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Combining KR and search: Crossword puzzles. Next: Logic representations Reading: C. 7.4-7.8. Changes in Homework. Mar 4 th : Hand in written design, planned code for all modules Mar 9 th : midterm Mar 25 th : Fully running system due Mar 30 th : Tournament begins. Changes in Homework.

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combining kr and search crossword puzzles

Combining KR and search: Crossword puzzles

Next: Logic representations

Reading: C. 7.4-7.8

changes in homework
Changes in Homework
  • Mar 4th: Hand in written design, planned code for all modules
  • Mar 9th: midterm
  • Mar 25th: Fully running system due
  • Mar 30th: Tournament begins
changes in homework1
Changes in Homework
  • Dictionary
      • Use dictionary provided; do not use your own
      • Start with 300 words only
      • Switch to larger set by time of tournament
  • Representation of dictionary is important to reducing search time
  • Using knowledge to generate word candidates could also help
midterm survey
Midterm Survey
  • Start after 9AM Friday and finish by Thursday, Mar. 4th
  • Your answers are important: they will affect remaining class structure
crossword puzzle solver
Crossword Puzzle Solver
  • Proverb: Michael Litman, Duke Univ
      • Developed by his AI class
  • Combines knowledge from multiple sources to solve clues (clue/target)
  • Uses constraint propogation in combination with probabilities to select best target
algorithm overview
Algorithm Overview
  • Independent programs specialize in different types of clues – knowledge experts
      • Information retrieval, database search, machine learning
  • Each expert module generates a candidate list (with probabilities)
  • Centralized solver
      • Merges the candidates lists for each clue
      • Places candidates on the puzzle grid
performance
Performance
  • Averages 95.3% words correct and 98.1% letters correct
  • Under 15 minutes/puzzle
  • Tested on a sample of 370 NYT puzzles
  • Misses roughly 3 words or 4 letters on a daily 15X15 puzzle
questions
Questions
  • Is this approach any more intelligent than the chess playing programs?
  • Does the use of knowledge correspond to intelligence?
  • Do any of the techniques for generating words apply to Scrabble?
to begin research style
To begin: research style
  • Study of existing puzzles
      • How hard?
      • What are the clues like?
      • What sources of knowledge might be helpful?
  • Crossword Puzzle database (CWDB)
      • 350,000 clue-target pairs
      • >250,000 unique pairs
      • = # of puzzles seen over 14 years at rate of one puzzle/day
how novel are crossword puzzles
How novel are crossword puzzles?
  • Given complete database and a new puzzle, expect to have seen
      • 91% of targets
      • 50% of clues
      • 34% of clue target pairs
      • 96% of individual words in clues
categories of clues
Categories of clues
  • Fill in the blank:
      • 28D: Nothing ____: less
  • Trailing question mark
      • 4D: The end of Plato?:
  • Abbreviations
      • 55D: Key abbr: maj
expert categories
Expert Categories
  • Synonyms
      • 40D Meadowsweet: spiraea
  • Kind-of
      • 27D Kind of coal or coat: pea
      • “pea coal” and “pea coat” standard phrases
  • Movies
      • 50D Princess in Woolf’s “Orlando”: sasha
  • Geography
      • 59A North Sea port: aberdeen
  • Music
      • 2D “Hold Me” country Grammay winner, 1988: oslin
  • Literature
      • 53A Playwright/novelist Capek: karel
  • Information retrieval
      • 6D Mountain known locally as Chomolungma: everest
candidate generator
Candidate generator
  • Farrow of “Peyton Place”: mia
  • Movie module returns:
      • 0.909091 mia
      • 0.010101 tom
      • 0.010101 kip
      • 0.010101 ben
      • 0.010101 peg
      • 0.010101 ray
ablation tests
Ablation tests
  • Removed each module one at a time, rerunning all training puzzles
  • No single module changed overall percent correct by more than 1%
  • Removing all modules that relied on CWDB
      • 94.8% to 27.1% correct
  • Using only the modules that relied exclusively on CWDB
      • 87.6% correct
