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מכללת BITLEE " מכללה למקצוענים באלקטרוניקה " מצגת SDH/SONET PowerPoint Presentation
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מכללת BITLEE " מכללה למקצוענים באלקטרוניקה " מצגת SDH/SONET - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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מכללת BITLEE " מכללה למקצוענים באלקטרוניקה " מצגת SDH/SONET. The Digital Revolution. Analog Signal Transmission. Digital Signal Transmission. The Solution. Convert all signals to digital Employ time division multiplexing (TDM). 11 000 000 000!.

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slide1

מכללת BITLEE

" מכללה למקצוענים באלקטרוניקה "

מצגת SDH/SONET

Name of lecture and lecturer

slide2

The Digital Revolution

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slide3

Analog Signal Transmission

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slide4

Digital Signal Transmission

The Solution

  • Convert all signals to digital
  • Employ time division multiplexing (TDM)

Name of lecture and lecturer

slide5

11 000 000 000!

How to convert speech to a sequence of ones and zeros

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pulse amplitude modulation pam
Pulse Amplitude Modulation - PAM

a = Amplitude

t = Time

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pulse code modulation pcm
Pulse Code Modulation - PCM

Designated to Carry Digitized Voice

(Based on 4 kHz Channels in AT&T’s FDM Hierarchy)

Step 1

Sample analog signal at 8 kHz

Results: Pulse Amplification Modulation

Step 2

Digitize PAM samples to 13 (or 14) bits and compress to 8-bits using A-law or m-law tables

Results: Pulse Code Modulation

Transmission Requirement: 8,000 samples/second ´ 8-bits =64 kbps = 1 octet/125 msec

FDM = Frequency Division Multiplexing

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pulse code modulation pcm cont
Pulse Code Modulation - PCM (Cont.)

Transmit Side

Receive Side

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codec quantizing usa
CODEC Quantizing - USA

1n (1+m½c½)

1n (1+m)

Fm (c) = sgn (c)

The Formula

The North American standard for assigning and decoding a signal’s amplitude is m-law 255. This law defines how many quantizing levels are used and how they are arranged

m = 255 (compression parameter)

Character Signal Binary Code *

Curve of m-Law Compander

* This is the bit pattern transmitted for positive input values. The left-most bit is a 0 for negative input values

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codec quantizing europe
CODEC Quantizing - Europe

1

A

0£½c½ <

1

A

£½c½£1

The European standard is the A-law and its formula is:

1 + ½nA½c½

1 + 1n (A)

A½c½

1 + 1n (A)

F (c) = sgn (c)

F (c) = sgn (c)

when

and

when

Character Signal Binary Code *

Curve of A-Law Compander

* For positive input values. The left-most bit is a 0 for negative input values. Even bits (beginning with 1 at the left) are inverted before transmission

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network evolution
Network Evolution

Analog

Analog

Switch

Analog

Switch

Digital

Analog

Switch

Analog

Switch

A/D

D/A

Digital

Digital

Switch

Digital

Switch

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time division multiplexing
Time Division Multiplexing

For Analog Signals

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slide13

Time Division Multiplexing

For Digital Signals

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slide14

T1 Frame Structure

Extended Superframe Frame Format

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slide15

PDH

The Plesiochronous

Digital

Hierarchy

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plesiochronous drop insert
Plesiochronous Drop & Insert

34 Mbps

140

140

140M

LTE

140M

LTE

34

34

8 Mbps

34

34

2 Mbps

8

8

8

8

2

2

Customer

Add/Drop

operation

requires

complete

demultiplexNG to locate A channels

bits

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the add drop operation
The Add/Drop Operation

New Technologies

  • Very tight synchronization
  • Use pointers to locate channels

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frame format
Frame Format

64 kbps

- - - - - -

64 kbps

130 or 31

31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0

PCM 30

Voice withCAS SignalingApplications

30 ´64 kbps 1.920 Mbps

Signaling (Timeslot 16) 0.064 Mbps

Framing (Timeslot 0) 0.064 Mbps

Total, E1 2.048 Mbps

Data ApplicationsorCCS Signaling

31 ´64 kbps 1.984 Mbps

Framing (Timeslot 0) 0.064 Mbps

Total, E1 2.048 Mbps

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slide19

E1 - The European

Digital

Revolution

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what is e1
What is E1?

