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Understanding & Using S/W CMM For Process Improvement. Objective of the tutorial Overview of s/w CMM Why CMM What is CMM Implications and benefit of CMM Proposed roadmap for higher maturity level SPI methodology Managing change in an organization Exercise on process improvement.

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slide1

Understanding & Using S/W CMM

For

Process Improvement

TCS Confidential Presentation

overview
Objective of the tutorial

Overview of s/w CMM

Why CMM

What is CMM

Implications and benefit of CMM

Proposed roadmap for higher maturity level

SPI methodology

Managing change in an organization

Exercise on process improvement

Overview

TCS Confidential Presentation

objective
To help participants understand

SW CMM as a model

benefits of SW CMM

the roadmap for higher maturity level

the approach for software process improvement

the process of managing change in an organization

Objective

TCS Confidential Presentation

the software problem 1 of 2
The average software program has 40 design flaws that impair employees' ability to use it. The resulting cost of lost productivity can be up to 720%.(Landauer, 1995)The software problem (1 of 2)

According to a 1995 study by The Standish Group:

  • Only 9% - 16% of software development projects are completed on time and on budget.
  • A mind boggling 31% of software development projects are cancelled before completion.
  • About 52% of projects eventually do get completed, but end up costing

189% average cost overrun

222% average time overrun

39% of the average functionality was not implemented

80% of software lifecycle costs occur during the maintenance phase. (Pressman, 1992)

TCS Confidential Presentation

the software problem 2 of 2
No Silver Bullet (Fred Brooks 1986)

No single software development support tool would produce a true order-of-magnitude improvement in programming productivity

The software problem (2 of 2)
  • “Let’s add more people” seems to be the commonest mistake which project managers make when schedule slips
    • “It takes nine months to bear a child, no matter how many women are assigned”(Fred Brooks)

Evenin the best of projects where the customer is happy and the system is running LIVE without any major issues, there was a rework effort of about 34% of the overall effort!!(TCS confidential data - early 90s)

So is Software Development a Mission Impossible? Why is it so prone to failure?

TCS Confidential Presentation

why projects fail or have extensive overruns
Lack of project management

Ambiguous and constantly changing requirements

Use of new technologies

Lack of user involvement

Trying to chase unrealistic targets

Lack of appropriate resources and tools

Obsolete before completion

Lack of training

Whyprojects fail or have extensive overruns?

TCS Confidential Presentation

improving efficiency at work

B

A

D

C

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Improving efficiency at work

People

Business

capability

Process

Technology

TCS Confidential Presentation

slide9

What is a software process?

  • A set of activities, methods, practices, and transformations that people use to develop and maintain software and the associated products (CMM). e.g.
    • process to do analysis
    • process to do plan and track the projects
    • process to conduct reviews

What is a process?

  • What you do
    • e.g Getting dressed in the morning

TCS Confidential Presentation

an immature process
Improvised by practitioners and managers

Not rigorously followed or enforced

Highly dependent on managers and customers

Low visibility into progress

Product functionality and quality may be compromised to meet schedule

Quality difficult to predict

An Immature Process

TCS Confidential Presentation

an effective software process
An effective software process

Infrastructure mechanism

  • Process documentation
  • Process group
  • Process training
  • Process tools
  • Process enforcement
  • Feedback activities
  • Process improvement

Characteristics

  • Defined
  • Owned
  • Trained
  • Supported
  • Followed
  • Monitored
  • Improved

Software process maturity is the extent to which a specific process is explicitly defined, managed, measured, controlled, and effective.

TCS Confidential Presentation

software process improvement
Software Process Improvement
  • Advantages:
    • Fewer product defects found by customers
    • Earlier identification and correction of defects
    • Fewer defects introduced during the process
    • Faster time to market
    • Better predictability of project schedules and resources

TCS Confidential Presentation

evolution of sw cmm
Life history

conceived by Watts Humphrey in response to a request for assessing the capability of software contractors

SEI maturity questionnaire - 1987

“Managing the Software Process” - 1989

Capability Maturity Model, v.1.0 - 1991, v. 1.1 - 1993

Maturity framework integrates

software engineering best practices

quality methods of Crosby and Deming (TQM)

organizational change

Extensive industrial input

CMM Workshops, Advisory Board

500+ reviewers

Evolution of SW CMM

TCS Confidential Presentation

what is cmm1
A common-sense application of process management and quality improvement concepts to software development and maintenance

A community-developed guide

A model for organizational improvement

The underlying structure for reliable and consistent CMM-based appraisal methods

What is CMM?

