普通高中课程标准实验教科书 ( 选修 ) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. 普通高中课程标准实验教科书(选修) 初级英语语法与修辞 English Grammar and Rhetoric

  2. Unit 14 Adjective Clauses Lead-in Looking Ahead Approaching the Topic Discovering Grammar Applying Grammar Further Development Paradox Homework Self-assessment

  3. Lead-in Bob, you made so many mistakes in you homework! To what part of speech is the clause who makes no mistakes similar in terms of sentence function? who makes no mistakes functions as an attributive in the whole sentence, as does an adjective. So it is called an adjective clause. He who makes no mistakes makes nothing.

  4. Adjective clauses answer questions ofwhich. Adjective The redcoat is dirty. (Which coat is dirty?) Adjective clause The coat that I bought yesterdayisdirty. (Which coat is dirty?)

  5. William H. GatesChairman and Chief Software ArchitectMicrosoft Corporation Guessing Work Who is he? He was born on Oct. 28, 1955 in Seattle ,wherehe grew up with his two sisters. In 1968, when he was as young as 13, he discovered his interest in software and began programming computers. He left Harvard to devote his energy toMicrosoft, a companywhichhe started in 1975. He is the person whoseforesight and vision for personal computing have been central to the success of Microsoft and the software industry.

  6. Martin Luther King .Jr. Great Civil rights leader Famous speech “I Have A Dream” He was born on January 15, 1929 inAtlanta,wherehe started his Civil Rights Movement. Who is he? After the bus boycott, he was electedpresident whogained national prominence for his role in the campaign. On August 28, 1963, more than 250, 000 protesters gathered in Washington, D.C.,wherehe delivered a famous speech. He once delivered a famous speechwhosetitle is “I Have a Dream”.

  7. Looking Ahead What are we going to do in this unit? Learn to use different relative words to introduce adjective clauses. whose who which that where when as Practice using restrictive and non-restrictive adjective clauses. Learn to appreciate and use paradoxes

  8. Approaching the Topic 1. Work in pairs to find out the solution √ × × 1. The pet, , took the third place. whose owner is Bob × √ × × × √ 2. The bird, which belongs to Jack, does not speak. × √ × √ × × 3. The snake, which can play dead, √ × × was second. √ × × 4. The pet that can dance × √ × won the first place. × √ ×

  9. The noun, pronoun or clause that the adjective clause modifies is called an antecedent. E.g. antecedent Many people think that an extrovert is a person whois courageous, outgoing, and not at all shy, modify relative word

  10. Antecedent (先行项) Adjective Clause (形容词性从句) • The pet, whose owner is Bob, took the third place. • 2) The bird, which belongs to Jack, does not speak. • 3) The snake, which can play dead, was second. • 4) The pet that can dance won the first place. relative word (关系词) • The adjective clause is ____ the antecedent it modifies. • A. before B. after 2) Is the relative word part of the adjective clause? ____ A. Yes B. No

  11. 2. Read the passage on page 124, underline all the adjective clauses, circle every relative word, and then mark the antecedents that the adjective clauses modify. 1) Many people think that an extrovert is a person who is courageous, outgoing, and not at all shy,… 2) …, while an introvert is someone who is shy, retiring, and fearful. 3) Lisa is actually a shy person whom others probably wouldn't consider extrovert. 4) However, Lisa opens up in situation in which she starts to feel relaxed and appreciated 5) At a large party where she doesn’t know many people, she’s shy at first, …

  12. 6) She likes to talk once she finds a group she feels comfortable with,.. 7) …, and when she opens up she’s the kind of person others find interesting and stimulating. 8) She needs others to help energize her, which is why she is to be considered an extrovert. 9) Bill, on the other hand, is someone whom everyone consider bold and outgoing. 10) …, for he’s a person whose energies need solitude for replenishment.

  13. 11) He needs to be alone to reenergize, which is why he is to be regarded as an introvert. 12) There is a third category that many of us may fall into: that of the ambivert. 13) Mary, who is a energized sometimes by others and sometimes by being alone, is a good example. 14) There are times when Mary is like Lisa. 15) But there are other times when Mary is much more like Bill.

