10 likes | 113 Views
NA’NIZHOOZHI CENTER. PREDICTORS OF JOB SEEKING BEHAVIORS A.A. Forcehimes 1 , J.M. Houck 1 , M.P. Bogenschutz 1 , D. Svikis 2 , K. Foley 3 , D.Pallas 3 , E. Willie 3 , & J. Bicente 3 1 University of New Mexico Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse and Addictions (CASAA)
E N D
NA’NIZHOOZHI CENTER PREDICTORS OF JOB SEEKING BEHAVIORS A.A. Forcehimes1, J.M. Houck1, M.P. Bogenschutz1, D. Svikis2 , K. Foley3, D.Pallas3, E. Willie3, & J. Bicente3 1University of New Mexico Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse and Addictions (CASAA) University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 2Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 3The Na’Nizhoozhi Center Inc., Gallup, NM A BRIDGE TO RECOVERY INTRODUCTION SUMMARY • A series of direct logistic regression analyses were performed on employment status as an outcome. The first model considered the effects of treatment group and four economic indicators on the probability of employment. The second and third models examined the effects of participant age and work history. Social support for abstinence and employment are predictors of successful functioning after substance abuse treatment (Reynolds, Fisher, Estrada, & Trotter, 2000). Despite high rates of unemployment amongst individuals presenting for drug and alcohol treatment, community treatment programs often lack the resources needed to provide ancillary vocational services. To address this problem, the Southwest Node of NIDA’s CTN conducted a single-site adaptation of its national Job Seekers Workshop study (Svikis, P.I.) in a Native American treatment program in the Southwest region of the U.S: CTN protocol 0020-NCI “Job Seekers Workshop for Clients/Relatives With Drug Dependence” Native American participants (N=102) were randomized to either (1) a three session, manualized program designed to teach individuals the necessary skills to find and secure a job (JSW) or (2) a 40-minute Job Interviewing Video (JIV). There were no main effects of treatment on job-seeking behaviors, employment rates, or drug use at either the three-month or six-month follow-ups in the national Job Seekers Workshop; nor were there main effects in our single site adaptation. Unemployment problems are often significant in Native American communities (Thomason, 2000). Researchers have indicated several factors that contribute to successful employment (e.g., Kanfer, Wanberg, & Kantrowitz,, 2001). We were interested in examining whether individual factors, such as demographics and prior work history and situational factors, such as local unemployment rates, may function as predictors of employment. To examine what variables might predict employment success regardless of treatment assignment, this secondary analysis tested for potential moderating effects of demographics, employment history, and local economic factors at both the three and six month follow up. Therefore, the present secondary analysis tested for potential moderating effects of gender, tribal affiliation, employment history and local economic factors at both the three-month and six-month follow-up points. Findings from this study suggest that individual work history and local economic conditions strongly influence the effectiveness of job-seekers’ efforts, consistent with findings previously reported by Kanfer et al. (2001). How much do job-seeking behaviors matter in a location with extremely high unemployment? Local unemployment rates in this study indicated that jobs were very scarce in some regions. If jobs were not available, participants would have an extremely difficult time finding a job despite their newly acquired job-seeking skills. This ceiling effect may also explain why differences were not observed between the JSW and JIV interventions. Although participants in this sample were relatively young, age did predict employment rates and employment stability in this sample. It is possible that simply having more years of job-seeking experience may increase an individuals’ ability to find and secure a job. The Native American counselors who facilitated the JSW intervention also observed that participants who had previous employment verbalized a higher level confidence in their ability to find and secure a job than those participants who had little if any previous employment. The number of prior jobs a participant held also predicted employment. It is possible that greater work experience made these participants more attractive candidates to potential employers. Despite difficult local economic conditions, participants who had maintained continuous employment since the age of 18 were more successful in getting a job. Age and local economic constraints had an effect on the employment status of the participants in this study. While some variables that predict future employment—such as local unemployment, age, and work history—are not amenable to employment interventions, it may be possible to improve employment outcomes by designing interventions that are tailored to local economic conditions and individual work histories. RESULTS • When treatment group and regional data including local population density, per capita income, rural/urban status, and local unemployment rate were considered, only the unemployment rate in participants’ home region was a significant predictor of employment at the three-month follow-up (χ2(5, N=102) = 11.773, p < .05). The odds of employment at three months decreased with higher regional unemployment (OR=.576, p < .05) (See Figure 1). • Older participants were more likely to be employed at the six-month follow-up (χ2(1, N=102) = 4.247, p < .04). The odds of employment at six months increased with increasing age (OR = 1.042, p < .05). (see Figure 2). • The number of taxed income jobs participants held since their 18th birthdays also predicted employment at six months (χ2(1, N=102) = 6.520, p < .02). The odds of employment increased for each additional job held (OR = 1.091, p < .02) (see Figure 3.). • Gender and tribal affiliation were not significant predictors of employment at any follow-up. METHODS Participants. Participants were clients/relatives in a 60-day residential treatment program, based in traditional Native American healing practices. Participants were currently unemployed or underemployed. Of 102 participants, 80% were male, 100% were Native American, and mean age was 36.31 years. Measures. Intake data were assembled from a pre-treatment Vocational Survey and a demographics form. Economic indicators for participants’ home regions were collected using publicly available data. Vocational Survey: This is an interviewer-administered measure of the participant’s vocational history and related life experiences. Developed specifically for this study, items focus on employment history (particularly most recent work experience), previous job satisfaction, efforts to obtain employment (e.g., answering want ads; talking to friends about jobs) and self-efficacy expectations for specific job skills. Demographics: Assessed age, education, marital status, race and ethnicity Local economic conditions: Measures including population density, rural/urban status, and per capita income were assembled from Census Bureau data for 2000. County-level unemployment rates from the study onset were concatenated from the NM Department of Workforce Solutions. Procedures. Economic measures represented a total of 17 counties across five states. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether these economic variables were predictive of employment status. This technique describes the relationship between predictors and a discrete outcome. Here, the predicted probabilities are estimates of the impact of the variables in the model upon the probability of employment. REFERENCES Kanfer, R., Wanberg, C. R., & Kantrowitz, T. M. (2001). Job search and employment: A personality-motivational analysis and metaanalytic review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 837–855. New Mexico Department of Workforce Solutions. New Mexico Labor Market Review, 36(6). Retrieved from http://www.workforceconnection.state.nm.us/LMI/pdf/lmrjun07.pdf Reynolds, G. L., Fisher, D. G., Estrada, A. L., & Trotter, R. (2000). Unemployment, drug use, and HIV risk among American Indian and Alaska Native drug users. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 9(1), 17-32. Thomason, T. C. (2000). Issues in the treatment of Native Americans with alcohol problems. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 28(4), 243-252. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research was supported in part by NIDA’s Clinical Trials Network, grant U10DA1533. We are grateful for the support of the Navajo Nation Human Research and Review Board.