CMM is applying TQM to software

TCS Confidential Presentation

the five levels of software process maturity

Continuously Improving Process

5.Optimizing

Focus on process improvement

4. Managed

Predictable Process

Managing Change

Process measured and controlled

Standard, Consistent Process

3. Defined

Product and Process Quality

Process characterized, fairly well understood

2. Repeatable

Disciplined Process

Integrated Engineering Process

Can repeat previously mastered tasks

1. Initial

Project Management

Unpredictable and poorly controlled

The Five Levels of Software Process Maturity

TCS Confidential Presentation

the cmm structure
THE CMM STRUCTURE

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the cmm structure1
The Common Features Include ...

Commitment to perform

The actions the organization must take to ensure that the process is established and will endure

Ability to perform

The preconditions that must exist in the project or organization to implement the software process competently

Activities performed

The roles and procedures necessary to implement a key process area

THE CMM STRUCTURE

TCS Confidential Presentation

the cmm structure2
The Common Features include ...

Measurement and analysis

The need to measure the process and analyze the measurements

Verifying implementation

The steps to ensure that the activities are performed in compliance with the established process

THE CMM STRUCTURE

TCS Confidential Presentation

initial level

In

Out

INITIALLEVEL

Software Management is a BlackArt

  • Requirements flow in; product flows out
  • Performance driven by competence and

heroics of the people doing the work

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the key process areas lvl 1
THE KEY PROCESS AREAS - LVL 1

Initial (Lvl 1)

NO KEY PROCESS AREAS

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understanding the initial maturity level
Performance driven by the competence and heroics of the people doing the work

High quality and exceptional performance possible so long as the best people can be hired

Unpredictable - for good or ill

The major problems facing the software organization are managerial, not technical

Understanding the Initial Maturity level

TCS Confidential Presentation

repeatable level

In

Out

REPEATABLE LEVEL

Project Management System is in Place

  • Process of building software is a series of black

boxes with defined checkpoints (milestones)

  • Software project management processes are

documented and followed. They are guided by

organizational policies

TCS Confidential Presentation

the key process areas lvl 2
THE KEY PROCESS AREAS - LVL 2

Repeatable (Lvl 2)

Software Configuration Management

Software Quality Assurance

Software Subcontract Management*

Software Project Tracking & Oversight

Software Project Planning

Requirements Management

* OPTIONAL

TCS Confidential Presentation

understanding the repeatable maturity level
The Predominant need is to establish effective software project management.

Software project management processes are documented and followed.

Organizational policies guide the projects in establishing management processes.

Successful practices developed on earlier projects can be repeated.

Understanding the Repeatable Maturity Level

TCS Confidential Presentation

defined level

In

Out

DEFINED LEVEL

Managed according to a well - Defined Process

  • Builds on Project Management Foundation
  • Roles and Responsibilities in the process

are understood

  • Outputs of one task flow smoothly into the

inputs of the next task

TCS Confidential Presentation

the key process areas lvl 3
THEKEYPROCESSAREAS-LVL3

Defined (Lvl 3)

Peer Reviews

Intergroup Coordination

Software Product Engineering

Integrated Software Management

Training Program

Organization Process Definition

Organization Process Focus

TCS Confidential Presentation

understanding the defined maturity level
This level builds on the software project management foundation.

To control a process, it must be defined, documented, and understood.

At this level, the organization builds processes that empower the individuals doing the work.