  14. Match the adjective clauses from the passage with the explanations. Discovering Grammar

  15. 1. AC introduced by which, who, that and whom Study the sentences underlined just now, and then summarize the usage of the four relative pronouns with the help of the box below. 关系词在从句中要充当句子成分;充当主语、宾语、定语、状语等。 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Relative pronouns in the cases of the second and forth column are usually omitted

  16. Here are some examples: which 1) The snake, _____ can play dead, was second. subject which/that 2) This is the book ________ I bought yesterday. object of verb; can be omitted object of preposition placed at the end; cannot be omitted 3) She likes to talk once she finds a group that/whom/who _____________she feels comfortable with whom with _____ she feels comfortable. direct object of preposition; cannot be omitted

  17. How an adjective clause is formed? A sentence with adjective clauses can be seen as a combination of two sentences. The process goes like this: I lostthe pen. Jim sent methe penyesterday. Tips: 1.Identity the shared part in the two sentences. 2.Use a relative word instead of the noun. 3.Move it to the beginning to introduce the clause, unless it is already there. I lost the pen. Jim sent methat yesterday. I lost the penthat Jim sent me yesterday.

  18. Listen to a song Hero and underline all the adjective clauses and noun clauses in it, then study how they are formed. activity There's a heroIf you look inside your heartYou don't have to be afraidOf what you areThere's an answerIf you reach into your soulAnd the sorrow that you knowWill melt away Hero

  19. Hero Hero And then a hero comes alongWith the strength to carry onAnd you cast your fears asideAnd you know you can surviveSo when you feel like hope is goneLook inside you and be strongAnd you'll finally see the truthThat a hero lies in you

  20. Hero It's a long roadWhen you face the world aloneNo one reaches out a handFor you to holdYou can find loveIf you search within yourselfAnd the emptiness you feltWill disappear

  21. Hero Hero And then a hero comes alongWith the strength to carry onAnd you cast your fears asideAnd you know you can surviveSo when you feel like hope is goneLook inside you and be strongAnd you'll finally see the truthThat a hero lies in you

  22. Hero Lord knowsDreams are hard to followBut don't let anyoneTear them awayHold onThere will be tomorrowIn timeYou'll find the way

  23. Hero And then a hero comes alongWith the strength to carry onAnd you cast your fears asideAnd you know you can surviveSo when you feel like hope is goneLook inside you and be strongAnd you'll finally see the truthThat a hero lies in you

  24. 2. AC introduced by whose 如果关系词在形容词性从句中充当定语,则关系词用whose。 Bill is a person. Bill’s energies need solitude for replenishment. He is a person whose energies need solitude for replenishment. Attributive Whose既可以指人又可以指物。当指物时也可以用of which结构。例如: Let’s go and have a look at the house whose roof has been blown off. Let’s go and have a look at the house the roof of which has been blown off. (the roof of the house, the house’s roof)

  25. Challenge yourself 1)The house whose windows are broken faces south. 2)He, who laughs last, laughs best. He laughs best who laughs last. 3)Shanghai is an exciting city, which attracts a lot of tourists. Shanghai, which is an exciting city, attracts a lot of tourists.

  26. 3. AC introduced by where If the structure “preposition + which” is used as adverbial of placein the adjective clause, we could replace it with where. I miss the village. I used to live inthe village. I miss the village which/that I used to live in. I miss the village inwhich I used to live. I miss the village where I used to live.

  27. 4. AC introduced by when If the structure “preposition + which” is used as adverbial of timein the adjective clause, we could replace it with when. I cannot forget the day. Onthe day I was awarded the First-place Scholarship. I cannot forget the dayonwhich I was awarded the First-place Scholarship.. I cannot forget the daywhen I was awarded the First-place Scholarship..

  28. 5. AC introduced by why If the structure “ preposition + which” is used as adverbial of reasonin the adjective clause, we could replace it with why. There are many reasons for which people like traveling. There are many reasons why people like traveling.

  29. 补充材料 (一) Keys 1)In senior middle school, Lisa and I shared a room where/in which we spent nights talking. 2)I can never forget the summer when the whole family went to the West Lake.

  30. 补充材料 (一) 形容词性从句的关系词的几点特征: 1)关系词在意义上等同于先行项。这一点我们可以从用一个关系词去替换其中一句中的与先行项相同的那个词或短语看出来。但要注意,先行项也可以是整个主句。例如: Tom was late for class this morning. This made Miss Wang very angry. 第二个句子中的this在意义上就等同于整个第一个句子Tom was late for class this morning.经过合并的三个步骤我们就可以得到下面这个含有形容词性从句的句子: Tom was late for class this morning,which made Miss Wang very angry. 2) 关系词在从句中要充当句子成分;充当主语、宾语、定语、状语等。 3) 关系词对形容词性从句起引导作用。

