks…

What is the phenotype?

What is the phenotype?

What is the genotype?

  • Which allele is dominant? Recessive? How do you know?
    • Purple (A) = Dominant
    • White (a) = Recessive
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Differentiate between genotypes and phenotypes
makin babies review and analysis w the clickers
“Makin’ Babies”: Review and Analysis (w/ the Clickers)
  • Now we will use the Clickers to collect the Class Results for question 4.
  • To do this, enter in your baby’s phenotype for each of the following traits:
    • Face Shape
    • Cleft Chin
    • Widow’s Peak
    • Earlobes
    • Gender
  • As we address each trait, write the percentages for each phenotype in the Class Results chart.
  • Use this data to complete analysis question #4.
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction
phenotype class results what is the face shape of your baby
Phenotype Class Results:What is the face shape of your baby?
  • Round (dominant)
  • Square (recessive)
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction

23 of 23

phenotype class results does your baby have a cleft chin
Phenotype Class Results:Does your baby have a cleft chin?

23

23

  • No, it’s absent (dominant)
  • Yes, it’s present (recessive)
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction
phenotype class results does your baby have a widow s peak
Phenotype Class Results:Does your baby have a widow’s peak?
  • Yes, it’s present (dominant)
  • No, it’s absent (recessive)

23 of 23

  • Objectives for Class:
    • Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction
phenotype class results what kind of earlobes does your baby have
Phenotype Class Results:What kind of earlobes does your baby have?
  • Unattached (dominant)
  • Attached (recessive)

23

of

23

  • Objectives for Class:
    • Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction
phenotype class results what is the gender of your baby
Phenotype Class Results:What is the gender of your baby?
  • Girl (XX)
  • Boy (XY)

23

23

of

23

  • Objectives for Class:
    • Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction

0

complete the analysis questions for the makin babies activity
Complete the Analysis Questions for the “Makin’ Babies” Activity
  • Please complete the remaining questions…
wednesday 3 24 10 block 2
Wednesday, 3.24.10: Block 2

Genetic Inheritance & Variation - Mendel’s Principle of Segregation

Objectives:

Use Mendel’s Principle of Segregation to explain: How can children show traits that their parents don’t have?

Use Punnett Squares to solve monohybrid crosses

slide27
Do Now: Which of the following terms applies to traits, such as eye color, that are controlled by more than one gene?

23

23

  • Codominant
  • Polygenic
  • Recessive
  • Dominant
vocabulary review2
Vocabulary Review
  • Fertilization:
    • the joining of two gametes in sexual reproduction
  • Zygote:
    • a fertilized egg cell that will grow and develop into an offspring
slide29
A human zygote, like most other human cells, contains 46 chromosomes. How many chromosomes does the a zygote receive from the mother?

23

23

  • 12
  • 23
  • 46
  • 92
some background on mendel and what he did to advance genetics
Some background on Mendel and what he did to advance genetics

You Don’t need to write this down:

  • GregorMendel studied genetics by doing experiments with pea plants.
  • He started with true-breeding plants, which he knew were homozygous for their traits.
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Use Mendel’s Principle of Segregation to explain: How can children show traits that their parents don’t have?
    • Use Punnett Squares to solve monohybrid crosses
some background on mendel and what he did to advance genetics1
Some background on Mendel and what he did to advance genetics

You don’t need to write this down:

  • GregorMendel studied genetics by doing experiments with pea plants.
  • He started with true-breeding plants, which he knew were homozygous for their traits.
  • When he cross-bred these plants, he found that one phenotype was dominant over the other.
  • But when he cross-bred the offspring, the recessive phenotype reappeared!
  • How can we explain this??
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Use Mendel’s Principle of Segregation to explain: How can children show traits that their parents don’t have?
    • Use Punnett Squares to solve monohybrid crosses
mendel s discoveries
Mendel’s Discoveries
  • Principle of Segregation
  • Principle of Independent Assortment
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Use Mendel’s Principle of Segregation to explain: How can children show traits that their parents don’t have?
    • Use Punnett Squares to solve monohybrid crosses
mendel s discoveries principle of segregation
Mendel’s Discoveries: Principle of Segregation
  • Alleles segregate (separate) during meiosis so each gamete gets one allele

A

A

a

Two choices for gametes:

A or a

a

A

A

a

a

principle of segregation continued
Principle of Segregation (continued…)
  • This explains why the recessivetrait reappears in the F2generation…
  • In ¼ of the offspring.

