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M. A. odern. merican. L. anguage. P. sychological. A. ssociation. A. ssociation. A Comparative Guide Part I: in-text citations. Why We Use Them. MLA. APA.

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slide1

M

A

odern

merican

L

anguage

P

sychological

A

ssociation

A

ssociation

A Comparative Guide

Part I: in-text citations

slide2

Why We Use Them

MLA

APA

The word “language” is indicative as to why we use MLA in the humanities, especially language studies like English, as well as theological and cultural studies.

APA is the citation style used most often in natural and social sciences, including biology, psychology and sociology.

Both citation styles, in addition to the many other styles that exist, are designed for their specific respective audiences.

Scholars, professors, and students of humanities studies…

Scholars, professors, and students of science studies…

…need primarily to reference information and quotations quickly and easily so as to identify their context.

…need primarily to relate the time an idea was researched to its relative importance to current day matters.

slide3

In-text Citations: basics

MLA

APA

Quotation: “The bald eagle is likewise a large, strong, and very active bird, but an execrable tyrant” (Bartram 35).

Paraphrase: William Bartram saw many different kinds of hawks and falcons when he traveled the south-east (Bartram 35).

Also consider: According to Bartram: ““The bald eagle is likewise a large, strong, and very active bird, but an execrable tyrant” (Bartram 35).

Quotation: “The bald eagle is likewise a large, strong, and very active bird, but an execrable tyrant” (Bartram, 1928, p. 35).

Paraphrase: William Bartram saw many different kinds of hawks and falcons when he traveled the south-east (Bartram, 1928, p. 35).

Also consider: According to Bartram (1928): “The bald eagle is likewise a large, strong, and very active bird, but an execrable tyrant” (p. 35).

slide4

In-text Citations: basics

MLA

When the quote is longer than three lines of normal text.

APA

When the quote is 40 words or longer.

slide5

Examples for various types

of in-text citations

Follow the link for the type of source you need to cite:

Print sources, no author

More than one source with same last name for author

Work with multiple authors

Multiple works, same author

Citing the Bible

Quotations from indirect sources

Electronic Internet sources

Film or other non-print sources

Multiple works for same information

slide6

Print sources, no author

Back to Example Selection

MLA

APA

Loremipsum dolor sit amet, consecteturadipisicingelit, sed do eiusmodtemporincididuntutlabore et dolore magna aliqua. Utenim ad minim veniam, quisnostrud exercitation ullamcolaboris nisi utaliquip ex ea commodoconsequat. Duisauteirure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptatevelitessecillumdoloreeufugiatnullapariatur. Excepteursintoccaecatcupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officiadeseruntmollitanim id estlaborum (Boyfriend Book 76).

Loremipsum dolor sit amet, consecteturadipisicingelit, sed do eiusmodtemporincididuntutlabore et dolore magna aliqua. Utenim ad minim veniam, quisnostrud exercitation ullamcolaboris nisi utaliquip ex ea commodoconsequat. Duisauteirure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptatevelitessecillumdoloreeufugiatnullapariatur. Excepteursintoccaecatcupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officiadeseruntmollitanim id estlaborum (Boyfriend Book, p. 76).

*For MLA or APA, in case of a long title, use a shortened version of the title.*

slide7

Authors with same last name

MLA

APA

Loremipsum dolor sit amet, consecteturadipisicingelit, sed do eiusmodtemporincididuntutlabore et dolore magna aliqua. Utenim ad minim veniam, quisnostrud exercitation ullamcolaboris nisi utaliquip ex ea commodoconsequat(R. Robinson 17). Duisauteirure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptatevelitessecillumdoloreeufugiatnullapariatur. Excepteursintoccaecatcupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officiadeseruntmollitanim id estlaborum (A. Robinson 289).

Loremipsum dolor sit amet, consecteturadipisicingelit, sed do eiusmodtemporincididuntutlabore et dolore magna aliqua. Utenim ad minim veniam, quisnostrud exercitation ullamcolaboris nisi utaliquip ex ea commodo consequat (R. Robinson, 1989, p. 17). Duisauteirure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptatevelitessecillumdoloreeufugiatnullapariatur. Excepteursintoccaecatcupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officiadeseruntmollitanim id estlaborum (A. Robinson, 2002, p. 76).

Back to Example Selection

slide8

Work with multiple authors

MLA

APA

Loremipsum dolor sit amet, consecteturadipisicingelit, sed do eiusmodtemporincididuntutlabore et dolore magna aliqua. Utenim ad minim veniam, quisnostrud exercitation ullamcolaboris nisi utaliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duisauteirure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptatevelitessecillumdoloreeufugiatnullapariatur. Excepteursintoccaecatcupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officiadeseruntmollitanim id estlaborum(Royes, Graf, and Taylor 17).