  31. 对关系词进行选择的步骤: 可供选择的关系词: 指人 指物 Step 1: 关系词 指人还是指物? 主语 主语/宾语 Step 2: 关系词在从句中 充当什么成分? 宾语 属格定语 属格定语 时间状语 地点状语 原因状语 Step 3: 是限制性还是 非限制性定语从句? Who, whom, whose, that, which, when, where, why that, which, when, where, whose, why who, whom, whose, that who,that that, which whose that,whom when whose where why that cannot introduce the non-restrictive adjective clause

  32. 可以通过下列方法把一个形容词性从句缩减成形容词性短语(包括形容词短语、分词短语等)可以通过下列方法把一个形容词性从句缩减成形容词性短语(包括形容词短语、分词短语等) A. 如果形容词性从句中含有动词be的某一形式,把关系代词、动词be 的这一形式以及其它一起的助动词去掉即可。例如: Alexander Bell, who is said to have invented the telephone, died in 1922. Severe criticism was thrown to those who are responsible for the accident. B. 如果形容词性从句中未含有动词be的某一形式,把关系代词去掉,把谓语动词变为它的-ing分词形式。 Tony had a career that lasted forty years. Tony had a career lasting forty years.

  33. Challenge yourself 6. Restrictive and non-restrictive Translate the following two sentences into Chinese and find out the differences between them. Jim has a brother who is a worker. Jim has a brother, who is a worker. • B (吉姆有一个当工人的哥哥。 • 言外之意就是:吉姆可能有不止一个哥哥。) 2) A (吉姆有一个哥哥,他是当工人的。 言外之意就是:吉姆只有一个哥哥。)

  34. Work in groups to find out the differences between RAC and NAC • My friend who is Japanese is coming to see me. • My friend, who is Japanese, is coming to see me. The first sentence is a restrictive adjective clause (RAC), while the Second is a non-restrictive adjective clause (NAC). a comma not that. can can NAC is used to add extra or essential information. to give essential information

  35. 第一个句子含有一个限定性定语从句;第二个句子含有一个非限定性定语从句。限定性定语从句与它的先行项的所指意义有着不可分割的联系,其对先行项起限定作用。限定性定语从句是主句不可缺少的部分,一旦省去,先行项便不能明确表示其所指对象。换句话说,限定性定语从句对先行项起区别性作用,有了它才能把先行项所指称的事物与其他同类事物区别开来。例如:第一个句子含有一个限定性定语从句;第二个句子含有一个非限定性定语从句。限定性定语从句与它的先行项的所指意义有着不可分割的联系,其对先行项起限定作用。限定性定语从句是主句不可缺少的部分,一旦省去,先行项便不能明确表示其所指对象。换句话说,限定性定语从句对先行项起区别性作用,有了它才能把先行项所指称的事物与其他同类事物区别开来。例如: I bought three books yesterday. The book I like best is written by Mark Twain. I like best 是一个限定性定语从句,因为有了它的限定就可以把所谈论的书与其他两本书区分开来。在Jim has a brother who is a worker.中,要用who is a worker限定才能够知道他说的是哪一个哥哥,也就是不要和其他哥哥混淆了,所以言外之意就是吉姆可能有不止一个哥哥。 非限定性定语从句与它的先行项之间只有比较松散的联系,其对先行项起补充、说明的作用。它不是主句不可缺少的部分,即使省去,也不影响先行项的所指意义,整个句子仍然是可读的。非限定性定语具有排他性,所以在Jim has a brother, who is a worker.中,即使把who is a worker去掉,先行项所指的对象仍然是确定的,因此这句中的a brother 具有唯一性,言外之意就是吉姆只有一个哥哥。

  36. Challenge yourself Keys: Exercise 2 1)a comma (非限定性定语从句常用逗号与主句隔开) 2)that (非限定性定语从句不能由that引导) Exercise 3 The little boy who says “I’ll try” will climb to the hill-top. The little boy who says “I can’t” will at the bottom stop. 这两句不可以换成非限定性定语从句,因为必须对the little boy进行限制以相互区别。下面两句则可以,因为这两句中的形容词性从句只是对先行项起补充说明作用。 …Life is a broken-winged bird that cannot fly. …Life is a barren field that cannot grow. 补充材料 (二)

  37. 补充材料 (二) 1. 在很多情况下, 把限定性定语从句去掉或换成非限定性定语从句了以后,主句便说不通或不完整了。 The children who are blind live in darkness. (失明的孩子生活在黑暗中) *The children live in darkness. (孩子们生活在黑暗中) *The children, who are blind, live in darkness. (孩子们失明了,他们生活在黑暗中)

  38. 补充材料 (二) 2. in which case这个短语可以用来引导非限定性定语从句。这时可以用in that case, in that situation, if that is the case或if that happens来将该非限定性定语从句换述成另外一个句子。如: The weather broadcast says that it will rain tomorrow, in which casewe’ll have to delay our trip. The weather broadcast says that it will rain tomorrow. In that casewe’ll have to delay our trip. If it is the case that it will rain tomorrow, we’ll have to delay our trip.

