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do now political cartoon
Do Now: Political Cartoon

Who is in the upper right corner? What is he worried about? Are the Indian people represented? Does it show an understanding of the complexities of Partition? Does the cartoon make the Partition division look even and equal? Does the cartoon make Partition look easy?

indian subcontinent
Indian Subcontinent
  • Partition

-British created Pakistan and India in 1947

-Pakistan divided into East and West

-Forced population to decide where to go

-10 million migrated amidst violence

-About 1 million die during the move

  • Kashmir

-Hindus and Muslims fought over region

-U.N. arranged cease fire in 1949

-A third of the country left to Pakistan

modern india
Modern India
  • A New Democracy

-Jawaharlal Nehru: First Prime Minister

-Ruled for 17 years

-Made India non-aligned during Cold War

-Reorganization of states by language

-Industrialization and social reform

  • Green Revolution

-Introduction of improved seed strains, fertilizers, and irrigation to produce higher yield crops (Increase gap between wealthy and poor)

-Industrial and agrarian growth allowed promotion of literacy and improvements to infrastructure

-Development of high-tech sectors

continued
Continued
  • Troubled Times

-Indira Gandhi

-Faced threat from extremists

-1984: Indian troops overran Golden Temple and killed 500 Sikhs

-Assassinated by Sikh guards

  • 21st Century Challenges

-Rapid population growth

-Social inequality

-Religious strife

-Tense relations with Pakistan (Nuclear program development)

pakistan
Pakistan
  • East and West Pakistan

-East had larger population; West home to central government

-East Pakistan wanted to end all ties with West Pakistan

-1971: East Pakistan declares independence as Bangladesh

-Civil war follows; India sides with Bangladesh

  • Domestic Problems

-Series of military coups after Jinnah’s death

-Benazir Bhutto became prime minister after her father’s death (Most women made gains by connection to powerful men)

-Continued instability from militants

bangladesh and sri lanka
Bangladesh and Sri Lanka
  • Bangladesh

-War ruined economy

-Sheik MujiburRahman: Quickly built one-party state; assassinated in 1975

-Attempted to create more democratic government amidst charges of election fraud and corruption

-Crippling natural disasters

-Coupled with growing population makes Bangladesh poor

continued1
Continued
  • Sri Lanka (Ceylon)

-Gained independence from British in 1948

-Ethnic and religious tension between Sinhalese and Tamils

-Militant Tamil group advocated autonomy and separate state

-Indian troops unsuccessfully entered in 1987 to end fighting

-Cease fire declared in 2002

-Fighting persisted until 2009

new nations in africa
New Nations in Africa
  • African Independence

-Negritude movement: Celebrate African culture, heritage, and values

-Pan-Africanism: Movement to encourage solidarity of Africans worldwide

-Unwilling to accept colonial domination after fighting in WWII

-Won independence in differing ways

  • Post-Colonial Problems

-Creating a new government

-Establishing post-colonial economy

-Ethnic strife

ghana
Ghana
  • Former British Gold Coast

-Kwame Nkrumah: Organized strikes and boycotts

-Gold Coast received independence in 1957 (Renamed Ghana)

-Nkrumah improved infrastructure, schools, and health care system

-Expense of program undermined economy

-Crushed all opponents and assumed dictatorial powers upon failure of program

  • Military Coup

-1966: Army seized power

-Alternated between civilian and military governments

kenya
Kenya
  • Self-Government

-British forced to accept after leadership of Jomo Kenyatta and development of Mau Mau (Secret society of Kenyan farmers)

-Used guerilla war tactics

-Kenyatta jailed despite claiming no connection to Mau Mau

  • Independence

-Gained in 1963

-Kenyatta became president and worked to unite various ethnic groups

-Succeeded by Daniel arapMoi

-One party rule and ethnic conflicts

congo and angola
Congo and Angola
  • Belgian Congo

-Harshly ruled and exploited for resources

-Granted independence to Congo in 1960 (Zaire from 1971 to 1970)

  • Civil War

-After years of civil war, Mobutu SeseSeko seized power in 1965

-Maintained control through force and one-party system

-Overthrown in 1997

  • Failed Democracy

-President Kabila promised elections that never came

-More civil war

continued2
Continued
  • War and Independence

-Portugal sent force of 50,000 to put down independence movement

-Portuguese withdrew in 1975

  • Communist MPLA

-Popular Movement for Liberation of Angola declared itself new government

-Led to prolonged civil war among rebel groups

-MPLA assisted by Cuba and Soviet Union

-Civil war ended in 2002

timeline and key questions
Timeline and Key Questions
  • What is the importance of the events on your timeline card?
  • What is apartheid? How and why was it implemented?
  • How did the Africans resist discrimination in South Africa?
  • What trends, or changes over time does this timeline suggest?
  • What can be learned from apartheid in South Africa?
challenge of democracy in africa
Challenge of Democracy in Africa
  • The Legacy of Colonialism

-Arbitrary borders often led to ethnic violence after independence

-Economies: Developed plantations and mines, but few factories that resulted in unbalanced economies and small middle class

-Fragile Governments: Military and ethnic groups rivaled one another for power; dictatorship replaced democracy often