Source of Gametes

slide36

In guinea pigs, rough coat (R) is dominant over smooth coat (r). A heterozygous guinea pig is mated with another heterozygous pig.What percentage of the next generation will have smooth coat?

23

22

  • 100%
  • 50%
  • 25%
  • 75%
bio 9c thursday 3 23 10 title genetic inheritance variation counting corn day 1
Bio 9C: Thursday, 3.23.10Title: Genetic Inheritance & Variation – “Counting Corn” Day 1
  • Homework:
    • Complete the calculations for the Part B and C analysis. Complete conclusion questions 1 and 2. (note: different than assignment sheet). Due Monday
  • Do Now:
    • Homework Review: We need 3 volunteers to put problems 2, 3, and 4 on the side board
    • Everyone else is “clicking” their answers in
  • Today’s Objectives:
    • Use Punnett Squares to solve monohybrid crosses
    • Use Punnett Squares to solve dihybrid crosses
    • Use Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment to explain how genetic variation is created in individuals.
slide39
Question 3 (C): If Ben and Jaelene has a child, what is the probability s(he) will have attached earlobes?

23

23

  • 25%
  • 50%
  • 75%
  • 0%
slide40
Question 4 (b): A cross between a cow and a bull that both have red and white spots. What are the probabilities of a red calf?

23

23

  • 25%
  • 50%
  • 75%
  • 0%
review principle of segregation and meiosis
Review: Principle of Segregation and Meiosis

Diploid Cells

AA

Aa

Aa

Aa

Aa

A

a

A

a

aa

Segregation

Possible Haploid Gametes

Fertilization

Possible Diploid Zygotes

counting corn genetic crosses in organisms
“Counting Corn”: Genetic Crosses in Organisms
  • Part A: Developing Your Hypothesis
    • Use your knowledge of probability and inheritance to develop a hypothesis for the percentages of two different phenotypes found in the F2 generation of corn offspring (seeds).
  • Part B: Investigating an actual F2
    • Test your hypothesis with an ear of corn. The kernels on these ears of corn are the F2 offspring from a cross that began with two parental varieties of corn with contrasting phenotypes (one yellow one purple).
  • Part C: Investigating Two Traits
    • For this section you will see what happens when you look at the inheritance of two separate traits? Mendel studied this by looking at seed color AND seed shape in pea plants – and that’s what you will do next, with an ear of corn.
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Use Punnett Squares to solve monohybrid crosses
    • Use Punnett Squares to solve dihybrid crosses
    • Use Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment to explain how genetic variation is created in individuals.
counting corn genetic crosses in organisms1
“Counting Corn”: Genetic Crosses in Organisms
  • Part A Procedure: Examine the pictures for corn kernel color and answer questions in your notebooks

Parent (P1)

Parent (P2)

X

First Generation (F1)

X

Second Generation (F2)