A high speed digital communications link that enables the transmission of voice, data, and video signals at a rate of 2.048 Mbps

  • Initially designed for transmission of 30 telephone channels
  • Basis for design: PCM voice digitizing using 64 kbps for each channel
  • The E1 frame consists of 32 8-bit channels (timeslots) 32 ´ 8 = 256 bits/frame
  • E1 frames are transmitted at the rate of 8,000 frames/s 256 ´ 8,000 = 2,048 kbps or 2,048 Mbps

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what is e1 cont
What is E1? (Cont.)
  • Serial synchronous bit stream at 2.048 Mbps
  • Specifications defined in CCITT recommendations:
    • G.704/G.732 Frame definition (for framing over E1 and T1)
    • G.703 Interface physical specs (pulse mask, etc.)
    • G.823 Jitter requirements
  • Interface (G.703) - two alternatives
    • 4-wire, balanced120W, pulse = 3.00 volts nominal
    • 4-wire, unbalanced, 2 coaxial connectors75W, pulse = 2.37 volts nominal

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hdb3 coding
HDB3 Coding

with

Alternate Mark Inversion

HDB3 (High Density Bipolar of Order 3)

0000 => 000V or B00VSo that violations alternate polarity

HDB3Code

HDB3Decode

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frame format for e1
Frame Format for E1

Channel 0 1 15 16 17 31

F Channels 1 to 15 Sig Channels 17 to 31

Channel 16

OptionalSignaling Channel

Channel 0

Sync. Timing& Control Data

1 Frame = 256 bits (125 ms)

Bit Rate = 2.048 kbps

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e1 t1 error conditions
E1/T1 Error Conditions

Principal T1/E1 Alarms

Red Alarm (FAS Loss)

Produced by a receiver to indicate that it has lost frame alignment

Yellow Alarm (RAI)

Returned to a transmitting terminal to report a loss of frame alignment at the receiving terminal

Normally, a T1/E1 terminal will use the receiver’s

red alarm to request that a yellow alarm be transmitted

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e1 t1 error conditions cont
E1/T1 Error Conditions (Cont.)

Blue Alarm (AIS)

A continuous ones pattern without framing,indicates an upstream failure

Loss here

Blue (AIS)

Red (LOF)

T1/E1

MUX

T3/E3

MUX

Yellow (RAI)

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principal error conditions
Principal Error Conditions

Loss of Carrier

Receive data was 0 for 31 consecutive bits

Bipolar Violation

A failure to meet the AMI T1 line code

F Bit Error

Framing bit is in error

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slide27

T1 - The American

Digital

Revolution

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t1 frame format
T1 Frame Format

CH

1

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

24

Analog

F

F

DS 0

---------------

“D” Channel

Bank

Analog

DS 0

AT&T - 1957

DS 1

CH 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

8 bit PCM Codes 24 ´ Channels + 1 Framing Bit = 193 bits (Overhead)

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d4 channel bank
D4 Channel Bank

DS 1 1.544 Mbps

193 bit, 125 ms

  • Voice sent as 8-bit codes
  • Signaling by having the 8th bit (every 8th frame) indicate loop open or loop closed
  • Framing based on placing a 12-bit pattern in the framing bit (193rd bit)

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t1 frame structure
T1 Frame Structure

Extended Superframe Format

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line code bipolar 50 rtz
Line Code - Bipolar, 50% RTZ
  • To guarantee 0 DC element on the line, bipolar is used
  • To eliminate high frequency components that can interfere with other transmissions, digital services utilize 50% duty cycle, known as:

Alternate Mark Inversion (AMI)

