Air, Udara, Lahan …. The solution to pollution is dilution.
Konsep-KonsepPenting • Types, sources, and effects of water pollutants • Major pollution problems of surface water • Major pollution problems of groundwater • ReduksidanPencegahanPencemaran Air • Kualitas Air Minum
Definisi Impaired Waters Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires states to develop lists of impaired waters, those that do not meet water quality standards that states have set for them. Total Maximum Daily Load The law requires that states establish priority rankings for impaired waters and develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) for them. A TMDL specifies the maximum amount of a pollutant that a body of water can receive and still meet water quality standards. http://www.epa.gov/owow/tmdl/overviewfs.html
Point Source Pollution vs. Nonpoint Source Pollution What’s the difference? Slides by Christopher C. Obropta, Rutgers University
Sumber Pencemaran : Titik • comes from a specific source, like a pipe • factories, industry, municipal treatment plants • can be monitored and controlled by a permit system
Sumber pencemaran: Bukan-titik • Nonpoint Source (NPS) Pollution is pollution associated with stormwater or runoff • NPS pollution cannot be traced to a direct discharge point such as a wastewater treatment facility
Contoh-contoh NPS • oil & grease from cars • fertilizers • animal waste • grass clippings • septic systems • sewage & cleaners from boats • household cleaning products • litter
Mekanisme Transpor Polutan • NPS pollutants build up on land surfaces during dry weather • Atmospheric deposition • Fertilizer applications • Animal waste • Automotive exhaust/fluid leaks • Pollutants are washed off land surfaces during precipitation events (stormwater runoff) • Stormwater runoff will flow to lakes and streams
Pollutant build-up and wash off are affected by land use. • Imperviousness increases runoff • Land use changes impact build up
Keterkaitan Landuse dengan Kualitas Air More Imperviousness = More Water
Apa itu Penutup Kedap Air? • roads, rooftops, parking lots, and other hard surfaces that do not allow stormwater to soak into the ground • “predominant American vegetation”
Penutup kedap air • provides a surface for accumulation of pollutants • leads to increased polluted runoff and flooding • inhibits recharge of groundwater
Dampak pencemaran Sumber Bukan-titik • fish and wildlife • recreational water activities • commercial fishing • tourism • drinking water quality
Polutan dalam Runoff • Sediment Soil particles transported from their source • Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) ● Oxygen depleting material • Leaves • Organic material • Toxics ● Pesticides • Herbicides • Fungicides • Insecticides ● Metals (naturally occurring in soil, automotive emissions/ tires) • Lead • Zinc • Mercury ● Petroleum Hydrocarbons (automotive exhaust and fuel/oil) • Nutrients ● Various types of materials that become dissolved and suspended in water (commonly found in fertilizer and plant material): • Nitrogen (N) • Phosphorus (P) Bacteria/ Pathogens Originating from: ● Pets ● Waterfowl ● Failing septic systems • Thermal Stress Heated runoff, removal of streamside vegetation • Debris Litter and illegal dumping
Sumber Polutan di Kawasan Permukiman • Nutrients: Fertilizers and septic systems • Pathogens: Pet waste and septic systems • Sediment: Construction, road sand, soil erosion • Toxic: Pesticides, household products • Debris: Litter and illegal dumping • Thermal: heated runoff, removal of streamside vegetation
Polutandaripertanian Sediment Nutrients Pathogens Pesticides
Polutan Penting • Sediment reduces light penetration in stream, clogs gills of fish and aquatic invertebrates. • Nutrientsact as fertilizer for algae & aquatic plants which can cause highly varying dissolved oxygen levels. At low DO levels, the aquatic life has the potential to be harmed. • Toxics can impact life and contaminate drinking water supplies. • Bacteria/Pathogens are an indicator of possible viruses present in the system.
ApaPencemaran Air? Any chemical, biological, or physical change in water quality that has a harmful effect on living organisms or makes water unsuitable for desired usage.
Apapencemaran air? WHO: • 3.4 million premature deaths each year from waterborne diseases • 1.9 million from diarrhea • U.S. 1.5 million illnesses • 1993 Milwaukee 370,000 sick
Apapencemaran air? Infectious Agents: bacteria and viruses often from animal wastes Oxygen Demanding Wastes: organic waste that needs oxygen often from animal waste, paper mills and food processing. Inorganic Chemicals: Acids and toxic chemicals often from runoff, industries and household cleaners
Apapencemaran air? Organic Chemicals: oil, gasoline, plastics, detergents often from surface runoff, industries and cleaners Plant Nutrients: water soluble nitrates, ammonia and phosphates often from sewage, agriculture and urban fertilizers Sediment: soils and silts from land erosion can disrupt photosynthesis, destroy spawning grounds, clog rivers and streams Heat Pollution and Radioactivity: mostly from powerplants
BagaimanaKualitas Air? Bacterial Counts: Fecal coliform counts from intestines of animals • None per 100 ml for drinking • >200 per 100 ml for swimming Sources: human sewage, animals, birds, raccoons, etc.