counting corn genetic crosses in organisms2
“Counting Corn”: Genetic Crosses in Organisms
  • Part A: Developing Your Hypothesis
    • Use your knowledge of probability and inheritance to develop a hypothesis for the percentages of two different phenotypes found in the F2 generation of corn offspring (seeds).
  • Part B: Investigating an actual F2
    • Test your hypothesis with an ear of corn. The kernels on these ears of corn are the F2 offspring from a cross that began with two parental varieties of corn with contrasting phenotypes (one yellow one purple).
  • Part C: Investigating Two Traits
    • For this section you will see what happens when you look at the inheritance of two separate traits? Mendel studied this by looking at seed color AND seed shape in pea plants – and that’s what you will do next, with an ear of corn.
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Use Punnett Squares to solve monohybrid crosses
    • Use Punnett Squares to solve dihybrid crosses
    • Use Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment to explain how genetic variation is created in individuals.
bio 9c friday 3 26 10 title genetic inheritance variation counting corn day 2
Bio 9C: Friday, 3.26.10Title: Genetic Inheritance & Variation – “Counting Corn” Day 2
  • Homework:
    • Complete the calculations for the Part B and C analysis. Complete conclusion questions 1 and 2. (note: different than assignment sheet). Due Monday
  • Do Now:
    • Get an ear of corn and begin counting the kernels for Part B
  • Today’s Objectives:
    • Use Punnett Squares to solve dihybrid crosses
    • Use Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment to explain how genetic variation is created in individuals.
counting corn genetic crosses in organisms3
“Counting Corn”: Genetic Crosses in Organisms
  • Part B: Investigating an actual F2
    • Test your hypothesis with an ear of corn. The kernels on these ears of corn are the F2 offspring from a cross that began with two parental varieties of corn with contrasting phenotypes (one yellow one purple).
counting corn genetic crosses in organisms4
“Counting Corn”: Genetic Crosses in Organisms
  • Part A: Developing Your Hypothesis
    • Use your knowledge of probability and inheritance to develop a hypothesis for the percentages of two different phenotypes found in the F2 generation of corn offspring (seeds).
  • Part B: Investigating an actual F2
    • Test your hypothesis with an ear of corn. The kernels on these ears of corn are the F2 offspring from a cross that began with two parental varieties of corn with contrasting phenotypes (one yellow one purple).
  • Part C: Investigating Two Traits
    • For this section you will see what happens when you look at the inheritance of two separate traits? Mendel studied this by looking at seed color AND seed shape in pea plants – and that’s what you will do next, with an ear of corn.
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Use Punnett Squares to solve monohybrid crosses
    • Use Punnett Squares to solve dihybrid crosses
    • Use Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment to explain how genetic variation is created in individuals.
slide48
Bio 9C: Monday, 3.29.10Title: Genetic Inheritance & Variation – Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment
  • Homework:
    • Brainstorm the background information in your notebook (clearly label this!). Type the background information section based on your brainstorm (don’t forget to make connections between the points).
    • Completed typed lab reports are Due Thursday!
  • Do Now:
    • On the next slide…
  • Today’s Objectives:
    • Use Punnett Squares to solve dihybrid crosses
    • Use Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment to explain how genetic variation is created in individuals.
answering corn lab questions
Answering Corn Lab Questions
  • Why Part A?
  • How does Part A connect to Part B?
  • How does having 2 traits change things?
slide50
Bio 9C: Tuesday, 3.31.10Title: Genetic Inheritance & Variation - Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment
  • Homework:
    • Finish the Dihybrid Crosses Worksheet if you didn’t finish it in class.
    • Revise or complete Steps 5-9 of Part C on the Corn Lab if you haven’t already, or if you can do a better job after today’s lesson on dihybrid crosses. Refer to the Dihybrid Crosses Worksheet for help if you need it.
  • Do Now:
    • On the next slide…
  • Today’s Objectives:
    • Use Punnett Squares to solve dihybrid crosses
    • Use Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment to explain how genetic variation is created in individuals.
slide51

DO NOW: In sheep, the allele for white wool is dominant (W) and the allele for black wool (w) is recessive. A farmer has mated two sheep for a few years and produced six offspring : 4 white and 2 black. One of the sheep has black wool and the other has white wool. Which of the following is likely the genotypes of the parent sheep?

WW and Ww

WW and ww

Ww and Ww

Ww and ww

23

20

quick review from monday
Quick Review from Monday

A

  • What is one difference between these two cells?
  • Which chromosome is homologousto this one?
  • If we looked at human cells, how many pairs of homologous chromosomes would they contain?
    • Answer: 23 pairs (22 pairs plus the sex chromosomes)

A

b

b

Cell 2

A

A

Cell 1

a

a

B

B

a

a

slide53

or…

b

b

b

b

A

A

A

A

a

a

a

a

B

B

B

B

a

A

a

A

a

A

A

a

B

B

b

b

b

b

B

B

Four different possible gametes:

AB abAbaB

mendel s discoveries principle of independent assortment
Mendel’s Discoveries: Principle of Independent Assortment
  • Alleles for different genes segregate independently during meiosis.
  • In other words: If a gamete gets Aor a, this doesn’t effectwhether it gets B or b.Any combo is possible:

Parent: AaBb

Possible gametes: ABAbaBab

  • This creates genetic diversitybetween gametes, and therefore a greater diversity of offspring.
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Use Punnett Squares to solve dihybrid crosses
    • Use Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment to explain how genetic variation is created in individuals.
example dihybrid cross only write what s in purple
Example: Dihybrid Cross(only write what’s in purple)

Unattached earlobe (E) is dominant over attached (e)

Black hair (B) is dominant over blond hair (b)

  • What are the potential phenotypic combinations?
  • Two parents are heterozygous for both traits:

(1) Write theparent genotypes:

(2) What gametescan they make?

example dihybrid cross continued
Example: Dihybrid Cross continued

(3) Write the gametes along the sides of a BIG Punnett Square (4 boxes x 4 boxes = 16 boxes)

(4) Use the Punnett Square to calculate probabilities!

what is the probability of having a baby with attached earlobes and black hair
What is the probability of having a baby with attached earlobes and black hair?