Understanding the Defined Maturity Level

TCS Confidential Presentation

managed level
MANAGED LEVEL

Product & Processes are Quantitatively Managed

In

Out

  • Management has an objective basis for making

decisions using statistical process control

  • Management is able to predict performance within

quantified bounds

TCS Confidential Presentation

the key process areas lvl 4
THE KEY PROCESS AREAS - LVL 4

Managed (Lvl 4)

Software Quality Management

Quantitative Process Management

TCS Confidential Presentation

understanding the managed maturity level
Quantitative goals set by the organization for products and processes

Organizational measurement program

Software processes are instrumented with well defined and consistent measurements

Process capability quantifiable and predictable

Understanding the Managed Maturity Level

TCS Confidential Presentation

optimizing level
OPTIMIZING LEVEL

Focus - Continuous Process Improvement

In

Out

  • Disciplined change is a way of life

TCS Confidential Presentation

the key process areas lvl 5
THE KEY PROCESS AREAS - LVL 5

Optimizing (Lvl 5)

Process Change Management

Technology Change Management

Defect Prevention

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understanding the optimizing maturity level
Focus on continuous process improvement

Strengthen the process proactively with the goal of preventing occurrence of defects

Understanding the Optimizing Maturity Level

TCS Confidential Presentation

maturity levels cannot be skipped
Processes at higher maturity levels may be performed, although perhaps ineffectively, even by organizations at the Initial Level.

Process capability is built in stages, since some processes are ineffective when others are not stable.

Each level provides a necessary foundation for improvements undertaken at the next level.

Maturity Levels cannot be skipped

TCS Confidential Presentation

cmm architecture
CMM Architecture

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implications with benefits of cmm
Level 2

Project level documentation; stable estimating, planning and monitoring processes

Problems are recognized and corrected as they occur

Commitments are understood and managed

Level 3

Organisation wide integrated management and engineering processes

problems are anticipated and prevented, or impacts are minimized

project groups work together

training is planned and provided according to roles

Implications with benefits of CMM

TCS Confidential Presentation

implications and benefits at level 2
Level 2

A basic Quality Management System is established

A Software Quality Assurance Group is put in place

Estimation, Planning and tracking practices are established in projects

Configuration management and Sub-contract management is in place

Implications and Benefits at Level 2

Independent view of quality

Objective subcontractor data and information

Tracking and re-planning data are treated as an asset

Risks are tracked and kept visible

Product activities are based on approved and understood requirements

Activities for managing the requirements is kept visible

TCS Confidential Presentation

implications and benefits at level 3
Level 3

Software Engineering Process Group is put in place

Processes are defined, documented and used

“Say what you do; do what you say.”

Inter-group coordination between projects and supporting groups is formalized with Service Level commitments for various activities

Inspection methods are formalized and used

Training and orientation practices are in place

Product Engineering practices (including thresholds) are defined and implemented

Implications and Benefits at Level 3

Defect found earlier at lower cost; Data available for use in defect removal models

Issues do not drag on unresolved issues and impede progress

Cross group knowledge increases

Consistency across work products

Flexible processes to meet project needs

Skilled and knowledgeable personnel

TCS Confidential Presentation

implications with benefits at level 4 5
Level 4

processes are quantitatively understood and stabilized

management has an objective basis for making decisions

management is able to predict performance within quantified bounds

Level 5

Disciplined change is a way of life

processes are continuously and systematically improved

common sources of problems are understood and eliminated

Everyone is involved in process improvement

Implications with benefits at level 4 & 5

TCS Confidential Presentation

proposed roadmap for achieving higher maturity levels
Identify where you are

‘If you don’t know where you are, a map won’t help’- Humphrey

Identify where you want to go

‘If you don’t know where you are going any road will do’ - Chinese proverb

Set up an SPI Action Plan

Assign resources and responsibilities

Track progress

Conduct Assessments

Continuously improve

Proposed Roadmap for achieving higher maturity levels

Commitment from Senior management

  • Policies
  • Rewards
  • Ensure middle management commitment
  • Overseeing implementation of various KPAs

TCS Confidential Presentation

proposed roadmap for achieving higher maturity levels contd
Level 2

A basic Quality Management System is established

A Software Quality Assurance Group is put in place

Estimation, Planning and tracking practices are established in projects

Configuration management and Sub-contract management is in place

Proposed Roadmap for achieving higher maturitylevels (contd)

Independent view of quality

Objective subcontractor data and information

Tracking and re-planning data are treated as an asset

Risks are tracked and kept visible

Product activities are based on approved and understood requirements

Activities for managing the requirements is kept visible

TCS Confidential Presentation

proposed roadmap for achieving higher maturity levels contd1
Level 3

Software Engineering Process Group is put in place

Processes are defined, documented and used

“Say what you do; do what you say.”