(Mark = Logic “1”)

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bipolar violations
Bipolar Violations

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t1 standard
T1 Standard

ANSI T1.403 - 1989

  • Line Rate 1.544 MHz
  • Cable Length 6.000 ft max.
  • Pulse Amplitude 2.7 to 3.3 V
  • Maximum Successive Zeros 15
  • Receive Attenuation 15 to 22.5 dB
  • Line Build Out 0.0, 7.5, 15 dB

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t1 summary
T1 Summary
  • Serial Synchronous Bits Stream at 1.544 Mbps
  • Timeslot 8 bits
  • 24 Timeslots 8 ´ 24 = 192 bits
  • Frame 24 T.S. + 1 Framing Bit = 192 + 1 = 193 bits
  • Sampling Rate 8.000 samples/sec
  • T1 Bit Stream 8.000 Frames (192 bits/frame + 1 bit/frame) = 1.536 Mbps + 0.008 Mbps (framing) = 1.544 Mbps
  • Line Code AMI (50% Duty Cycle) or B8ZS (for clear channel)
  • Synchronization From Line
  • Interface 4-wire, Balanced, 100 W, RJ-45 Connector (or dB-15)

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sdh sonet
SDH/SONET

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

Synchronous Optical Network

  • Developed as a result of PDH inability to cater for new digital data transmission requirements
  • Evolved as a joint world-wide standardization effort (ITU-T&ANSI)
  • Few differences still exist between European (ETSI) SDH and North-American (ANSI) SONET
  • Had to accommodate older PDH systems that are still operating

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the hierarchical network
The Hierarchical Network

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the transmission equipment hierarchy
The Transmission Equipment Hierarchy

140M

2.5G

622M

34M

155M

8M

2M

64K

PDH

SDH

Core, Backbone 565 Mbps Fiber 2.5 Gbps OLS Trunk, Long 140 Mbps Fiber 2.5 Gbps ADMDistance 140 Mbps Radio 155M Radio

34/14 Mbps Multiplex 4/4 DXC

Regional, Urban, 140 Mbps Fiber 2.5 Gbps OLS

Metropolitan 34 Mbps Fiber 2.5 Gbps ADM

34 Mbps Radio 622M OLS

34/140 Multiplex 622M ADM

2/34 Mbps Multiplex 155M Radio

4/3/1 DXC

Local Junction, 8 Mbps Fiber 622M OLS Access 4  2M Radio 622M ADM

2M Radio 155M ADM

2/8 Multiplex

Access Flex Mux

Primary Multiplexer

Channel Bank

Access Multiplexer

4

Equivalent Capacity

4

4

2M

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sdh sonet bit rates
SDH/SONET Bit Rates

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the sdh add drop operation
The “SDH” Add/Drop Operation

New Technologies

  • Very tight synchronization (very few slips)
  • Uses pointers to locate channels

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the sts 1 frame 52 mbps
The STS-1 Frame (52 Mbps)

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the stm 1 frame 155 mbps
The STM-1 Frame (155 Mbps)

270 Columns (bytes)

9 rows

Frame Period = 125 ms

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vc 4 au 4 mapping to stm 1 frame
VC-4/AU-4 Mapping to STM-1 Frame

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stm 1 structure
STM-1 Structure

VC-4 Payload

SOH

Seat on the Carriage = Tugs

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populating the seats in the carriage
Populating the Seats in the Carriage

TUG2 Seats

One LargePassenger

VC2

Three SmallerPassengers

3 ´ VC12

Four Even SmallerPassengers

4 ´ VC11

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stm n frame structure
STM-N Frame Structure

270 ´N Columns (bytes)

261 ´ N

9 ´ N

9 rows

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stm nc concatenated frame structure
STM-Nc - Concatenated Frame Structure

270 ´N Columns (bytes)

10 ´N

260 ´N

9 rows

Payload Overhead. N ´ 1 Columns.

One Column - Real Payload Overhead.