-Disruption of Society: Moved far from families to work in mines or plantations; lacked skilled and literate work force

civil war in nigeria
Civil War in Nigeria
  • Nigeria

-Won independence peacefully in 1960

-Ethnic tension among three main groups (Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, and Ibo)

  • Federal System

-Power shared between state governments and central authority

-Set up three states

  • War with Biafra

-1963: Ethnic minorities attempt to form own state

-1967: Eastern Region seceded and declared itself Biafra

-1970: Biafra surrendered and reunited (1 million died from starvation)

continued3
Continued
  • Nation-Building

-Military governed Nigeria throughout 1970s

-Build a more modern economy based on oil

-Return to civilian rule

  • Military Coup

-1983: Military overthrew civilian government

-Held elections in 1993, but declared results invalid and placed General SaniAbacha in power

  • Return to Civilian Government

-1999: Elect first civilian president

-Obasanjo: Worked for unified Nigeria, made inroads against corruption, and asked for debt relief

apartheid south africa
Apartheid South Africa
  • British and Dutch Rule

-Racially divided

-Gained self-rule as dominion in 1910

-1931: Independent member of British Commonwealth

  • Apartheid

-1948: National Party promoted Afrikaner nationalism and instituted apartheid-complete separation of races

-1959: Spatial separation achieved by creating homelands

-Government set aside best land for whites

continued4
Continued
  • Protest and Resistance

-1912: Formed African National Congress (ANC)

-Banned by the government

-1976: Riots over school policies in Soweto; popular leader Stephen Biko was beaten to death in police custody

-1986: State of emergency

  • Tutu, de Klerk, and Mandella

-1980s: Desmond Tutu asked for international boycott

-1989:F.W. de Klerk elected president

-Legalized ANC

-Released Mandela from prison

-Repealed apartheid laws

democratic south africa
Democratic South Africa
  • 1994 Elections

-First universal election in South Africa

-ANC won 63% of vote and Mandela was elected president

  • 1996 Constitution

-Passed more democratic constitution that included a Bill of Rights

  • Modern South Africa

-High crime rates

-Interethnic violence among black population

-Unemployment and poverty

-AIDS epidemic

decolonization in the middle east
Decolonization in the Middle East
  • Israel Becomes a State

-Both Jews and Palestinians claim historical ownership

-Britain had mandate on Palestine

-1917: Balfour Declaration-Create a Jewish homeland in Palestine

  • U.N.

-1947: U.N. voted for partition of Palestine

-1948: Israel declared independent state

-Immediately caused first Arab-Israeli war

trouble in the suez
Trouble in the Suez
  • Egypt

-Revolutionary forces develop in Egypt in 1920s and 1930s (Free Officers movement and Muslim Brotherhood)

-Egypt defeated in Arab-Israeli war (1948)

-1952: Bloodless coup topples khedival regime

-Installation of Gamal Abdul Nasser (Uses dictatorial powers) who enacted land reform, state subsidies, and state-financed education

-1956: Nasser sent in troops to take Suez Canal

-French and Israeli troops take canal, but give it back due to international pressure

continued5
Continued
  • Nasser’s Failures

-Land reform frustrated by corruption

-State development lacked funding

-Rapidly growing population

  • Anwar Sadat

-Dismantled huge government

-Expelled Russians in favor of opening Egypt up to investment by U.S. and Europe

  • Hosni Mubarak

-Continued Sadat’s reforms but with little success at helping impoverished

-Led to development of fundamentalist movements

-Taken out of power during “Arab Spring” in 2011

arab israeli conflict continues
Arab-Israeli Conflict Continues
  • 1967

-Israelis struck airfields in Egypt, Iran, Jordan, and Syria

-Became known as the Six Day War because of rapid Israeli offense

-Israel gained control of Jerusalem, Golan Heights, and West Bank

  • 1973

-Anwar Sadat planned attack on Israelis on Yom Kippur

-Arab forces inflicted heavy casualties

-Golda Meir: Israeli PM launched a counterattack and regained lost territory

-Agreed to truce after several weeks of fighting

the palestine liberation organization
The Palestine Liberation Organization
  • 1964

-Palestine officials form the PLO to push for the formation of a Palestinian state

-Guerilla groups soon dominated the organization and insisted on armed struggle

-Yasir Arafat became chairman of PLO in 1969

-Carry out attacks on Israel throughout 1960s and 1970s

efforts at peace
Efforts At Peace
  • 1977

-Anwar Sadat extends invitation to Israel for peace talks

-President Jimmy Carter invited Sadat and Begin to Camp David in 1978

-Camp David Accords: Ended 30 years of hostility between Egypt and Israel

-Sadat was assassinated in 1981

  • West Gaza Strip

-Military conflict in this part of the country

  • Intifada

-1987: Campaign of civil disobedience by Palestinians

-Changes world opinion and puts international pressure on Israelis to seek peace

continued6
Continued
  • Oslo Peace Accords

-Israel agreed to grant Palestinians self-rule in Gaza Strip and West Bank (1993)

-Israeli PM assassinated (1995)

  • Stalled Peace

-Continue to attempt to make peace, but plans stall

  • Second Intifada

-First appearance of suicide bombers

-Israeli forces moved into Palestinian refugee camps to target militants