Inter-group coordination between projects and supporting groups is formalized with Service Level commitments for various activities

Inspection methods are formalized and used

Training and orientation practices are in place

Product Engineering practices (including thresholds) are defined and implemented

Proposed Roadmap for achieving higher maturity levels (contd)

Defect found earlier at lower cost; Data available for use in defect removal models

Issues do not drag on unresolved issues and impede progress

Cross group knowledge increases

Consistency across work products

Flexible processes to meet project needs

Skilled and knowledgeable personnel

TCS Confidential Presentation

moving from level 2 to level 3
Moving from level 2to Level 3

Organization’s Standard

Software Process

(OSSP)

Selection of life cycle model

Tailoring Guidelines

Project’s Operational Process

Process Assets and

Process DB

Requirements

Project Plan

Planning, tracking, estimating data

TCS Confidential Presentation

proposed roadmap for achieving higher maturity levels contd2
Level 4

An organization wide metrics program is in place

Statistical Process Control (SPC) used for better insight of the processes

Training and orientation in SPC is planned and implemented

Product and process quality managed by comparing actual measures to expected values of mean and variance (based on past performance)

Corrective and Preventive actions are planned and implemented to eliminate the special causes

Proposed Roadmap for achieving higher maturity levels (contd)

Process Capability is understood

Capability baselines can be used to set goals

Project processes are improved

Quality goals are based on data

Goals are managed

TCS Confidential Presentation

examples of management by data
Examples of management by data

UCL

4

3

Hours per call

LCL

2

Time

SEI CMU Pittsburgh (Introduction to CMM)

TCS Confidential Presentation

optimizing at level 5
Optimizing at Level 5

Improvement in average

turn-around time

Prev UCL

4

3

Hours per call

Prev LCL

New UCL

2

New LCL

Time

SEI CMU Pittsburgh (Introduction to CMM)

TCS Confidential Presentation

proposed roadmap for achieving higher maturity levels contd3
Level 5

Focus on defect prevention rather than defect detection by analysing common errors

Tools for conducting causal analysis are identified and people are trained on these

Setting up of Technology and Process Change Management groups aligned with business goals

Cost benefit analysis of proposed process and technology changes is a continuous process

Involving everyone in continuous process improvement

Focus on use of more powerful tools and methods

Proposed Roadmap for achieving higher maturity levels (contd)

Defect types are prevented

Processes revised based on data and analysis

Continuous focus on managed technology change

Process improvement is everyone’s job

Process improvement is continuous

TCS Confidential Presentation

slide52

SPI : Stages

Gap Analysis

Planning, Dev & Dep

Assessment

Gap Analysis Report

Dashboard

Improvement

TCS Confidential Presentation

slide53

SPI : Methodology

Gap Analysis

Gap Analysis

Training

  • Study organization profile, business objectives,

current software development environment and

practices

  • Identify Goals and define “To Be” State
  • Perform Gap Analysis w.r.t. “To Be” State
  • Identify opportunities for Improvement
  • Prepare high level Action Plan

Gap Analysis

SPI Planning

TCS Confidential Presentation

slide54

Benefits to the customer:

  • Understanding the road-map for desired process maturity
  • Realization of the roles and responsibilities of different functional entities

Planning

Gap Analysis

SPI

Plan

Resource

Detail Plan

Milestones

TCS Confidential Presentation

slide55

Review

Review

Refine

Refine

Deploy

Pilot

Duration

Effort

Resource

Difficulties

Issues

ROI

Dev & Dep

Check

Status

Detail Plan

Pilot Results

Define Process

Scorecard

Benefits to the customer :

  • A systematic approach to plan and track the SPI
  • Effective handling of change management
  • Action plan is available to perform the subsequent activities
  • Periodic tracking reports are available (Score card)