Others - Fixed Stuff

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multiplexing of n augs into stm n
Multiplexing of N AUGs into STM-N

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stm 1 soh
STM-1 SOH

9 bytes

RSOH

9 rows

MSOH

Bytes reserved for national use

* Unscrambled bytes. Therefore care should be taken with their content

D Media dependent bytes

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ring in interoffice application
Ring In Interoffice Application

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network management
Network Management
  • Embedded overhead channels (EOC) for management messages
  • Uses standard communications protocols

New Technologies

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sdh standards
SDH Standards
  • G.651 Multimode Fiber Specification
  • G.652 Single Mode Fiber Specification
  • G.700 Framework of the G.700, 800, 900 Rec.
  • G.701 Vocabulary of Terms
  • G.702 Digital Hierarchy Bit Rates
  • G.703 Physical/Electrical Characteristics Interfaces
  • G.704 Synchronous Frame Structures Primary & Secondary Levels
  • G.705 Characteristics - Terminate Digital Links on a Digital Exchange
  • G.707 Network Node Interface for SDH Incl. Multiplexing Structure
  • G.774.04 SDH Management for SNC Protection for the NE
  • G.780 Vocabulary of Terms for SDH Networks and Equipment
  • G.781 Structure & Rec. for Multiplexing Equipment for the SDH

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sdh standards cont
SDH Standards (Cont.)
  • G.783 Characteristics of SDH Equipment Functional Blocks
  • G.784 SDH Management
  • G.803 Architectures of Transport Networks Based on SDH
  • G.825 Control of Jitter & Wander in Digital Nets based on SDH
  • G.826 Error Performance Parameters and Objectives
  • G.831 Management Capabilities of Transport Nets based on SDH
  • G.832 SDH Elements on PDH Networks: Frames and Multiplexing
  • G.841 SDH Protection: Rings and Other Architectures
  • G.957 Physical Parameters for SDH Optical Interface
  • G.958 Provides overall Requirements for Optical Interfaces
  • ITU-R Architectures & Functional Aspects of Radio Relay for SDH
  • O.SDH Equipment to Assess Error Performance on SDH Interface

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ansi standards
ANSI Standards

Phase I

  • T1.105
    • Byte interleaved multiplexing format
    • Line rates for STS - 1, 3, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36 and 48
    • Mappings for DS0, DS1, DS2, DS3
    • Monitoring mechanisms for section, line and path structures
    • 192 kbps and 576 kbps DCC
  • T1.106 - This is an associated standard that establishes the optical parameters for the SONET standards. Single mode fiber is defined as the standard optical transmission medium
  • T1.107 - Digital hierarchy format specification

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ansi standards cont
ANSI Standards (Cont.)

Phase II

  • T1.105R1
    • SONET format clarification and enhancements
    • Timing and synchronization enhancements
    • Automatic protection switching (APS)
    • Seven-layer protocol stack for DCC and embedded operations channels
    • Mapping of DS4 (139 Mbps) signal into STS-3c
  • T1.117 - Optical parameters for short-haul (2 km) multimode fiber cable
  • T1.102-199X - Electrical specifications for STS-1 and STS-3 signals

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ansi standards cont55
ANSI Standards (Cont.)

Phase III

  • T1.105.01-1994 - Protection for two & four fiber bidirectional line switched SONET rings
  • T1.105.05-1994 - Tandem connection overhead layer for SONET
  • T1.105.03-1994 - Jitter for SONET and SONET-PDH
  • T1.119-1994 - Management of SONET NE, OSI compliant interface
  • T1.204 - OAM&P lower layer protocols for TMN interfaces
  • T1.208 - OAM&P upper layer protocols for TMN interfaces
  • T1.214 - OAM&P network model for interfaces between OS & NE
  • T1.215 - OAM&P fault management messages for OS & NE
  • T1.229 - OAM&P performance management messages for OS & NE
  • T1.231 - Layer 1 in-service transmission performance monitoring

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