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Mindfulness Training. Mindfulness Training. Mindfulness Training. Mindfulness Training. Mindfulness Training. Part II: Legacy. Harlan County, KY. Culture of Honor.

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part ii legacy
Part II: Legacy

Harlan County, KY

culture of honor
Culture of Honor

The “culture of honor” hypothesis says that it matters where you’re from, not just in terms of where you grew up or where your parents grew up, but in terms of where your great-grandparents and great-great grandparents grew up and even where your great-great-great grandparents grew up. (p. 170)

culture of honor1
Culture of Honor

Small disputes, high stakes

  • Reputation, status

The American South

The states in dark red are almost always included in modern day definitions of the South, while those in medium red are usually included. Some sources classify Maryland and Missouri as Southern, with Delaware only rarely grouped within the region. West Virginia is often considered Southern, because it was once part of Virginia

culture of honor2
Culture of Honor

Small disputes, high stakes

  • Reputation, status
culture of honor3
Culture of Honor

Small disputes, high stakes

  • Reputation, status

  "Ole-Ranl" Hatfield and "Devil-Anse" McCoy


an empirical demonstration
An Empirical Demonstration

Cohen et al.

  • Southerners should be
    • More likely to view an insult as damaging
    • More upset by the insult
    • More prepared for aggressive response…
an empirical demonstration1
An Empirical Demonstration

Experiments 1 - 3

  • The basic “asshole” procedure

A male who is insulted but does not retaliate risks having his masculine reputation diminished…When a challenging or highly status-relevant situation is encountered…the person may lash out with violent or aggressive behavior to reassert him- or herself.

(Image that appeared when I searched for “violent redneck”)


Cultural legacies are powerful forces. They have deep roots and long lives. They persist, generation after generation, virtually intact, even as the economic and social and demographic conditions that spawned them have vanished, and they play such a role in directing attitudes and behavior that we cannot make sense of our world without them. (p. 175)

the ethnic theory of plane crashes1
The Ethnic Theory of Plane Crashes

Korean Air Flight 801

Captain “Wiper on”

1st Officer “Not in sight”

Flight Eng. “Eh”

1st Officer “Let’s make a missed approach”

Flight Eng. “Not in sight”

1st Officer “Not in sight, missed approach”

Flight Eng “Go around”

Captain “Go around”


the ethnic theory of plane crashes2
The Ethnic Theory of Plane Crashes

Korean Airlines Crash Rate

  • 1988 – 1998: 4.79 per million departures
  • Dismal safety record
the ethnic theory of plane crashes3
The Ethnic Theory of Plane Crashes

It is a complex and sometimes strange story. But it turns on a very simple fact, the same fact that runs through the tangled history of Harlan…Korean Air did not succeed—it did not right itself—until it acknowledged the importance of its cultural legacy.

the ethnic theory of plane crashes4
The Ethnic Theory of Plane Crashes

Avianca Flight 052

“Through it all, the cockpit was filled with a heavy silence”


how does the crew communicate
How does the crew communicate?

Mitigated Speech

  • Any attempt to downplay or sugarcoat the meaning of what is being said…

Don’t bother if it’s too much trouble…

how does the crew communicate1
How does the crew communicate?

Mitigated Speech

  • Any attempt to downplay or sugarcoat the meaning of what is being said…

Don’t bother if it’s too much trouble…

how does the crew communicate2
How does the crew communicate?

You notice on the weather radar an area of heavy precipitation 25 miles ahead. [The pilot] is maintaining his present course at Mach .73, even though embedded thunderstorms have been reported in your area and you encounter moderate turbulence. You want to ensure that you aircraft will not penetrate this area. Question: What do you say to the pilot?


Crew Obligation Statement

Crew Suggestion




crew resource management
Crew Resource Management

The Basic Goal

  • Teaching junior crew members to communicate clearly and assertively…

Avianca: “All the guys had to do was tell the controller, ‘We don’t have the fuel to comply with what you are trying to do.’ All they had to do was say, ‘We can’t do that. We have to land in the next ten minutes.” S. Ratwatte (right)

crew resource management1
Crew Resource Management

Power-Distance Index

  • Concerned with attitudes toward hierarchy…how much a culture values and respects authority


crew resource management2
Crew Resource Management

Changing the culture of the cockpit

  • Basic goal of CRM
crew resource management3
Crew Resource Management

Our ability to succeed at what we do is powerfully bound up with where we’re from, and being a good pilot and coming from a high-power distance culture is a difficult mix.

crew resource management4
Crew Resource Management

The new cockpit culture

  • English mandatory
  • New communication style
miracle on the hudson
Miracle on the Hudson

3:27:36 Flight 1549: "Ah, this, uh, Cactus 1539. Hit birds, we lost thrust in both engines. We're turning back towards LaGuardia."

3:27:42 New York TRACON: "OK, yeah, you need to return to Laguardia. Turn left heading of uh, 2-2-0."

U.S. Airways Flight 1549

miracle on the hudson1
Miracle on the Hudson

3:28:05 New York TRACON: "Cactus 1529, if we can get it to you, do you want to try to land runway 1-3?"

3:28:11 Flight 1549: "We're unable. We may end up in the Hudson."

3:28:31 New York TRACON: "All right cactus 1549. It's going to be a left. Traffic to runway 3-1."

3:28:34 Flight 1549: "Unable."

U.S. Airways Flight 1549

miracle on the hudson2
Miracle on the Hudson

3:29:21 New York TRACON: "Cactus 1529, turn right 2-8-0, you can land runway one at Teterboro."

3:29:25 Flight 1549: "We can't do it."

3:29:26 New York TRACON: "OK, which runway would you like at Teterboro?"

3:29:28 Flight 1549: "We're gonna be in the Hudson."

U.S. Airways Flight 1549


another crash landing
Another Crash Landing

United Airlines Flight 232

another crash landing1
Another Crash Landing

What does Denny Fitch’s story teach us about success?

United Airlines Flight 232