The Enlightenment. In this lesson, students will be able to define the following terms: The Enlightenment Voltaire Adam Smith Catherine the Great. The Enlightenment was an important movement in Europe during the 18 th century. Enlightenment Thinkers.
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The Enlightenment In this lesson, students will be able to define the following terms: The Enlightenment Voltaire Adam Smith Catherine the Great E. Napp
The Enlightenment was an important movement in Europe during the 18th century. E. Napp
Enlightenment Thinkers • Enlightenment thinkers were influenced by the Scientific Revolution. • They believed that by applying reason and scientific laws, people could better understand both nature and society. • They believed that scientific reasoning could be applied to society. E. Napp
Enlightenment thinkers wanted to make the world a better place. E. Napp
Improving Society • Enlightenment thinkers hoped to apply scientific reasoning to improve society. • Enlightenment thinkers frequently questioned the power of the Roman Catholic Church as well as divine right. • Enlightenment ideas were adopted in the American Declaration of Independence. E. Napp
Voltaire was a French philosopher. He strongly supported freedom of religion and the right to a fair trial. E. Napp
Jean-Jacques Rousseau believed that government should express the will of the people. E. Napp
Adam Smith was a Scottish philosopher. He observed changes occurring in the marketplace. He discovered the rules of the free market. E. Napp
In a free market, individuals are free to buy and sell. The government does not intervene. Competition and self-interest ensure the goods people need at fair prices. E. Napp
Like scientists, Enlightenment thinkers carefully observed society and looked for principles best suited for its functioning. E. Napp
Even some monarchs, like Russia’s Catherine the Great, tried to apply Enlightenment ideas to improve society. E. Napp
However, Catherine would not part with any of her absolute power. E. Napp
Enlightenment thinkers believed that reasoning and scientific laws could make the world a better place. E. Napp
Questions for Reflection: • How did the Scientific Revolution influence the Enlightenment? • What were the goals of Enlightenment thinkers? • Who was Voltaire and what did he believe? • Describe Adam Smith’s observations of the free market. • What aspect of the Enlightenment did Catherine the Great not accept? E. Napp