Bagaimanamengukurkualitas air? Dissolved Oxygen: BOD Biological Oxygen Demand…the amount of oxygen consumed by aquatic decomposers Chemical Analysis: looking for presence of inorganic or organic chemicals Suspended Sediment water clarity
BagaimanamengukurKualitas air? Indicator Species: organisms that give an idea of the health of the water body. • Mussels, oysters and clams filter water
Tipe, EfekdanSumberPencemaran Air • Point sources • Nonpoint sources • Water quality
SumberPencemaran: TitikdanBukan-Titik NONPOINT SOURCES Rural homes Cropland Urban streets Animal feedlot POINT SOURCES Suburban development Factory Wastewater treatment plant
SumberPencemaran Air Agriculture: by far the leader • Sediment, fertilizers, bacteria from livestock, food processing, salt from soil irrigation Industrial: factories and powerplants Mining: surface mining toxics, acids, sediment
Pencemaran Air Sungai Flowing streams can recover from moderate level of degradable water pollution if their flows are not reduced. • Natural biodegradation process • Does not work if overloaded or stream flow reduced • Does not work against non biodegradable pollutants
Pencemaran Sungai • Faktor yang mempengaruhi recovery • KurvaKantongoksigen Faktor apa yang mempengaruhi kurva kantong oksigen?
DuaDunia Developed Countries U.S. and other developed countries sharply reduced point sources even with population and economic growth • Nonpoint still a problem • Toxic chemicals still problem • Success Cuyahoga River, Thames River
DuaDunia Developing Countries: Serious and growing problem • Half of world’s 500 major rivers heavily polluted • Sewage treatment minimal $$$ • Law enforcement difficult • 10% of sewage in China treated • Economic growth with little $$$ to clean up
Sungai Gangga India • Holy River (1 million take daily holy dip) • 350 million (1/3rd of pop) live in watershed • Little sewage treatment • Used for bathing, drinking etc. • Bodies (cremated or not) thrown in river • Good news is the Indian government is beginning to work on problem
PencemaranDanau Air Tawar Dilution as a solution in lakes less effective • Little vertical mixing • Little water flow (flushing) Makes them more vulnerable • Toxins settle • Kill bottom life • Atmospheric deposition • Food chain disruptions
EutrofikasiDanau Eutrophication: nutrient enrichment of lakes mostly from runoff of plant nutrients (nitrates and phosphates) • During hot dry weather can lead to algae blooms • Decrease of photosynthesis • Dying algae then drops DO levels • Fish kills, bad odor
EutrofikasiDanau Penyelesaian masalah: • Advanced sewage treatment (N, P) • Household detergents • Soil conservation • Remove excess weed build up • Pump in oxygen or freshwater
StudiKasus: The Great Lakes • Pollution levels dropped, but long way to go • 95% of U.S. freshwater • 30% Canadian pop, 14% U.S. • 38 million drink • 1% flow out St. Lawrence • Toxic fish
AIR TANAH = Groundwater Why is groundwater pollution a serious problem? What is the extent of the problem? What are the solutions?
Groundwater Groundwater DAPAT TERKONTAMINASI: • No way to cleanse itself • Little dilution and dispersion • Out of sight pollution • Prime source for irrigation and drinking • REMOVAL of pollutant difficult
Pencemaran Groundwater • Low flow rates • Few bacteria • Low oxygen • Cold temperatures Hazardous waste injection well Pesticides Coal strip mine runoff De-icing road salt Buried gasoline and solvent tank Cesspool septic tank Pumping well Gasoline station Waste lagoon Water pumping well Sewer Landfill Leakage from faulty casing Accidental spills Discharge Unconfined freshwater aquifer Confined aquifer Confined freshwater aquifer Groundwater flow
Groundwater • Pollution moves in plumes • Soil, rocks, etc. act like sponge • Cleansing does not work (low O, low flow, cold) • Nondegradables may be permanent
PencegahanPencemaran Groundwater • Monitor aquifers • Find less hazardous substitutes • Leak detection systems • Strictly regulating hazardous waste disposal • Store hazardous materials above ground
PencemaranLaut Toleransi pencemaran laut Coastal zones: How does pollution affect coastal zones? What are major sources of ocean pollution and what is being done? Tumpahan Minyak