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Creating the Constitution. Chapter 3 Section 1 and 2. State Legislature. New Hampshire was the first state with a constitution Soon all 13 states adopted a constitution Constitution- written plan for government Each state had a legislature, most were bicameral

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creating the constitution

Creating the Constitution

Chapter 3 Section 1 and 2

state legislature
State Legislature
  • New Hampshire was the first state with a constitution
  • Soon all 13 states adopted a constitution
  • Constitution- written plan for government
  • Each state had a legislature, most were bicameral
  • Bicameral- divided into 2 parts
  • Each state had a governor- elected by the citizens or legislature
articles of confederation
Articles of Confederation
  • 2nd Continental Congress wrote the Articles of Confederation (1st constitution)
  • Confederation- group of individual state government that bind together for a common purpose
  • By 1781 all 13 states ratified the AofC
  • Ratified- approve
  • Set up 1 house legislature
strengths
Strengths
  • Ordinance of 1785
    • Prior to American Revolution few people lived West of Appalachian Mountains
    • Congress created a system of taking detailed measurements of land and selling it
  • Northwest Ordinance
    • Congress created this to set basis for new governments in new territory, precedent for admitting states to the union, and outlawed slavery in new territory

These acts spread settlement West

weaknesses
Weaknesses
  • Congress couldn’t enforce laws
  • Congress couldn’t tax
  • Congress couldn’t make states do anything!
  • Congress couldn’t pass a law without the approval of 9 of 13 state
  • AofC could not be changed without agreement of all 13 states
  • No single leader or group over government
  • No national court system
  • Congress had to borrow money since it couldn’t tax
  • States went deeply in debt and had to tax citizens
rebellion
Rebellion
  • Shay’s Rebellion
    • Riots broke because states heavily taxed citizens
    • Daniel Shay was a farmer and Massachusetts tried to take away his farm to pay for his debt
    • He argued that the state couldn’t punish him because they created the problem
    • He armed 1,200 men who attacked a federal arsenal
    • Rebellion was eventually put down, but it showed the need for a strong central government
slide9
AofC
  • AofC lasted for 10 years
  • 1787 delegates from the 13 states were sent to Philadelphia to write a new constitution
  • Delegates unanimously choose George Washington to preside over the convention
virginia plan
Virginia Plan
  • President, court system, and bicameral legislature
  • Representatives were based on a state’s population
  • Larger states favored
    • Larger population = larger say in government
  • Smaller states hated
    • Feared they would not have a voice
new jersey plan
New Jersey Plan
  • Government has the power to tax and regulate trade
  • Unicameral legislature and the number of representatives is equal from each state
  • Smaller states favored
    • Thought they would have an equal say in government
  • Larger states hated
    • Thought since they are larger they should get more of a say in government
the great compromise
The Great Compromise
  • Delegates couldn’t agree on VA or NJ Plan
  • Decided to combine plans
    • Bicameral legislature
    • One house with representatives based on population (House of Representatives)
      • Pleased larger states
    • One house with equal number of representatives (Senate)
      • Pleased smaller states
3 5 ths compromise
3/5ths Compromise
  • Southern states wanted to count slaves in their population to increase their power in the HofR
  • Northern states opposed this because the South shouldn’t count them if they don’t let them vote
  • Agreed that for every 5 slaves, they would count as 3 people
commerce and slave trade compromises
Commerce and Slave Trade Compromises
  • Northerners wanted Congress to regulate foreign and interstate trade
  • Southerners feared Congress would tax exports and stop the slave trade
  • Both sides agreed that Congress could regulate foreign and interstate trade, but could not tax exports or stop the slave trade until 1808
electoral college compromise
Electoral College Compromise
  • Some delegates thought Congress should choose the President, others thought the citizens should vote for it
  • They compromised that a group of Electors from each state would meet together to vote for the President (based on who the majority of their state wanted)
finishing the constitution
Finishing the Constitution
  • Delegates finished the Constitution by September 1787
  • All but 3 delegates agreed and signed it
  • Now they had to get the states to ratify it
  • If 9 of 13 ratified the constitution, it would become law
federalists vs antifederalists
Federalists vs. Antifederalists
  • Federalists
    • Supported the Constitution
    • Supported strong central/federal government
    • Said US wouldn’t survive without strong central government (remember AofC?)
    • They wrote The Federalist Papers in which they defended the Constitution
federalists vs antifederalists1
Federalists vs. Antifederalists
  • Antifederalists
    • Opposed the Constitution
    • Opposed a strong central/federal government
    • Thought it would take away liberties (remember the King of England?)
    • Lacked a Bill of Rights to protect personal freedoms
bill of rights
Bill of Rights
  • Both Federalists and Antifederalists came to an agreement with the Bill of Rights
  • First 10 Amendments to the Constitution
  • Protect personal liberties (ex. Freedom of speech, religion, the press, to own a gun, to a fair trial, no cruel punishment)
  • 9 states ratified it, making it law
  • Eventually the other 4 states ratified it as well