TCS Confidential Presentation

managing the spi transition the ideal directed change
Managing the SPI TransitionThe Ideal: Directed Change

DESIRED STATE

PRESENT

STATE

PRODUCTIVITY

Rapid

Change

TIME

TCS Confidential Presentation

managing the spi transition the alternative evolving change
Managing the SPI TransitionThe Alternative: Evolving Change

DESIREDSTATE

Adapting

PRESENT

STATE

Evolution:

a State of

Transition

Implementation

PRODUCTIVITY

Training and

Institutionalizing

Reviewing and

Undoing

Goal Setting

and Defining

TIME

TCS Confidential Presentation

typical reaction to change
Typical Reaction To Change

ANGER, RAGE

BARGAINING

E

N

E

R

G

Y

ACCEPTANCE

STATUS QUO

DENIAL

TESTING

STUNNED PARALYSIS

DEPRESSION

T I M E

TCS Confidential Presentation

five elements of change
VISION :-A clearvisionof the desired state and an understanding of the current state

SKILL :-Theskill to apply the methodologies and technologies of the desired state.

BENEFITS :-Clear understanding of thebenefits (incentives)that wouldbe achieved with the desired state

RESOURCES :-Availability of adequateresources and the willingness to commit the resources

PLAN :-A well-thoughtplanof action to implement change

If any of the above element is missing, the change process is impaired.

Five Elements of Change

TCS Confidential Presentation

effects of missing change elements
Effects of Missing Change Elements

ACTION PLAN

VISION

SKILLS

INCENTIVES

RESOURCES

CHANGE

ACTION PLAN

SKILLS

INCENTIVES

RESOURCES

CONFUSION

ACTION PLAN

VISION

INCENTIVES

RESOURCES

ANXIETY

ACTION PLAN

VISION

SKILLS

RESOURCES

SLOW CHANGE

ACTION PLAN

VISION

SKILLS

INCENTIVES

FRUSTRATION

VISION

SKILLS

INCENTIVES

RESOURCES

FALSE STARTS

Source: Ambrose, 1987

TCS Confidential Presentation

adopters of change
Adopters of Change
  • Early Majority
    • Pragmatists
    • Relate to Technology
    • Driven by Practical Sense
    • Proof of Adaptability
  • Late Majority
    • Conservatives
    • Not Comfortable with Change
    • Uses Established Technology
    • Adapts Slowly to New

Technology

    • Needs Support for Use
  • Early Adopters
    • Visionaries
    • Not Technologists
    • Insight to Match Technology

to Opportunity

    • Recognizes Need to Change
  • Laggards
    • Skeptics
    • Cannot Stand Change
    • Avoids New Technology
    • Quick to Find Fault
  • Innovators
    • Technology Enthusiasts
    • First to Adopt New Technology
    • Understand Problems

TCS Confidential Presentation

managing change in an organisation
Organisations on their path to process maturity need extra efforts to implement change

resistance to change is an expected state

How to manage the change program?

Participation - Involve all affected

Involve practitioners in reviews and audits

Effectively communicate Approach, Deployment and Results

Train

Pilot major process changes

Empower all affected to give suggestions

Managing Change in an organisation

TCS Confidential Presentation

management sponsorship
Formation of Groups for Process Improvement

Allocating budget for Process Improvement initiative

Recognizing and rewarding the efforts in SPI

Management Sponsorship

TCS Confidential Presentation

management responsibility
Management Responsibility
  • Encourage the organization to change
  • Provide committed resources
  • As the SPI sponsors, actively manage the change process
  • Involved in planning and scheduling
  • Motivate by providing visibility and recognition
  • Regularly conduct SPI planning and review meetings with the group

TCS Confidential Presentation

empowering individuals
Each and every individual in the Organization contributes to SPI

Mandatory for all Staff to participate in SPI program by giving at least one suggestion per year, which is beneficial to the organization and can be taken up for process improvement

Improvement transferred into everyday practice across the organization

EmpoweringIndividuals

TCS Confidential Presentation

slide67

Exercise 1

Process improvement

TCS Confidential Presentation

slide68

Exercise 2

Causal Analysis & Defect Prevention

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slide69

THANK YOU

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