word list modules
Word list modules
  • WordList, WordListBig
    • Ignore their clues and return all words of correct length
    • WordList
        • 655,000 terms
    • WordListBig
        • WordList plus constructed terms
        • First and last names, adjacent words from clues
        • 2.1 million terms, all weighted equally
    • 5D 10,000 words, perhaps: novelette
  • Wordlist-CWDB
    • 58,000 unique targets
    • Returns all targets of appropriate length
    • Weights with estimates of their “prior” probabilities as targets of arbitrary clues
        • Examine frequency in crossword puzzles and normalize to account for bias caused by letters intersecting across and down terms
cwdb specific modules
CWDB-specific modules
  • Exact Match
      • Returns all targets of the correct length associated with the clue
      • Example error: it returns eeyore for 19A Pal of Pooh: tigger
  • Transformations
      • Learns transformations to clue-target pairs
      • Single-word substitution, remove one phrase from beginning or end and add another, depluralizing a word in clue, pluralize word in target
      • Nice X <-> X in France
      • X for short <-> X abbr.
      • X start <-> Prefix with X
      • X city <-> X capital
      • 51D: Bugs chaser: elmer, solved by Bugs pursuer: elmer and the transformation rule X pursuer <-> X chaser
  • http://www.oneacross.com
information retrieval modules
Information retrieval modules
  • Encyclopedia
    • For each query term, compute distribution of terms “close” to query
        • Counted 10-k times every times it apears at a distance of k<10 from query term
        • Extremely common terms (as, and) are ignored
  • Partial match
        • For a clue c, find all clues in CWDB that share words
        • For each such clue, give its target a weight
  • LSI-Ency, LSI-CWDB
        • Latent semantic indexing (LSI) identifies correlations between words: synonyms
        • Return closest word for each word in the clue
database modules
Database Modules
  • Movie
      • www.imdb.com
      • Looks for patterns in the clue and formulates query to database
          • Quoted titles: 56D “The Thief of Baghdad” role: abu
          • Boolean operations: Cary or Lee: grant
  • Music, literary, geography
      • Simple pattern matching of clue (keywords “city”, “author”, “band”, etc) to formulate query
      • 15A “Foundation of Trilogy” author: asimov
      • Geography database: Getty Information Institute
synonyms
Synonyms
  • WordNet
      • Look for root forms of words in the clue
      • Then find variety of related words
          • 49D Chop-chop: apace
      • Synonyms of synonyms
      • Forms of related words converted to forms of clue word (number, tense)
          • 18A Stymied: thwarted
          • Is this relevant to Scrabble?
syntactic modules
Syntactic Modules
  • Fill-in-the-blanks
      • >5% clues
      • Search databases (music, geography, literary and quotes) to find clue patterns
      • 36A Yerby’s “A Rose for _ _ _ Maria”: ana
        • Pattern: for _ _ _ Maria
        • Allow any 3 characters to fill the blanks
  • Kindof
      • Pattern matching over short phrases
      • 50 clues of this type
          • “type of” (A type of jacket: nehru)
          • “starter for” (Starter for saxon: anglo)
          • “suffix with” (Suffix with switch or sock: eroo
implicit distribution modules
Implicit Distribution Modules
  • Some targets not included in any database, but more probable than random
      • Schaeffer vs. srhffeeca
      • Bigram module
        • Generates all possible letter sequences of the given length by returning a letter bigram distribution over all possible strings, learned from CWDB
      • Lowest probability clue-target, but higher probability than random sequence of letters
        • Honolulu wear: hawaiianmuumuu
  • How could this be used for Scrabble?
questions1
Questions
  • Is this approach any more intelligent than the chess playing programs?
  • Does the use of knowledge correspond to intelligence?
  • Do any of the techniques for generating words apply to Scrabble?
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