Loremipsum dolor sit amet, consecteturadipisicingelit, sed do eiusmodtemporincididuntutlabore et dolore magna aliqua. Utenim ad minim veniam, quisnostrud exercitation ullamcolaboris nisi utaliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duisauteirure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptatevelitessecillumdoloreeufugiatnullapariatur. Excepteursintoccaecatcupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officiadeseruntmollitanim id estlaborum(Royes, Graf, & Taylor, p. 17).

Back to Example Selection

slide9

Same author, multiple works

Back to Example Selection

MLA

APA

Loremipsum dolor sit amet, consecteturadipisicingelit, sed do eiusmodtemporincididuntutlabore et dolore magna aliqua. Utenim ad minim veniam, quisnostrud exercitation ullamcolaboris nisi utaliquip ex ea commodoconsequat(“The Chair” 17). Duisauteirure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptatevelitessecillumdoloreeufugiatnullapariatur. Excepteursintoccaecatcupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officiadeseruntmollitanim id estlaborum (“The Rhinestone” 289).

Loremipsum dolor sit amet, consecteturadipisicingelit, sed do eiusmodtemporincididuntutlabore et dolore magna aliqua. Utenim ad minim veniam, quisnostrud exercitation ullamcolaboris nisi utaliquip ex ea commodo consequat (Robinson, 1989a, p. 17). Duisauteirure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptatevelitessecillumdoloreeufugiatnullapariatur. Excepteursintoccaecatcupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officiadeseruntmollitanim id estlaborum (A. Robinson, 1989b, p. 76).

*This is only relevant in APA when the author’s works are also written in the same year.*

slide10

Citing the Bible

MLA

APA

"For God so lovedthe world, that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life” (English Standard Version, John 3.16).

"For God so lovedthe world, that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life” (John 3:16, English Standard Version).

Back to Example Selection

slide11

Quotations from indirect source

MLA

APA

Loremipsum dolor sit amet, consecteturadipisicingelit, sed do eiusmodtemporincididuntutlabore et dolore magna aliqua. Utenim ad minim veniam, quisnostrud exercitation ullamcolaboris nisi utaliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duisauteirure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptatevelitessecillumdoloreeufugiatnullapariatur. Excepteursintoccaecatcupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officiadeseruntmollitanim id estlaborum(qtd. in Robinson 259).

Loremipsum dolor sit amet, consecteturadipisicingelit, sed do eiusmodtemporincididuntutlabore et dolore magna aliqua. Utenim ad minim veniam, quisnostrud exercitation ullamcolaboris nisi utaliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duisauteirure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptatevelitessecillumdoloreeufugiatnullapariatur. Excepteursintoccaecatcupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officiadeseruntmollitanim id estlaborum(as cited in Robinson, 2005, p. 259).

Back to Example Selection

slide12

Electronic/Internet Sources

MLA

APA

In citing the Student Success page on the LMC website, from http://www.lmc.edu/academics/student_success/, it will not look much different than citing a source with no author.

The mission of the Division of Student Success is to coordinate and assure successful completion of a wide variety of functions designed to enhance the academic and social support of students (“Office of Student Success,” 2011).

The mission of the Division of Student Success is to coordinate and assure successful completion of a wide variety of functions designed to enhance the academic and social support of students (“Office of Student Success”).

*Note that there is no need to cite page or paragraph numbers.*

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slide13

Film or other non-print sources

MLA

APA

In the film Miracle on 34th Street (Seaton, 1947), faith and belief are themes, as represented by the girl’s mantra, “I believe... I believe... It's silly, but I believe.”

In the film Miracle on 34th Street, faith and belief are themes, as represented by the girl’s mantra, “I believe... I believe... It's silly, but I believe” (Seaton).

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slide14

Multiple citations for same information

MLA

APA

Loremipsum dolor sit amet, consecteturadipisicingelit, sed do eiusmodtemporincididuntutlabore et dolore magna aliqua. Utenim ad minim veniam, quisnostrud exercitation ullamcolaboris nisi utaliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duisauteirure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptatevelitessecillumdoloreeufugiatnullapariatur. Excepteursintoccaecatcupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officiadeseruntmollitanim id estlaborum(Adams 64; Wells 175).

Loremipsum dolor sit amet, consecteturadipisicingelit, sed do eiusmodtemporincididuntutlabore et dolore magna aliqua. Utenim ad minim veniam, quisnostrud exercitation ullamcolaboris nisi utaliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duisauteirure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptatevelitessecillumdoloreeufugiatnullapariatur. Excepteursintoccaecatcupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officiadeseruntmollitanim id estlaborum(Adams, 1973, p. 64; Wells, 2000, p. 175).

Back to Example Selection