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Creating the Constitution. Chapter 3 Section 1 and 2. State Legislature. New Hampshire was the first state with a constitution Soon all 13 states adopted a constitution Constitution- written plan for government Each state had a legislature, most were bicameral

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creating the constitution

Creating the Constitution

Chapter 3 Section 1 and 2

state legislature
State Legislature
  • New Hampshire was the first state with a constitution
  • Soon all 13 states adopted a constitution
  • Constitution- written plan for government
  • Each state had a legislature, most were bicameral
  • Bicameral- divided into 2 parts
  • Each state had a governor- elected by the citizens or legislature
articles of confederation
Articles of Confederation
  • 2nd Continental Congress wrote the Articles of Confederation (1st constitution)
  • Confederation- group of individual state government that bind together for a common purpose
  • By 1781 all 13 states ratified the AofC
  • Ratified- approve
  • Set up 1 house legislature
  • Ordinance of 1785
    • Prior to American Revolution few people lived West of Appalachian Mountains
    • Congress created a system of taking detailed measurements of land and selling it
  • Northwest Ordinance
    • Congress created this to set basis for new governments in new territory, precedent for admitting states to the union, and outlawed slavery in new territory

These acts spread settlement West

  • Congress couldn’t enforce laws
  • Congress couldn’t tax
  • Congress couldn’t make states do anything!
  • Congress couldn’t pass a law without the approval of 9 of 13 state
  • AofC could not be changed without agreement of all 13 states
  • No single leader or group over government
  • No national court system
  • Congress had to borrow money since it couldn’t tax
  • States went deeply in debt and had to tax citizens
  • Shay’s Rebellion
    • Riots broke because states heavily taxed citizens
    • Daniel Shay was a farmer and Massachusetts tried to take away his farm to pay for his debt
    • He argued that the state couldn’t punish him because they created the problem
    • He armed 1,200 men who attacked a federal arsenal
    • Rebellion was eventually put down, but it showed the need for a strong central government
  • AofC lasted for 10 years
  • 1787 delegates from the 13 states were sent to Philadelphia to write a new constitution
  • Delegates unanimously choose George Washington to preside over the convention
virginia plan
Virginia Plan
  • President, court system, and bicameral legislature
  • Representatives were based on a state’s population
  • Larger states favored
    • Larger population = larger say in government
  • Smaller states hated
    • Feared they would not have a voice
new jersey plan
New Jersey Plan
  • Government has the power to tax and regulate trade
  • Unicameral legislature and the number of representatives is equal from each state
  • Smaller states favored
    • Thought they would have an equal say in government
  • Larger states hated
    • Thought since they are larger they should get more of a say in government
the great compromise
The Great Compromise
  • Delegates couldn’t agree on VA or NJ Plan
  • Decided to combine plans
    • Bicameral legislature
    • One house with representatives based on population (House of Representatives)
      • Pleased larger states
    • One house with equal number of representatives (Senate)
      • Pleased smaller states
3 5 ths compromise
3/5ths Compromise
  • Southern states wanted to count slaves in their population to increase their power in the HofR
  • Northern states opposed this because the South shouldn’t count them if they don’t let them vote
  • Agreed that for every 5 slaves, they would count as 3 people
commerce and slave trade compromises
Commerce and Slave Trade Compromises
  • Northerners wanted Congress to regulate foreign and interstate trade
  • Southerners feared Congress would tax exports and stop the slave trade
  • Both sides agreed that Congress could regulate foreign and interstate trade, but could not tax exports or stop the slave trade until 1808
electoral college compromise
Electoral College Compromise
  • Some delegates thought Congress should choose the President, others thought the citizens should vote for it
  • They compromised that a group of Electors from each state would meet together to vote for the President (based on who the majority of their state wanted)
finishing the constitution
Finishing the Constitution
  • Delegates finished the Constitution by September 1787
  • All but 3 delegates agreed and signed it
  • Now they had to get the states to ratify it
  • If 9 of 13 ratified the constitution, it would become law
federalists vs antifederalists
Federalists vs. Antifederalists
  • Federalists
    • Supported the Constitution
    • Supported strong central/federal government
    • Said US wouldn’t survive without strong central government (remember AofC?)
    • They wrote The Federalist Papers in which they defended the Constitution
federalists vs antifederalists1
Federalists vs. Antifederalists
  • Antifederalists
    • Opposed the Constitution
    • Opposed a strong central/federal government
    • Thought it would take away liberties (remember the King of England?)
    • Lacked a Bill of Rights to protect personal freedoms
bill of rights
Bill of Rights
  • Both Federalists and Antifederalists came to an agreement with the Bill of Rights
  • First 10 Amendments to the Constitution
  • Protect personal liberties (ex. Freedom of speech, religion, the press, to own a gun, to a fair trial, no cruel punishment)
  • 9 states ratified it, making it law
  • Eventually the other 4 states ratified it as well