  39. Who are they? Activity Now, divide the class into two groups to hold a competition. One group will offer some useful information about a famous person in the world for the other group to guess who the person is. You should try to use as many sentences containing adjective clauses as possible, following the activity we did at the beginning of this unit. The group getting more correct answers will be the winner. Sample

  40. Applying Grammar Exercise 1 1) who 6) that/0 7) which 2) where/in which 8) whose 3) which 9) which 4) that/0 10) As 5)when/on which

  41. 1)—5) C B D A C 6)—10) D A D D C 11)—15) B D D A C 16)—18) A B D Exercise 2 1) Is the flat ______ you once lived in? 2) Is this the flat ______ you once lived? 3) Is this the only flat ______ you once lived in? 4) Is this the flat in ______ you once lived? C B D A A. which B. where C. the one D. that 要注意主句和从句的结构完整性

  42. 5) This is one of the best novels ______ published last year. 6) This is the only one of the best novels ______ published last year. A. which were B. which was C. that were D. that was C D A 7) She has two shirts, ______ were bought last month. 8) She has two shirts. ______ were bought last month. A. both of which B. Both of which C. both of them D. Both of them D

  43. 9) ______ is well known that great change have taken place in China in recent years. 10) ______ is well known, great changes have taken place in China in recent years. A. That B. Which C. As D. It 11) I don’t know the reason ______ he failed to attend our party. 12) Such is the only reason ______ he told me. A. for that B. why C. which D. that D C B D

  44. 13) It is in the hall ______ a meeting is being held. 14) This is the hall ______ a meeting is being held. A. where B. there C. which D. that 15) It is such an interesting film ______ we all want to see it. 16) He is such a good teacher ______ we all love and respect. A. as B. which C. that D. who D A C A

  45. 补充材料 (三) B 17) We heard the news ______ our team had won. 18) The news ______ had been proved to be true surprised everybody. A. which B. that C. as D. A and B D Exercise 3 1) who chats with you on the Internet. 2) who knows all your life; whose family knows you, too. 3) to whom you can turn for help/whom you can turn to for help. 4) who move 5) that/which are

  46. Exercise 4 1) Berners-lee, who invented the Web, is not rich. 2) A person, who is enrolled in Beijing University, must be very intelligent and creative. 3) Kids, who watch a lot of TV don’t spend much time on their homework. 4) There are many wonderful TV programs for children on Saturday, when most of them are at home. 5)The computer, which you bought three years ago, does not have enough memory.

  47. 补充材料 (三) 1. 关系词as 与which的区别  1)as与which都既可以引导限制性定语从句,又可以引导非限制性定语从句,代替前面整个主句或主句的一部分。但which引导的非限制性定语从句,在其先行项是整个主句时,只能置于句末;而as有“正如”的含义,其引导的非限制性定语从句可置于句首、句中、句末。如: He didn’t have a dictionary, which made it difficult to study English. (此句中的which不能换成as)

  48. 2)如果先行项的前面有such, the same, as,则其后的形容词性从句只能用as引导。如: We should not make such a stupid mistake as Tony did yesterday. We are facing the same problems as we did years ago. Some people believe that their cat understands as many words as does a dog. 3)as常用在下列结构中 As is expected; as is often the case; as we can see; as is well known; as we all know; as has been said before; as may be imagined; as is shown/explained above; as has been explained/pointed out等。

  49. 4)as可以指人也可以指物;which只能指物。Which常用于以下几种情况:4)as可以指人也可以指物;which只能指物。Which常用于以下几种情况: A. 当先行项为that时 One should not consume all that which he has earned. B. 当关系词离先行项较远时 She told me the news of the girl which I told him. C. 两个并列的形容词性从句中,第一个关系词用了that时 I have eaten the bread that was in the fridge and which you were probably saving for breakfast. D. 当先行项为表示职业、身份的词,而且关系词在从句中做表语时 He looked like a lawyer, which he was.