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TO + Infinitive. If / Whether. “I” changes to “he”. Reported Speech in English. “Will she read…?”. He said that…. Verbs to the nearest PAST.

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slide1

TO + Infinitive

If / Whether

“I” changes to “he”

Reported Speech

in English

“Will she read…?”

He said that…

Verbs to the nearest PAST

slide2

The idea of Reported Speech is that of re-telling other people´s converstaions. The usual sceneario is two people having a conversation and another person saying what those two people have said. Of course, we can be one of the two people in the conversation, but to start out, we are going to suppose we are only retelling other people´s words.

Considering what has been explained before, we can understand the “Reported Speech” idea because “to report” means to “to explain/inform” and “speech” is the words that are said. Thus, “reported speech” is “original speech” that is “reported”, that is, “explained” or “informed” to somebody else.

So we need an original sentence from a dialogue, which we will transform. However, before we do that, we have to take some things into due consideration.

slide3

Whatmodificationsdoesthe

original sentencetake?

First of all, we have to shift all the PRONOUNS into the 3rd Person

Secondly, the VERBS have to go back to the nearest PAST tense available

Finally, there are a series of SELECTED WORDS which have to be changed

slide4

Howmanytypesof

original sentences can wehave?

STATEMENTS: All types of Affirmative and Negative sentences

QUESTIONS: There are two types of questions:

YES-NO Questions: You answer with a “Yes” or a “No”

WH-WORD Questions: You give information on the WH-Word

ORDERS / SUGGESTIONS: Here we mainly deal with IMPERATIVES

Firstly, you are going to learn how to transform an original sentence and, after that, we will have a detailed view on the different types of original sentences.

slide5

How do youtransform

an Original Sentence?

Let´s start out with this sentence:

I can´t deal with your problem as you have not given me details

Fisrt, we are going to mark out the PRONOUNS…

And now we should do the same thing with the VERBS

We will forget about the SELECTED WORDS till later

slide6

Before we proceed any further, let us have a look at the…

LIST OF PRONOUNS

SUBJECTS

OBJECTS

POSS. ADJS.

POSS. PRONS.

REFLEXIVES

1st P

I

ME

MY

MINE

MYSELF

SINGULAR

2nd P

YOU

YOU

YOUR

YOURS

YOURSELF

3rd P

SHE

HER

HER

HERS

HERSELF

3rd P

HE

HIM

HIS

HIS

HIMSELF

IT

3rd P

IT

ITS

ITS

ITSELF

PLURAL

OURSELVES

US

OUR

1st P

WE

OURS

2nd P

YOU

YOU

YOUR

YOURS

YOURSELVES

3rd P

THEY

THEM

THEIR

THEIRS

THEMSELVES

slide7

Now, the next step is to shift the Pronouns to the 3rd Person…

He

I

can´t deal with

your

her

problem as

you

she

have not given

him

me

details

Then, we will push the verbs to the nearest Past…

He

couldn´t

can´t

deal with

her problem as she

haven´t

hadn´t

given

him any details

As we said before, there is a list of SELECTED WORDS which can also be transformed, but that will be later on…

slide8

Types of Original Sentences: Statements

The way to transform an Original Sentence is indicating three parts:

1. The person who is reporting the conversation

2. The reporting Verb according to the type of Original Sentence

3. The reporting Connector according to the type of Original Sentence

Here we are going to deal with Statements.

slide9

Let´s see those three parts:

1. The person who is reporting the conversation

It depends on the people who are in the dialogue.

2. The reporting Verb in Statements is…

Any SPEECH verb such as SAY, TELL, EXPLAIN, MUTTER, EXPRESS, REPLY…

3. The reporting Connector in Statements is…

THAT (you can omit this Connector)

The two main Reporting Verbs are SAY and TELL. Let´s see their differences…

slide10

SAY

SAY has got two typical structures…

SAY + THAT => He said that…

SAY + TO + Person + THAT => He said TO me that…

TELL

TELL has only got ONE structure

TELL + Person + THAT => He told me that

slide11

And now an example…

Student A (a boy)

“I can´t study the exercises although the teacher wants me to.”

Student B (a girl)

“Yes, I know it. We are always hurrying trying to do his tasks.”

The transformation would go as follows…

Student A said that he couldn´t study the exercises although the teacher wanted him to. Student B replied that she knew it and told Student A that they were always hurrying trying to do his tasks.

Is everything OK?

slide12

Types of Original Sentences: Questions

We can have two different types of questions:

a. Yes/No Questions

b. Wh-Word Questions

The three parts in Questions are the same except for the Connector…

1. The person who is reporting the conversation

It depends on the people who are in the dialogue.

2. The reporting Verb in Questions is…

Any QUESTION verb such as ASK, WONDER, WANT TO KNOW, DEMAND, INQUIRE…

slide13

The Connector varies according to the type of question…

WHETHER

IF

Yes/No Questions => CONNECTOR is

or

WH-Word Questions => CONNECTOR is…

The WH-Word itself

WHO

WHOSE

WHY

WHAT

WHERE

HOW

WHICH

WHEN

slide14

And now an example…

Yes/No Questions

The little girl:

“Will you give me my birthday presents?”

The little girl asked if/whether he would give her her birthday presents.

WH-Word Questions

The little girl´s father:

“Why do you want to know?”

The little girl´s father asked why she wanted to know.

slide15

TWO DANGERS !!!

There are two dangers in the reporting of questions:

1. When we report a question, we cannot retain the question structure AUX + SUBJECT + VERB + COMPLEMENT? because it is NOT a question anymore…

Can you explain that to me?

He asked if she could explain that to her.

slide16

2. You have to be very careful with the translation into Spanish. In Spanish sentences such as…

Me preguntó QUE SI yo sabía eso

Me preguntó SI yo sabía eso

are perfectly right, but in English you CANNOT say THAT when reporting questions because it is a Connector only for Statements…

She asked me if I knew that

She asked me THAT if I knew that

slide17

Types of Original Sentences: Orders/Suggestions

The three parts in Orders/Suggestions are:

1. The person who is reporting the conversation

It depends on the people who are in the dialogue.

2. The reporting Verb in Orders/Suggestions is…

Any ORDER/SUGGESTION verb such as TELL (Order), ASK (Sugg), COMMAND, PROPOSE, ORDER…

3. The reporting Connector in Orders/Suggestions is…

In Positive sentences => TO + Infinitive

In Negative sentences => NOT TO + Infinitive

slide18

And now, the examples…

Mother to her daughter:

“Do your homework and do not take too much time!!”

The mother told her daughter TO do her homework and NOT TO take too much time.

slide19

Selected Words

We have not forgotten those “Selectec Words” which we mentioned at the beginning of this presentation. They are words which are ALWAYS changed in Reported Speech. Luckily, they are not quite a lot!!

NOW

THEN

AGO

BEFORE

THIS

THAT

THESE

THOSE

HERE

THERE

TODAY

THAT DAY

THE NEXT DAY / THE FOLLOWING DAY

TOMORROW

THE DAY BEFORE / THE PREVIOUS DAY

YESTERDAY