23

  • 1/16
  • 8/16
  • 3/16
  • 12/16

21

counting corn genetic crosses in organisms5
“Counting Corn”: Genetic Crosses in Organisms
  • Remainder of Class:
    • Collect and Review Class Data
    • Setting up our Dihybrid cross for Part C of the corn lab/ finishing Part C
    • Begin Dihybrid cross activity
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Use Punnett Squares to solve dihybrid crosses
    • Use Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment to explain how genetic variation is created in individuals.
slide60
Bio 9C: Thursday, 4.1.10Title: Genetic Inheritance & Variation - Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment
  • Homework:
    • Complete the Mendelian Genetics Review packet
  • Do Now:
    • Very Quickly on the next slide…
  • Today’s Objectives:
    • Use Punnett Squares to solve dihybrid crosses
    • Use Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment to explain how genetic variation is created in individuals.
slide61
Q3 from HW: What is the probability that Charlie and Jennifer’s child will have a flat chin and bent pinkies?

7

7

  • 50%
  • 25%
  • 75%
  • 0%
counting corn genetic crosses in organisms6
“Counting Corn”: Genetic Crosses in Organisms
  • Today in Class:
    • Collect and Review Class Data
    • Setting up our Dihybrid cross for Part C of the corn lab/ Finishing Part C
    • Begin Mendelian Genetics Review Activity
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Use Punnett Squares to solve dihybrid crosses
    • Use Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment to explain how genetic variation is created in individuals.
counting corn genetic crosses in organisms7
“Counting Corn”: Genetic Crosses in Organisms
  • Remainder of Class:
    • Setting up our Dihybrid cross for Part C of the corn lab/ Finishing Part C
    • Begin Mendelian Genetics Review Activity
  • Objectives for Class:
    • Use Punnett Squares to solve dihybrid crosses
    • Use Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment to explain how genetic variation is created in individuals.
bio 9c monday 4 5 10 title big quiz review day genetics and inheritance
Bio 9C: Monday, 4.5.10Title: Big Quiz Review Day – Genetics and Inheritance
  • Homework:
    • Labs are Due Wednesday at the start of class
    • Study for the BIG Quiz on Friday
  • Do Now:
    • On the next slide…
  • Today’s Objectives:
    • Review Genetics Content for Wednesday’s BIG QUIZ (small test)
do now data analysis practice
Do Now: Data Analysis Practice

Take out a calculator.

  • Calculate the % of offspring with long wings. Show your work!
  • Calculate the % of offspring with vestigial wings. Show your work!
  • Do you think vestigial wings are dominant, recessive, or co-dominant? Why?
  • What are the genotypes of the two long-winged fruit flies that were crossed (mated) in this example?
do now analyzing genetic data
Do Now: Analyzing Genetic Data
  • % of Long Wings =

73 divided by 95 = 0.768 = 77% Long Wings

  • % of Vestigial Wings =

22 divided by 95 = 0.2316 = 23% Vestigial Wings

  • Vestigial Wings are…

Recessive because two parents with long wings had some babies with vestigial wings. This means the parents carried a copy of the vestigial allele but didn’t show it.

  • The two long-winged fruit fly parents are…

Heterozygous (Aa x Aa)

what percent of the wings would you expect to be long
What percent of the wings would you expect to be long?

23

23

  • 25%
  • 50%
  • 75%
  • 100%

Why are the actual percents a bit different?

do you feel like you confidently answered the challenge questions in part iii of the review packet
Do you feel like you confidently answered the “challenge” questions in Part III of the Review Packet?

23

  • Yes
  • Somewhat
  • No

11

big quiz review mendelian genetics
Big Quiz Review: Mendelian Genetics
  • Continue with the Mendelian Genetics Review Packet.
  • If you feel like you have confidently answered all of the questions, then complete an “extension” packet